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The ogonek ([ɔˈgɔnɛk], Polish for "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; Lithuanian nosinė) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European and Native American languages.

Ą ą
Ą̊ ą̊
Ę ę
Į į
Ǫ ǫ
Ǭ ǭ
Ų ų
Ogonek

Contents

Use


Example in Polish:

Wół go pyta: „Panie chrząszczu,
Po co pan tak brzęczy w gąszczu?”
Jan Brzechwa, Chrząszcz

Example in Cayuga:

Ęyǫgwędę́hte⁷ 'we will become poor'”

Example in Lithuanian:

Lydėdami gęstančią žarą vėlai
Pakilo į dangų margi sakalai
— Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, Margi sakalai

Example in Elfdalian:

"Ja, eð war įe plåg að gęslkallum, dar eð war slaik uondlostjyner i gęslun."
— Vikar Margit Andersdotter, I fäbodlivet i gamla tider.

Values

Nasalization

The use of the ogonek to indicate nasality is common in the transcription of the indigenous languages of the Americas. This usage originated in the orthographies created by Christian missionaries to transcribe these languages. Later, the practice was continued by Americanist anthropologists and linguists who still follow this convention in phonetic transcription to the present day (see Americanist phonetic notation).

The ogonek is also used in academic transliteration of Old Church Slavonic. In Polish, Old Church Slavonic, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, and Dalecarlian it indicates that the vowel is nasalized. Even if ę is nasalized e in Polish, ą is nasalized o not a (this is so because of the vowel change — "ą" was a long nasal "a", which turned into short nasal "o", when the vowel quantity distinction disappeared).

Length

In Lithuanian, where it formerly indicated nasalization which is no longer distinctive, it indicates that a vowel is long. The Lithuanian word for "ogonek" is nosinė which literally means "nasal".

Tone

In Navajo, Chiricahua, Western Apache, and Mescalero it can be combined with the acute and grave accents where it indicates high tone, or in long vowels high, falling, rising tone (e.g. ą́, ǫ́ǫ́, į́į). In the orthography conventions of Willem de Reuse, Western Apache has combinations of ogonek and macron (e.g. ǭ, į̄į̄). In Dogrib, the ogonek can be combined with the grave accent to show low tone (e.g. ą̀), rising tone (e.g. ą̀ą) or falling tone (e.g. ąą̀).

Openness

In Rheinische Dokumenta, it marks vowels which are more open than those denoted by their base letters Ää, Oo, Öö. Here it can be combined with umlaut marks in two cases.

Similar diacritics: e caudata, o caudata

The e caudata (ę), a symbol similar to an e with ogonek, evolved from a ligature of a and e in medieval scripts, in Latin and Irish palaeography. The o caudata of Old Norse[1] (letter ǫ, with ǭ/ǫ́) [1][2] is used to write the open-mid back rounded vowel, /ɔ/. Medieval Nordic manuscripts show this "hook" in both directions, in combination with several vowels.[3] Despite this distinction, the term "ogonek" is sometimes used in discussions of typesetting and encoding Norse texts, as o caudata is typographically identical to o with ogonek.

Typographical notes

The ogonek should be almost the same size as a descender (in larger type sizes may be relatively quite shorter) and should not be confused with the cedilla or comma diacritic marks used in other languages.

The HTML/Unicode numbers for ogonek letters are

Upper Case Lower Case
Letter HTML Alt Code Letter HTML Alt Code
Ą Ą Alt + 0260 ą ą Alt + 0261
Ę Ę Alt + 0280 ę ę Alt + 0281
Į Į Alt + 0302 į į Alt + 0303
Ǫ Ǫ Alt + 0490 ǫ ǫ Alt + 0491
Ų Ų Alt + 0370 ų ų Alt + 0371
˛ ˛ Alt + 0731

Unicode also provides the ogonek as a combining diacritic mark, at the codepoint #x0328;.

Other encodings

E with ogonek is present in both Latin-2 and Latin-4, as CA (uppercase) and EA (lowercase). In Latin-10 it is located at DD (uppercase) and FD (lowercase).

LaTeX2e

In LaTeX2e macro \k will typeset a letter with ogonek, if it is supported by the font encoding , e.g. \k{a} will typeset ą. (The default LaTeX OT1 encoding does not support it, but the newer T1 one does. It may be enabled by saying \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} in the preamble.) The package TIPA activated by using the command "\usepackage{tipa}", offers a different way: "\textpolhook{a}" will produce ą.

See also

References

  1. ^ For this traditional and correct name, see e.g. Einar Haugen (ed. and trans.), First Grammatical Treatise, 2nd edition, Longman, 1972.

External links

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using ogonek sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
 AaBbCcDd 
EeFfGgHhIiJj
KkLlMmNnOoPp
QqRrSsTtUuVv
 WwXxYyZz 

I is the ninth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its English name (pronounced /aɪ/) is spelled i.

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph ˁ Proto-Semitic Y Phoenician Y Etruscan I Greek Iota Old Turkic ı/i
D36

In Semitic, the letter Yôdh was probably originally a pictogram for an arm with hand, derived from a similar hieroglyph that had the value of a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ʕ/) in Egyptian, but was reassigned to /j/ (as in English "yes") by Semites, because their word for "arm" began with that sound. This letter could also be used for the vowel sound /i/, mainly in foreign words.

The Greeks adopted a form of this Phoenician yodh as their letter iota (Ι, ι). It stood for the vowel /i/, the same as in the Old Italic alphabet. In Latin (as in Modern Greek), it was also used for the consonant sound of /j/. The modern letter J was originally a variation of this letter, and both were interchangeably used for both the vowel and the consonant, only coming to be differentiated in the 16th century.

In modern English, I represents different sounds, mainly a "long" diphthong /aɪ/, that developed from Middle English /iː/ after the Great Vowel Shift of the 15th century, as well as the "short", open /ɪ/ as in "bill". The dot over the lowercase 'i' is sometimes called a tittle. In the Turkish alphabet, dotted and dotless I are considered separate letters and both have uppercase (I, İ) and lowercase (ı, i) forms.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of I
NATO phonetic Morse code
India ··
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode, the capital I is codepoint U+0049 and the lower case i is U+0069.

The ASCII code for capital I is 73 and for lowercase i is 105; or in binary 01001001 and 01101001, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital I is 201 and for lowercase i is 137.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "I" and "i" for upper and lower case, respectively.

See also

References

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter I with diacritics
ÍíÌìĬĭÎîǏǐÏïḮḯĨĩĮįĪīỈỉȈȉȊȋỊịḬḭƗɨİi
Two-letter combinations
IaIbIcIdIeIfIgIhIiIjIkIlImInIoIpIqIrIsItIuIvIwIxIyIz
IAIBICIDIEIFIGIHIIIJIKILIMINIOIPIQIRISITIUIVIWIXIYIZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
   I0I1I2I3I4I5I6I7I8I9    0I1I2I3I4I5I6I7I8I9I   

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

I is the ninth (number 9) letter in the English alphabet.

In English, I is a pronoun which means "me".

Meanings for I








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