Émile Armand: Wikis


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Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand
Full name Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand
Born 1872
Paris, France
Died 1962
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Individualist anarchism
Main interests The individual, love, sex, ethics, free love
Notable ideas camaraderie amorouse, millieux livres

Emile Armand (pseud. of Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand). (1872 — 1962) was an influential French individualist anarchist, free love/polyamory and pacifist/antimilitarist writer, propagandist and activist. He wrote for such anarchist magazines as L’Anarchie and L'EnDehors. His thought is mainly influenced by such thinkers as Max Stirner, Benjamin Tucker, Friedrich Nietzsche and the American transcendentalist movement.


Life and activism

Armand was born in Paris in march 26, 1872. He was a son of a participant of the Paris Commune. At first he embraced Christianity. Around 1895-1896, Armand discovered anarchism through coming into contact with the magazine Les Temps nouveaux which was edited by Jean Grave. Later he wrote articles under the pseudonyms of Junius and in the magazine Le Libertaire de Sébastien Faure. Important influences in his writing were Leo Tolstoy, Benjamin Tucker, Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Armand later collaborated in other anarchist and pacifist journals such as La Misère, L'Universel and le Cri de révolte. In 1901, he established with Marie Kugel, (his companion until 1906), the journal L'Ère nouvelle which initially adhered to Christian anarchism, later embraced anarcho-communism and in 1911 finally adhered to individualist anarchism. He founded "Ligue Antimilitariste" in 1902 with Albert Libertad and George Mathias Paraf-Javal, another intransigent individualist. These principle she sought to apply within the social experimental spaces, events and communes that anarchist groups in the France of the time called milieux libres.

From 1902 on, Armand wrote Causeries populaires and started a publishing and writing partnership with the important individualist anarchist Albert Libertad. In 1905, he started collaboratin in the journal "L'Anarchie". The anarchist, pacifist and antimilitarist activism of Armand had him imporisioned many times around this period.

In 1908 he published the book Qu'est-ce qu'un anarchiste. In 1911 he married Denise Rougeault who helped him financially and with this he was able to concentrate on his activism. From 1922 on he published the magazine L'EnDehors which lasted around 17 years. At the same time he wrote Poésies composées en prison, l'Initiation individualiste anarchiste (1923) & La révolution sexuelle et la camaraderie amoureuse (1934). In 1931 he published "Ways of communal life without state and authority. Economic and sexual experiences through history"[1] in which he presented intentional communities anarchist and non-anarchist from different times. In it he argued that these experiments were ways of resistance and propaganda by the deed of the possibility of living differently according to affinity groups will[1]. In this way he revitalized utopian socialist thought and practice of thinkers such as Robert Owen and especially Charles Fourier with whom he could also connect with his viewpoints on free love and freedom of personal exploration[1].

By then, his thought had an important influence in the Spanish anarchist movements through the help of Spanish individualist anarchists activists such as José Elizalde (his main translator into Spanish) and his group "Sol y vida" and the individualist anarchist press such as La Revista Blanca, Ética and Iniciales from Barcelona. Iniciales especially had a specific strong influence by Armand's thought[2]. On the debate within anarchist circles he defended the ido constructed language over esperanto with the help of José Elizalde.

He died in February 19th, 1963 in Rouen.

Armand's individualist anarchism

Armand liked to emphazise the difference that his individualist anarchism has with the social anarchist currents. As such, he rejected the usual call of anarcho-communism for revolution. He argued that waiting for revolution meant waiting for the masses to gain awareness and will and delaying the enjoyment of liberty until that event comes. Instead he advocated living under one's own conditions in the present time, revolting against social conditioning in daily life and living with those with an affinity to oneself in accord to the values and desire they share[3]. He says the individualist is "a presentist" and "he could not, without bad reasoning and illogic, think of sacrificing his being, or his having, to the coming of a state of things he will not immediately enjoy" [4].

From the influence of Max Stirner he embraces egoistical denial of social conventions, dogmas and accords in order to live in accord to one's own ways and desires in daily life since he emphasized anachism as a way of life and practice. In this way he manifests "So the anarchist individualist tends to reproduce himself, to perpetuate his spirit in other individuals who will share his views and who will make it possible for a state of affairs to be established from which authoritarianism has been banished. It is this desire, this will, not only to live, but also to reproduce oneself, which we shall call "activity" ".[3].

His views on society can be summarized as follows: "The ruling classes, through the intermediary of the State, ensure that only their own views on culture, morality and economic conditions, are allowed to penetrate to the masses. They set up their own views in the form of civil dogmas, which no man may violate under pain of punishment, just as in former times, during the reign of the Church, there were severe penalties for daring to challenge religious dogmas. The State - the laic form of the Church - has replaced the Church which was the religious form of the State - but the aim of both has always been to form, not free beings, but true believers or perfect citizens. In other words slaves to dogma or law. The anarchist replies that when solidarity is imposed from without it is worthless; that when a contract is enforced there is no longer any question of rights or duties; that coercion releases him from the bonds which attach him to a so-called society whose executives he knows only in the guise of administrators, law-givers, judges and policemen; that he supports only the solidarity of his everyday relationships. Fictitious and imposed solidarity is worthless solidarity."[3]

From an individualist perspective Armand sees that one better look for those with an affinity to oneself and freely associate with one another with the possibility of breaking or interrupting the association or encounter at anytime one of the parts wants it. In this way he applies this rule to friendship, love, sexual encounters and economic transactions. He adheres to an ethics of reciprocity and sees the chances of one's self realization as enhanced by the association with others seeing this as the main reason for propaganda of one's own values[3].

In economics he adheres to mutualism as the possibility of free enchanges between parts interested be it between groups or individuals. In this way he says that the individualist anarchist "inwardly he remains refractory -- fatally refractory -- morally, intellectually, economically (The capitalist economy and the directed economy, the speculators and the fabricators of single are equally repugnant to him.)"[3]

Free love activism and practice

An important propagandist of free love was individualist anarchist Emile Armand. He advocated free love, naturism and polyamory in what he termed la camaraderie amoureuse.[5] He wrote many propagandist articles on this subject such as "De la liberté sexuelle" (1907) where he advocated not only a vague free love but also multiple partners, which he called "plural love".[5] In the individualist anarchist journal L'en dehors he and others continued in this way. Armand seized this opportunity to outline his theses supporting revolutionary sexualism and camaraderie amoureuse that differed from the traditional views of the partisans of free love in several respects. Later Armand submitted that from an individualist perspective nothing was reprehensible about making "love", even if one did not have very strong feelings for one's partner.[5] "The camaraderie amoureuse thesis", he explained, "entails a free contract of association (that may be annulled without notice, following prior agreement) reached between anarchist individualists of different genders, adhering to the necessary standards of sexual hygiene, with a view toward protecting the other parties to the contract from certain risks of the amorous experience, such as rejection, rupture, exclusivism, possessiveness, unicity, coquetry, whims, indifference, flirtatiousness, disregard for others, and prostitution."[5] He also published Le Combat contre la jalousie et le sexualisme révolutionnaire (1926), followed over the years by Ce que nous entendons par liberté de l'amour (1928), La Camaraderie amoureuse ou “chiennerie sexuelle” (1930), and, finally, La Révolution sexuelle et la camaraderie amoureuse (1934), a book of nearly 350 pages comprising most of his writings on sexuality.[5]

In a text from 1937, he mentioned among the individualist objectives the practice of forming voluntary associations for purely sexual purposes of heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual nature or of a combination thereof. He also supported the right of individuals to change sex and stated his willingness to rehabilitate forbidden pleasures, non-conformist caresses (he was personally inclined toward voyeurism), as well as sodomy. This led him allocate more and more space to what he called "the sexual non-conformists", while excluding physical violence.[5] His militancy also included translating texts from people such as Alexandra Kollontai and Wilhelm Reich and establishments of free love associations which tried to put into practice la camaraderie amoureuse through actual sexual experiences.

The prestige in the subject of free love of Armand within anarchist circles was such as to motivate the young argentinian anarchist América Scarfó to ask Armand in a letter on advice as to how to deal with the relationship she had with notorious italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni[6]. Di Giovanni was still married when they began the relationship[7]. "The letter was published in L’en dehors" on 20 January 1929 under the title “An Experience”, together with the reply from E. Armand"[8]. Armand replied to Scarfó "“Comrade: My opinion matters little in this matter you send me about what you are doing. Are you or are you not intimately in accord with your personal conception of the anarchist life? If you are, then ignore the comments and insults of others and carry on following your own path. No one has the right to judge your way of conducting yourself, even if it were the case that your friend's wife be hostile to these relations. Every woman united to an anarchist (or vice versa), knows very well that she should not exercise on him, or accept from him, domination of any kind.”"[9]


  • L’idéal libertaire et sa réalisation., 1904.
  • De la liberté sexuelle, 1907.
  • Mon athéisme, 1908.
  • Qu'est-ce qu'un anarchiste ? Thèses et opinions, Paris, Éditions de l'anarchie, 1908, 179 p.
  • Le Malthusianisme, le néo-malthusianisme et le point de vue individualiste, 1910.
  • La Procréation volontaire au point de vue individualiste, 1910.
  • Est-ce cela que vous appelez « vivre ? », 1910.
  • Les Ouvriers, les syndicats et les anarchistes, 1910.
  • Mon point de vue de « l’anarchisme individualiste », 1911.
  • La Vie comme expérience, 1916.
  • Les besoins factices, les stimulants et les individualistes, 1917.
  • Le plus grand danger de l’après-guerre, 1917.
  • Lettre ouverte aux travailleurs des champs, 1919.
  • L’illégalisme anarchiste. Le mécanisme judiciaire et le point de vue individualiste, 1923.
  • L’illégaliste anarchiste est-il notre camarade ?, 1923.in english
  • L’Initiation individualiste anarchiste, 1923.
  • Entretien sur la liberté de l’amour, 1924.
  • L’ABC de « nos » revendications individualistes anarchistes, 1924.
  • Liberté sexuelle, 1925.
  • Amour libre et liberté sexuelle, 1925.
  • La révolution sexuelle et la camaraderie amoureuse, 1934.


  1. ^ a b c "Émile Armand" in Ateneo Virutal de Alasbarricadas.org
  2. ^ " Voluntary non-submission. Spanish individualist anarchism during dictatorship and trhe second republic (1923-1938) by Xavier Diez
  3. ^ a b c d e "Anarchist Individualism as a Life and Activity" by Emile Armand
  4. ^ "The future society" by Emile Armand
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Emile Armand and la camaraderie amourouse – Revolutionary sexualism and the struggle againts jealousy." by Francis Rousin
  6. ^ http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand by América Scarfó and Émile Armand
  7. ^ http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand by América Scarfó and Émile Armand
  8. ^ http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand by América Scarfó and Émile Armand
  9. ^ http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/letter-am%C3%A9rica-scarf%C3%B3-%C3%A9mile-armand by América Scarfó and Émile Armand

See also

External links

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