The Full Wiki

Ç: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Evolution from Visigothic Z to modern Ç.

Ç, ç (c-cedilla) is a letter in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish (strictly Kurmanji dialect), Ligurian, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, and Zazaki alphabets. This letter also appears in Catalan, French, Friulian, Occitan, and Portuguese as a variant of the letter “c”.

It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/ in old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter "z". This phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions. Later, /ts/ changed into /s/ in many Romance languages and dialects. Spanish has not used this symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century, but it was adopted for writing other languages.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /ç/ represents the voiceless palatal fricative.

Contents

Usage as a letter variant in various languages

It represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a "c" would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/ (before "a", "o", "u", or at the end of a word), in the following languages:

  • Catalan. Known as ce trencada (that is, "broken C") in this language. Some examples of words with "c"-cedilla are: torçut "twisted", ço "this", braç "arm", falç "sickle", voraç "voracious", caçar "to hunt", llançar "to throw". A well-known word with this character is Barça, a common Catalan diminutive for the c one of Barcelona's football teams, also used across the world, including by the Spanish-language media.
  • French (cé cédille). Examples: français "French", garçon "boy", grinçant "squeaking", leçon "lesson", reçu "received" (past participle). French uses this character at the beginning of a word (ça "that"), but not at the end.[1] In French comic books that are hand-lettered in all-capitals, the cedilla is written as a slash crossing the center of the lower hook of the letter "C", at the angle of an acute accent. Also, the "ç" is used only in front of a, o and u letters. It is not needed in front of e, i and y.
  • Friulian (c cun cedilie). It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /tʃ/ before "a", "o", "u" or at the end of a word.
  • Occitan (ce cedilha). Examples: torçut "twisted", çò "this", ça que la "nevertheless", braç "arm", brèç "cradle", voraç "voracious".
  • Portuguese (cê cedilhado or cê-cedilha). Denotes unvoiced /s/ before "a", "o", or "u". Examples: taça "cup", braço "arm", açúcar "sugar", coração "heart", pinça "pincers". Modern Portuguese never uses this character at the beginning or at the end of a word (e.g., the pet-name for Conceição is São, not "Ção"), nor before "e" or "i" (in this case, "c" denotes the unvoiced /s/).
  • Before the 19th century it also occurred for similar purposes in Basque and Spanish.
  • In Manx it is used in the digraph "çh", pronounced [tʃ], to differentiate it from normal "ch", pronounced [x].

Usage as a separate letter in various languages

It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /tʃ/ in the following languages:

Computer

Charset Unicode ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 9, 14, 15, 16
Majuscule Ç U+00C7 C7
Minuscule ç U+00E7 E7

For ASCII, type ALT + 128 for majuscule (Ç), and ALT + 135 for minuscule (ç). (Note: these ALT sequences are not a standard encoding, but a way to type these characters in Windows.)

Input

  • In Mac OS, "Ç" can be typed using shift + option + c and "ç" can be typed using option + c
  • In TeX and LaTeX, \c is used for adding the cedilla accent to a letter, so \c{c} produces "ç".
  • In Microsoft Windows, "Ç" can be produced using the shortcut key "ALT+0199" as "ç" can be produced using the shortcut key "ALT+0231", or "ALT+135".
  • In Microsoft Word, "Ç" can be typed using CTRL + "," and then pressing C, and "ç" can be typed using CTRL + "," and then pressing c.
  • In the X Window System and many Unix consoles the compose key combination for "Ç" is COMPOSE "," "C" and for "ç" is COMPOSE "," "c" pressed sequentially. Using Alt-GR the combination is Alt-GR + "=", then C or c respectively for Ç or ç.

See also

References

  1. ^ The French Academy online dictionary also gives çà and çûdra.

External links

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter C with diacritics
Letters using cedilla sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using cedilla sign or comma sign

Çç Ȩȩ Ģģ Ḩḩ Ķķ Ļļ Ņņ Ŗŗ Şş Șș Ţţ Țț

Letter

Ç upper case (lower case ç)

  1. The letter C with a cedilla.

Albanian

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Albanian alphabet, preceded by C and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

Azeri

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Azeri alphabet, preceded by C and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

See also


Catalan

Symbol

Ç ç

  1. The ce trencada, a glyph used in Catalan orthography. It is formed from the letter C and the diacritic cedilla and always represents the sound /s/.

French

Letter

Ç ç

  1. A letter used in writing French, representing /s/.

Jèrriais

Letter

Ç ç

  1. A letter used in writing Jèrriais representing /s/.

Kurdish

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Kurdish alphabet as used in Turkey, preceded by B and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

Manx

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Manx alphabet, preceded by C and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

Occitan

Letter

Ç ç

  1. A letter used in writing Occitan, representing /s/.

Portuguese

Letter

Ç ç

  1. A letter used in writing Portuguese, representing /s/.

Turkish

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Turkish alphabet, preceded by C and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

Turkmen

Letter

Ç ç

  1. The 4th letter of the Turkmen alphabet, preceded by C and followed by D, and representing /tʃ/.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

C is the third (3rd) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for C









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message