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‘Aql (Arabic: عقل‎, literally "something tied to an animal's feet to restrain it" - see ‘agal عقل "id."), is an Ismaili concept referring to natural human knowledge in Islamic theology or to intellect in Islamic philosophy. In jurisprudence, it is associated with using reason as a source for sharia "religious law" and has been translated as "dialectical reasoning".[1][2][3][4]

While predominantly expounded by Shī‘ī thinkers, Sunni Muslims such as Barelvis and Sufis share similar beliefs.

Contents

Ismaili Shī‘ah Legal Implementation

In Shī‘ah jurisprudence, ‘aql is the process of using intellect or logic to deduce law. Legal scholars in both Sunni and Shī‘ah Islamic traditions share Quranic interpretation, the Sunnah, and Ijma‘ "consensus" as sources of Islamic law and judicial decisions (ḥukm). However, Twelvers of the Ja‘farī school of law utilize ‘aql whereas Sunnis use qiyas "analogical reasoning" as the fourth source of law.

Among Twelvers, Akhbārīs (associated with exotericism and traditionalism and theological schools in Qom) and Usulis (associated with esotericism and rationalism and theological schools in Baghdad) were contending subschools: the former reject ijtihād outright; the latter advocate ijtihad and have been predominant for the last 300 years.[5][2]

In Shī‘ī Islam, "the gates of ijtihād" were never closed and with the use of ‘aql, Shī‘ī mujtahids "practitioner of ijtihād" and faqīhs "legal specialists" are able to respond as issues arise that were not explicitly dealt with in the Qur'ān or Sunnah.

History

In Islam, the term ‘aql was heavily elucidated by early Shī‘ah thinkers; it came to replace and expand the pre-Islamic concept of ḥilm (Arabic: حلم‎) "serene justice and self-control, dignity" in opposition to the negative notions of ignorance (jahl) and stupidity (safah).[2]

The "possessor of ‘aql", or al-‘āqīl (plural al-‘uqqāl) realises a deep connection with God. Jaʿfar aṣ-Ṣādiq (d. 765, notably an Imām) described this connection as a realisation that God loves some, that God is truth and that only ‘ilm "sacred knowledge" and its development can help humanity fulfil its potential.

His son, Imām Mūsà al-Kāżim (d. 799), expanded this exegesis by defining ‘aql as the "faculty for apprehending the divine, a faculty of metaphysical perception, a light in the heart, through which one can discern and recognize signs from God."[2] He further noted that where the A'immah (Imāms) are the ḥujjatu ż-żāhirah "External proof [of God]", ‘aql is the ḥujjatu l-Bāṭinah "Secret proof".[2]

While in early Islam, ‘aql was opposed to jahl "ignorance", the expansion of the concept meant it was now opposed to safah "[deliberate] stupidity" and junūn "lack of sense, indulgence". Under the influence of Mu‘tazilī thought, ‘aql came to mean "dialectical reasoning".[2]

Notes

  1. ^ Esposito, John (2004), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford paperback reference, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, p. 22, ISBN 0195125592  
  2. ^ a b c d e f Moezzi, Mohammad Ali Amir (1994), The Divine Guide in Early Shiʻism: The Sources of Esotericism in Islam, Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 6, ISBN 079142121X  
  3. ^ Kitab al-Kafi.  
  4. ^ Campbell, Anthony (2004). The Assassins of Alamut. pp. 84.  
  5. ^ Masud, Muhammad Khalid; Messick, Binkley Morris; David Stephan, Powers (1996), Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, Harvard studies in Islamic law, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 14, ISBN 0674468708  

References

  • Wehr, Hans; Cowan, J. Milton (1994), A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: (Arabic-English) (4th ed.), Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, ISBN 0879500034  
  • ibn Abī Ṭālib, ‘Alī, Nahj al-balāghah  

External references

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