The Full Wiki

É: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, and Uyghur languages. This letter also appears in Catalan, Danish, English, French, Irish, Italian, Occitan, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, and Vietnamese language as a variant of the letter “e”. In English, it may be observed as a pronunciation aid in loanwords (e.g., résumé from French) or romanizations (e.g., Pokémon from Japanese).

Contents

Usage in various languages

Icelandic

É is the 7th letter of the Icelandic alphabet and represents /jɛː/.

Italian

É is a variant of E carrying an acute accent; it represents an /e/ carrying the tonic accent. It is used only if it's the last letter of the word. Example: perché (why, /per'ke/). Compare with caffè (coffee, /kaf'fɛ/), which has a grave accent.

Hungarian

É is the 10th letter of the Hungarian alphabet and represents /eː/.

Czech and Slovak

É is the 5th letter of the Czech alphabet and Slovak alphabet, and represents /ɛː/.

Kashubian

É is the 8th letter of the Kashubian alphabet and represents /ɛ/. It also represents [ej] in some dialects, and represents [i]/[ɨ] in area between Puck and Kartuzy.

Vietnamese

In Vietnamese alphabet é is the sắc tone (high-rising tone) of “e”.

Chinese

In Chinese pinyin é is the yángpíng tone (阳平, high-rising tone) of “e”.

Uyghur

In Latin-Script Uyghur alphabet (Uyghur Latin Yéziqi̡, ULY), é represents /e/.

English

In English it has some uses, mostly in words of French origin such as Résumé, Café and Sauté, and names such as Beyoncé and Théo. Pokémon, the media franchise owned by Japanese corporation Nintendo, has also come into common use.

Dutch

Similarly to English, é is respected when writing foreign languages; mainly from French. It is also used to differentiate the article "een" which is equivalent to "a" in English and "één" which is the number one.

French

The letter é is always pronounced [e], like the a in "cake" in English, except without the "y" sound at the end.

“É”, the upper-case version of “é”, has lost some use in French due to typographical reasons. “E” can be sometimes used in its place, when the accented “é” is unavailable “E” is sometimes used to represent it. For example “ÉCOLE” becomes "ECOLE". This practice is not common with native speakers of the language who will usually have either a French (AZERTY) or Canadian French (QWERTY with accents) keyboard layout that allows them to easily type all needed accents. It is recommended, however, do use “É” instead of “E” when needed, as the meaning can change completely, for example the sentence “L’ACCUSÉ SERA JUGÉ” (the accused will be judged) written without accents becomes “L’ACCUSE SERA JUGE”, which might imply that “the accused will become judge”…

Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

In Danish, Norwegian and Swedish the letter “é” is used to indicate that a terminal syllable with the vowel e is stressed, and is often written out only when it changes the meaning. See Acute accent for a more detailed description.

Spanish

In Spanish, é is an accented letter, pronounced just like "e" is. Both é and e sound like /e/.

Character mappings

Charset Unicode ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16
Majuscule É U+00C9 C9
Minuscule é U+00E9 E9

Windows users can type an "é" by holding the "Alt" key down and dialing either 130 or 0233 (on the numeric pad of the keyboard): alt + 130; alt + 0233. Windows users can type "É" by holding the "Alt" key down and dialing either 144 or 0201.

On US International and UK English keyboard layouts users can more simply access the acute accent letter 'É' by holding down the "AltGR" key whilst typing the 'E' key on the keyboard. This method can also be applied to many other acute accented letters which do not appear on the standard US English keyboard layout.

In Microsoft Word, a user can press Ctrl + ' (apostrophe), then E for "é".

On Mac OS X a user can hold option and press e to get ´, then press e and they will get é.

In X Window using a compose key, a user can press the compose key followed by ' (apostrophe) and e (in either order) to get é.

To output an é in html you should use the html entity é

See also

External links

The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
Letters using acute accent

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /iː/) is spelled e; the plural is ees, though this is rare.[1] The letter E is the most commonly used letter in the Czech,[2] Danish,[2] Dutch,[2] English,[3] French,[4] German,[5] Hungarian,[2] Latin,[2] Norwegian,[2] Spanish,[6] and Swedish languages.[2]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
E’
Proto-Semitic
H
Phoenician
H
Etruscan
E
Greek
Epsilon
Roman/Cyrillic
E
A28 [[File:]] [[File:|64x64px]] File:Alfabeto File:Epsilon uc [[File:|Roman E]]

E is derived from the Greek letter epsilon which is much the same in appearance (Ε, ε) and function. In etymology, the Semitic probably first represented a praying or calling human figure (hillul jubilation), and was probably based on a similar Egyptian hieroglyph that was pronounced and used quite differently. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words), in Greek became Εψιλον (Epsilon) with the value /e/. Etruscans and Romans followed this usage. Arising from the Great Vowel Shift, English usage is rather different, namely /iː/ (derived from /eː/ in "me" or "bee") whereas other words like "bed" are closer to Latin and other languages in usage.

Usage

Like other Latin vowels, E came in a long and a short variety. Originally, the only difference was in length but later on, short e represented /ɛ/. In other languages that use the letter E or e, it represents various other phonetic values, sometimes with accents to indicate contrasts (e ê é è ë ē ĕ ě ẽ ė ẹ ę ẻ).

Digraphs starting with E are common in many languages to indicate diphthongs and monophthongs, such as EA or EE for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, EI for /aɪ/ in German, or EU for /ø/ in French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

At the end of a word, E is very often silent in English (silent e), where old noun inflections have been dropped, although even when silent at the end of a word, it often causes vowels in the word to be pronounced as diphthongs, conventionally called long vowels (compare as a noun rat and as a verb rate).

The letter 'E' is the most common (or highest frequency) letter in the English language (starting off the typographer's phrase ETAOIN SHRDLU) and many other related languages, which has implications in both cryptography and data compression. This makes it a difficult and popular letter to use when writing lipograms. Ernest Vincent Wright's Gadsby (1939), is considered a "dreadful" novel, and that "at least part of Wright's narrative difficulties were caused by language restrictions imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both Georges Perec's novel A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit the letter E and are considered better works.[8]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of E
NATO phonetic Morse code
Echo ·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital E is codepoint U+0045 and the lower case e is U+0065.

The ASCII code for capital E is 69 and for lower case e is 101; or in binary 01000101 and 01100101, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital E is 197 and for lowercase e is 133.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "E" and "e" for upper and lower case, respectively.

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'e' is represented as extended index of right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand. All fingers of left hand should be open.

See also

See E (disambiguation) for uses of the letter E

Similar Latin letters:

  • Ɛɛ : Latin epsilon

Similar non-Latin letters:

Similar phonetic symbols:

Special symbols similar to the letter E:

References

  1. ^ "E" Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. http://www.bckelk.ukfsn.org/words/etaoin.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. Central College. http://pages.central.edu/emp/LintonT/classes/spring01/cryptography/letterfreq.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqfr.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://scplweb.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqger.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqsp.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
ÉéÈèĔĕÊêẾếỀềỄễỂểĚěËëẼẽĖėȨȩḜḝĘęĒēḖḗḔḕẺẻȄȅȆȇẸẹỆệḘḙḚḛɆɇ
Two-letter combinations
Ea Eb Ec Ed Ee Ef Eg Eh Ei Ej Ek El Em En Eo Ep Eq Er Es Et Eu Ev Ew Ex Ey Ez
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
    E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9     0E 1E 2E 3E 4E 5E 6E 7E 8E 9E    

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter E

Éé Èè Êê Ěě Ĕĕ Ėė Ëë Ēē Ȩȩ Ęę Ɇɇ Ȅȅ ế Ềề Ễễ Ểể Ḝḝ Ḗḗ Ḕḕ Ȇȇ Ệệ Ææ Ǽǽ Ǣǣ Œœ

Áá Ǻǻ Ćć Éé ế Ǵǵ Íí Ḱḱ Ĺĺ ḿ Ńń Óó Őő Ǿǿ Ṕṕ Ŕŕ Śś Úú Űű Ẃẃ Ýý Źź Ǽǽ

Letter

É upper case (lower case é)

  1. The letter E with an acute accent.

Hungarian

Compass rose

Abbreviation

É

  1. N (north)

See also


Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

For the drug sometimes referred to E, see Ecstasy.

E is the fifth (number 5) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for E








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message