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Ă ă
Ĕ ĕ
Ğ ğ
Ĭ ĭ
Ŏ ŏ
Ŭ ŭ

A breve (pronounced /ˈbriːv/, /ˈbrɛv/; from the Latin brevis "short, brief") is a diacritical mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. It looks similar to the caron (i.e. wedge or háček in Czech), but the caron has a sharp tip, whilst the breve is rounded. Compare Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ (caron) with Ă ă Ĕ ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭ (breve).

Contents

Length

The breve sign indicates a short vowel, as opposed to the macron ¯ which indicates long vowels, in academic transcription. It is often used this way in dictionaries and textbooks of Latin, Ancient Greek and some other languages, such as Tuareg. (However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only – but all – the long vowels: it is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short.)

In the Cyrillic alphabet, a breve is used for Й (a semivowel I). In Belarusian, it is used for both the Cyrillic Ў (semivowel U) and in the Latin (Łacinka) Ŭ. Ў was also used in Cyrillic Uzbek under the Soviet Union. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet uses a breve for Ӂ (the equivalent of G before E or I in the Latin script). In Chuvash, a breve is used for Cyrillic letters Ӑ (A-breve) and Ӗ (E-breve).

In Esperanto it is used above the U to form a non-syllabic U, similar to English W in sound.

In the transcription of Sinhala, the breve over m or n indicates a prenasalized consonant, e.g. n̆da is used to represent [ⁿda].

Other uses

In other languages, it is used for other purposes.

Note that Pinyin uses the caron, not the breve, to indicate the third tone of Mandarin Chinese, although breve can be used instead of caron as a substitute.

Encoding breves

Unicode and HTML numeric entities for breve letters

Name Letter Unicode HTML Entity
Latin
A-breve Ă ă U+0102 U+0103 Ă ă
E-breve Ĕ ĕ U+0114 U+0115 Ĕ ĕ
I-breve Ĭ ĭ U+012C U+012D Ĭ ĭ
O-breve Ŏ ŏ U+014E U+014F Ŏ ŏ
U-breve Ŭ ŭ U+016C U+016D Ŭ ŭ
Azerbaijani, Tatar, Turkish
G-breve Ğ ğ U+011E U+011F Ğ ğ
Vietnamese
A-Sắc-breve Ắ ắ U+1EAE U+1EAF Ắ ắ
A-Huyền-breve Ằ ằ U+1EB0 U+1EB1 Ằ ằ
A-Hỏi-breve Ẳ ẳ U+1EB2 U+1EB3 Ẳ ẳ
A-Ngã-breve Ẵ ẵ U+1EB4 U+1EB5 Ẵ ẵ
A-Nặng-breve Ặ ặ U+1EB6 U+1EB7 Ặ ặ
Cyrillic
Short I Й й U+0419 U+0439 Й й
U short Ў ў U+040E U+045E Ў ў
A-breve Ӑ ӑ U+04D0 U+04D1 Ӑ ӑ
Ye-breve Ӗ ӗ U+04D6 U+04D7 Ӗ ӗ
Arabic, Hittite, Akkadian, Egyptian (transliteration)
H-breve below Ḫ ḫ U+1E2A U+1E2B Ḫ ḫ
  • Combining breve symbol has U+0306 code.

In LaTeX the control \u{o} puts a breve over the letter o.

Notes

  1. ^ For example, that word 한글 han-geul is Romanized in McCune-Reischauer as han'gŭl.The spelling han-geul is based on South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean adopted in 2000 in part for ease in computer use, not on McCune-Reischauer. It is common, for convenience, to omit writing all diacritical marks in McCune Reishchauer including breves, in which case the word is spelled hangul not han'gŭl. North Korea uses a variant of McCune-Reischauer that also utilizes breves for those two vowels.

See also

External links

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using breve sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /iː/) is spelled e; the plural is ees, though this is rare.[1] The letter E is the most commonly used letter in the Czech,[2] Danish,[2] Dutch,[2] English,[3] French,[4] German,[5] Hungarian,[2] Latin,[2] Norwegian,[2] Spanish,[6] and Swedish languages.[2]

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
E’
Proto-Semitic
H
Phoenician
H
Etruscan
E
Greek
Epsilon
Roman/Cyrillic
E
A28 [[File:]] [[File:|64x64px]] File:Alfabeto File:Epsilon uc [[File:|Roman E]]

E is derived from the Greek letter epsilon which is much the same in appearance (Ε, ε) and function. In etymology, the Semitic probably first represented a praying or calling human figure (hillul jubilation), and was probably based on a similar Egyptian hieroglyph that was pronounced and used quite differently. In Semitic, the letter represented /h/ (and /e/ in foreign words), in Greek became Εψιλον (Epsilon) with the value /e/. Etruscans and Romans followed this usage. Arising from the Great Vowel Shift, English usage is rather different, namely /iː/ (derived from /eː/ in "me" or "bee") whereas other words like "bed" are closer to Latin and other languages in usage.

Usage

Like other Latin vowels, E came in a long and a short variety. Originally, the only difference was in length but later on, short e represented /ɛ/. In other languages that use the letter E or e, it represents various other phonetic values, sometimes with accents to indicate contrasts (e ê é è ë ē ĕ ě ẽ ė ẹ ę ẻ).

Digraphs starting with E are common in many languages to indicate diphthongs and monophthongs, such as EA or EE for /iː/ or /eɪ/ in English, EI for /aɪ/ in German, or EU for /ø/ in French or /ɔɪ/ in German.

At the end of a word, E is very often silent in English (silent e), where old noun inflections have been dropped, although even when silent at the end of a word, it often causes vowels in the word to be pronounced as diphthongs, conventionally called long vowels (compare as a noun rat and as a verb rate).

The letter 'E' is the most common (or highest frequency) letter in the English language (starting off the typographer's phrase ETAOIN SHRDLU) and many other related languages, which has implications in both cryptography and data compression. This makes it a difficult and popular letter to use when writing lipograms. Ernest Vincent Wright's Gadsby (1939), is considered a "dreadful" novel, and that "at least part of Wright's narrative difficulties were caused by language restrictions imposed by the lack of E."[7] Both Georges Perec's novel A Void (La Disparition) (1969) and its English translation by Gilbert Adair omit the letter E and are considered better works.[8]

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of E
NATO phonetic Morse code
Echo ·
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital E is codepoint U+0045 and the lower case e is U+0065.

The ASCII code for capital E is 69 and for lower case e is 101; or in binary 01000101 and 01100101, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital E is 197 and for lowercase e is 133.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "E" and "e" for upper and lower case, respectively.

In British Sign Language (BSL), the letter 'e' is represented as extended index of right hand touching the tip of index on the left hand. All fingers of left hand should be open.

See also

See E (disambiguation) for uses of the letter E

Similar Latin letters:

  • Ɛɛ : Latin epsilon

Similar non-Latin letters:

Similar phonetic symbols:

Special symbols similar to the letter E:

References

  1. ^ "E" Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993). Ees is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is E's, Es, e's, or es.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kelk, Brian. "Letter frequencies". UK Free Software Network. http://www.bckelk.ukfsn.org/words/etaoin.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Lewand, Robert. "Relative Frequencies of Letters in General English Plain text". Cryptographical Mathematics. Central College. http://pages.central.edu/emp/LintonT/classes/spring01/cryptography/letterfreq.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in French". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqfr.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  5. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in German". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://scplweb.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqger.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Frequency of Occurrence of Letters in Spanish". Santa Cruz Public Libraries. http://www.santacruzpl.org/readyref/files/g-l/ltfrqsp.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  7. ^ Ross Eckler, Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Word Play. New York: St. Martin's Press (1996): 3
  8. ^ Eckler (1996): 3. Perec's novel "was so well written that at least some reviewers never realized the existence of a letter constraint."
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter E with diacritics
ÉéÈèĔĕÊêẾếỀềỄễỂểĚěËëẼẽĖėȨȩḜḝĘęĒēḖḗḔḕẺẻȄȅȆȇẸẹỆệḘḙḚḛɆɇ
Two-letter combinations
Ea Eb Ec Ed Ee Ef Eg Eh Ei Ej Ek El Em En Eo Ep Eq Er Es Et Eu Ev Ew Ex Ey Ez
EA EB EC ED EE EF EG EH EI EJ EK EL EM EN EO EP EQ ER ES ET EU EV EW EX EY EZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
    E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9     0E 1E 2E 3E 4E 5E 6E 7E 8E 9E    

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter E

Éé Èè Êê Ěě Ĕĕ Ėė Ëë Ēē Ȩȩ Ęę Ɇɇ Ȅȅ ế Ềề Ễễ Ểể Ḝḝ Ḗḗ Ḕḕ Ȇȇ Ệệ Ææ Ǽǽ Ǣǣ Œœ

Letters using breve sign or inverted breve sign

Letter

Ĕ upper case (lower case ĕ)

  1. The letter E with a breve.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

For the drug sometimes referred to E, see Ecstasy.

E is the fifth (number 5) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for E








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