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Ë, ë (e-umlaut or diaeresis) is a letter in the Albanian and Kashubian languages. This letter also appears in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Abruzzese dialect, and Luxembourgish language as a variant of letter "e". The letter also appears in Turoyo and Taiwanese Hokkien when written in Latin script.

Contents

Usage in various languages

Afrikaans

In Afrikaans, the trema (Afrikaans: deelteken) is mostly used to indicate that the vowel should not be diphthonged, for example "geër" (giver) is pronounced /xɪəɪr/, whilst "geer" (a wedge-shaped piece of fabric) is pronounced /xɪər/. There are some cases where the deelteken does nothing to the pronunciation, like in "reën" (rain), which is pronounced /rɪən/, but "reen" (no meaning) would be pronounced the same. The only reason for the deelteken in this case is for traditional reasons, because the archaic form of "reën" is "regen" and the deelteken just indicates that the g was removed. * Some older people do pronounce "reën" in two syllables /rɪəɪn/.

The deelteken does exactly what it says (Afrikaans: Deel=Separate). It separates syllables, as it indicates the start of a new one. An example of this is the word "voël" (English: Bird). It gets pronounced in two syllables. Without it the word becomes "voel" (English: Feel), pronounced in one syllable.

Albanian

Ë is the 8th letter of the Albanian alphabet and represents /ə/. It is the most commonly used letter of the language comprising 10 percent of all writings.

French and Dutch

Ë appears in words like French 'Noël' and Dutch 'koloniën'. This so-called trema is used to indicate that the vowel should not be diphthonged. For example, "Noël" is pronounced /noɛl/, whilst "Noel" would be pronounced /nœl/. Likewise, "koloniën" is pronounced /koloniən/, whilst "kolonien" would be pronounced /kolonin/.

Kashubian

Ë is the 9th letter of the Kashubian alphabet and represents /ə/.

Luxembourgish

In Luxembourgish, <ë> is used for stressed schwa /ə/ like in the word <ëmmer> (always). It is also used to indicate a morphological plural ending after two <ee> such as in <Eeër> (eggs) or <leeën> (lay).

Mayan languages

In the modern orthography of Mayan languages, the letter ë represents /ə/, like in Albanian.

Turoyo

In Latin-script Turoyo (Syriac) the letter ë gives a schwa. In grammar, sometimes it is a replacement for the other, original vowels (a, o, e, i, u). Example words that have ë: knoţër (he is waiting), krëhţi (they are running), krëqdo (she is dancing), sxërla (she has closed), gfolëḥ (he will work), madënḥo (east), mën (what), ašër (believe).

Character mappings

Charset Unicode ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16
Majuscule Ë U+00CB CB
Minuscule ë U+00EB EB

See also

External links

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
Letters using umlaut or diaeresis sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /iː/) is spelled e; the plural is ees, though this is rare.[1] The letter E is the most commonly used letter in the Czech,[2] Danish,[2] Dutch,[2] English,[3] French,[4] German,[5] Hungarian,[2] Latin,[2] Norwegian,[2] Spanish,[6] and Swedish languages.[2]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
E’
Proto-Semitic
H
Phoenician
H
Etruscan
E
Greek
Epsilon
Roman/Cyrillic
E
A28 [[File:]] [[File:|64x64px]] File:Alfabeto File:Epsilon uc [[File:|Roman E]]

E is derived from the Greek letter epsilon which is much the same in appearance (Ε, ε) and function. In etymology, the Semitic probably first represented a praying or calling human figure (hillul jubilation), and was probably based on a similar Egyptian hieroglyph that was pronounced and used quite differently. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words), in Greek became Εψιλον (Epsilon) with the value /e/. Etruscans and Romans followed this usage. Arising from the Great Vowel Shift, English usage is rather different, namely /iː/ (derived from /eː/ in "me" or "bee") whereas other words like "bed" are closer to Latin and other languages in usage.

Usage

Like other Latin vowels, E came in a long and a short variety. Originally, the only difference was in length but later on, short e represented /ɛ/. In other languages that use the letter E or e, it represents various other phonetic values, sometimes with accents to indicate contrasts (e ê é è ë ē ĕ ě ẽ ė ẹ ę ẻ).

Digraphs starting with E are common in many languages to indicate diphthongs and monophthongs, such as EA or EE for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, EI for /aɪ/ in German, or EU for /ø/ in French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

At the end of a word, E is very often silent in English (silent e), where old noun inflections have been dropped, although even when silent at the end of a word, it often causes vowels in the word to be pronounced as diphthongs, conventionally called long vowels (compare as a noun rat and as a verb rate).

The letter 'E' is the most common (or highest frequency) letter in the English language (starting off the typographer's phrase ETAOIN SHRDLU) and many other related languages, which has implications in both cryptography and data compression. This makes it a difficult and popular letter to use when writing lipograms. Ernest Vincent Wright's Gadsby (1939), is considered a "dreadful" novel, and that "at least part of Wright's narrative difficulties were caused by language restrictions imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both Georges Perec's novel A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit the letter E and are considered better works.[8]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of E
NATO phonetic Morse code
Echo ·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital E is codepoint U+0045 and the lower case e is U+0065.

The ASCII code for capital E is 69 and for lower case e is 101; or in binary 01000101 and 01100101, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital E is 197 and for lowercase e is 133.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#69;" and "&#101;" for upper and lower case, respectively.

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'e' is represented as extended index of right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand. All fingers of left hand should be open.

See also

See E (disambiguation) for uses of the letter E

Similar Latin letters:

  • Ɛɛ : Latin epsilon

Similar non-Latin letters:

Similar phonetic symbols:

Special symbols similar to the letter E:

References

  1. ^ "E" Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. http://www.bckelk.ukfsn.org/words/etaoin.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. Central College. http://pages.central.edu/emp/LintonT/classes/spring01/cryptography/letterfreq.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqfr.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://scplweb.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqger.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqsp.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
ÉéÈèĔĕÊêẾếỀềỄễỂểĚěËëẼẽĖėȨȩḜḝĘęĒēḖḗḔḕẺẻȄȅȆȇẸẹỆệḘḙḚḛɆɇ
Two-letter combinations
Ea Eb Ec Ed Ee Ef Eg Eh Ei Ej Ek El Em En Eo Ep Eq Er Es Et Eu Ev Ew Ex Ey Ez
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
    E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9     0E 1E 2E 3E 4E 5E 6E 7E 8E 9E    

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter E

Éé Èè Êê Ěě Ĕĕ Ėė Ëë Ēē Ȩȩ Ęę Ɇɇ Ȅȅ ế Ềề Ễễ Ểể Ḝḝ Ḗḗ Ḕḕ Ȇȇ Ệệ Ææ Ǽǽ Ǣǣ Œœ

Letters using umlaut or diaresis sign

Ää Ǟǟ Ëë Ḧḧ Ïï N̈n̈ Öö T̈ẗ Üü Ẅẅ Ẍẍ Ÿÿ

Letter

Ë upper case (lower case ë)

  1. The letter E with a diaresis.

Albanian

Letter

Ë ë

  1. The 8th letter of the Albanian alphabet, preceded by E and followed by F, and representing /ə/.

See also


Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

For the drug sometimes referred to E, see Ecstasy.

E is the fifth (number 5) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for E








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