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Statue in Madrid (José Oñate, 1750–53).

Íñigo Íñiguez Arista (Arabic: ونّقه بن ونّقه‎, Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo, Basque: Eneko Enekones Aritza/Haritza/Aiza) (c. 790 – 851 or 852) was the first King of Pamplona (c. 824 – 851 or 852). He is said by a later chronicler to have been count of Bigorre, or at least to have come from there, but there is no near-contemporary evidence of this.[1] His origin is obscure, but his patronymic indicates that he was the son of an Íñigo.[2] It has been speculated that he was kinsman of García Jiménez, who in the late 8th century succeeded his father Jimeno 'the Strong' in resisting Carolingian expansion into Vasconia. He is also speculated to have been related to the other Navarrese dynasty, the Jiménez.[3]

His mother also married Musa ibn Fortun ibn Qasi, by whom she was mother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi, head of the Banu Qasi and Moslem ruler of Tudela, one of the chief lords of Valley of the Ebro.[4] Due to this relationship, Íñigo and his kin frequently acted in alliance with Musa ibn Musa and this relationship allowed Íñigo to extend his influence over large territories in the Pyrenean valleys.

The family came to power through struggles with Frankish and Muslim influence in Spain. In 799, pro-Frankish assassins murdered Mutarrif ibn Musa, governor of Pamplona, the brother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi and perhaps of Íñigo himself. Ibn Hayyan reports that in 816, Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Wahid ibn Mugit launched a military campaign against the pro-Frankish "Enemy of God", Velasco the Gascon (Arabic: بلشك الجلشقي‎, Balašk al-Ŷalašqī), Sahib of Pamplona (Arabic: صاحب بنباونة‎), who had united Christian factions. They fought a three-day battle and the Christians were routed, with Velasco killed along with García López, maternal uncle of Alfonso II of Asturias, Sancho "the premier warrior/knight of Pamplona", and "Ṣaltān", similarly preeminant among the "pagans". This defeat of the pro-French force is said to have allowed the anti-French Íñigo to come to power. In 820, Íñigo is said to have intervened in the County of Aragon, ejecting a Frankish vassal, count Aznar I Galíndez, in favor of García el Malo (the Bad), who would become Íñigo's son-in-law. In 824, the Frankish counts Aeblus and Aznar Sánchez made an expedition against Pamplona, but were defeated in the third Battle of Roncesvalles. Traditionally, this battle led to the crowning of Íñigo as "King of Pamplona" but he continued to be called "Lord of Pamplona", as had his predecessor Velasco, by the Arabic chroniclers. Íñigo was a Christicolae princeps (Christian prince), according to Eulogio de Córdoba. However, his kingdom continually played Moslem and Christian against themselves and each other to maintain independence against outside powers.

In 840 his lands were attacked by Abd Allah ibn Kulayb, wali of Zaragoza, leading his half-brother, Musa ibn Musa into rebellion.[5] The next year, Íñigo fell victim to paralysis in battle against the Norse with Musa ibn Musa. His son García acted as regent, in concert with Fortún Íñiguez (Arabic: فرتون بن ونّقه‎, Fortūn ibn Wannaqo), "the premier knight of the realm", the king's brother and also half-brother of Musa. They joined Musa ibn Musa in an uprising against the Caliphate of Córdoba. Abd-ar-Rahman II, emir of Córdoba, launched reprisal campaigns in the succeeding years. In 843, Fortún Íñiguez was killed, and Musa unhorsed and forced to escape on foot, while Íñigo and his son Galindo escaped with wounds and several nobleman, most notably Velasco Garcés defected to Abd-ar-Rahman. The next year, Íñigo's own son, Galindo Íñiguez and Musa's son Lubb ibn Musa went over to Córdoba, and Musa was forced to submit. Following a brief campaign the next year, 845, a general peace was achieved.[6] In 850, Mūsā again rose in open rebellion, supported again by Pamplona,[7] and envoys of Induo (thought to be Íñigo) and Mitio,[8] "Dukes of the Navarrese", were received at the French court. Íñigo died in the Muslim year 237, which is late 851 or early 852, and was succeeded by García Íñiguez.[9]

The name of the wife (or wives) of Íñigo is not reported in contemporary records, although chronicles from centuries later assign her the name of Toda or Oneca.[10] There is also scholarly debate regarding her derivation, some hypothesizing that she was daughter of Velasco, lord of Pamplona (killed 816), and others making her kinswoman of Aznar I Galíndez[11]. He was father of the following known children:[12]

  • Assona Íñiguez, who married her father's half-brother, Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Qasi, lord of Tudela and Huesca
  • García Íñiguez, the future king
  • Galindo Íñiguez, fled to Córdoba where he was friend of Eulogio of Córdoba and became father of Musa ibn Galind, Amil of Huesca in 860, assassinated in 870 [13]
  • a daughter, wife of Count García el Malo (the Bad) of Aragón.

The dynasty founded by Íñigo reigned for about 80 years, being supplanted by a rival dynasty in 905. However, due to intermarriages, subsequent kings of Navarre descend from Íñigo.

References

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Sources

  • Barrau-Dihigo, Lucien. Les origines du royaume de Navarre d'apres une théorie récente. Revue Hispanique. 7: 141-222 (1900).
  • de la Granja, Fernando. "La Marca Superior en la obra de Al-'Udri". Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragon. 8:447-545 (1967).
  • Lacarra de Miguel, José María. "Textos navarros del Códice de Roda". Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragon. 1:194-283 (1945).
  • Lévi-Provençal, Évariste and Emilio García Gómez. "Textos inéditos del Muqtabis de Ibn Hayyan sobre los orígines del Reino de Pamplona". Al-Andalus. 19:295-315 (1954).
  • Mello Vaz de São Payo, Luiz. "A Ascendência de D. Afonso Henriques". Raízes & Memórias 6:23-57 (1990).
  • Pérez de Urbel, Justo. "Lo viejo y lo nuevo sobre el origin del Reino de Pamplona". Al-Andalus. 19:1-42 (1954).
  • Sánchez Albernoz, Claudio. "La Epistola de S. Eulogio y el Muqtabis de Ibn Hayan". Princípe de Viana. 19:265-66 (1958).
  • Sánchez Albernoz, Claudio. "Problemas de la historia Navarra del siglo IX". Princípe de Viana, 20:5-62 (1959).
  • Settipani, Christian. La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien, Occasional Publiucations of the Unit for Prosopographical Research, Vol. 5. (2004).
  • Stasser, Thierry. "Consanguinity et Alliances Dynastiques en Espagne au Haut Moyen Age: La Politique Matrimoniale de la Reinne Tota de Navarre". Hidalguia. No. 277: 811-39 (1999).

Notes

  1. ^ Barrau-Dihigo
  2. ^ Lacarra. A charter preserved at Leyre describes him as Enneco . . . filius Simeonis (Íñigo Jiménez) and another Leyre document reports the obituary of Enneco Garceanes, que fuit vulgariter vocas Areista (Íñigo Garcés, called Arista), and later historians have followed one or the other of these, but both are thought to result from later corruption or forgery. 11th century chroniclers Ibn Hayyan and Al-Udri both call him ibn Wannaqo/Yannaqo (Íñiguez). Barrau-Dihigo.
  3. ^ Lacarra
  4. ^ Íñigo and Fortún Íñiguez are explicitly called brothers of Musa ibn Musa on their mother's side by chronclers Ibn Hayyan and Al-Udri. The order of the maternal marriages has been subject to speculation, with Lévi-Provençal and Pérez de Urbel having the widowed mother of Íñigo marrying Musà ibn Fortún, while Sánchez Albernoz ("Problemas") argued that the Christian marriage came after the Muslim.
  5. ^ de la Granja, p. 468-9.
  6. ^ Lévi-Provençal and García Gómez; Sánchez Albernoz ("Problemas")
  7. ^ ibid
  8. ^ Identified by Pérez de Urbel with Jimeno of Pamplona, but Sánchez Albernoz rejects this.
  9. ^ Lévi-Provençal and García Gómez; Sánchez Albernoz ("Problemas"). It has been suggested that either Jimeno or his son García Jiménez served as regent following the death of Íñigo, but there is no evidence of this.
  10. ^ Settipani
  11. ^ Mello Vaz de São Payo;Stasser. These identifications are based on the names given in subsequent generations, but Sánchez Albernoz ("Problemas") wrote of the danger of assuming such name usage demonstrate specific familial linkages.
  12. ^ Lacarra;Lévi-Provençal and García Gómez; Sánchez Albernoz, ("Problemas")
  13. ^ Sánchez Albernoz ("S. Eulogio y el Muqtabis")
New title King of Pamplona
824–851/2
Succeeded by
García Íñiguez

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