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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dotless and dotted I's in capital and lower case.

The Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet, includes two distinct versions of the letter I, one dotted and the other dotless.

I ı is the letter which describes the close back unrounded vowel sound (/ɯ/). Neither the upper nor the lower case version has a dot.

İ i describes the variant close front unrounded vowel sound (/i/). Both the upper and lower case versions have a dot.


  • İstanbul /isˈtambul/ (starts with an i sound, not an ı).
  • Diyarbakır /dijaɾˈbakɯɾ/ (the first and last vowels are spelled and pronounced differently)

In contrast, the Turkish alphabet uses the letter "j" (pronounced /ʒ/) the same way as in other Latin scripts, with the tittle only on the lower case character: J j.


Consequence for ligatures

Ligature fi.svg

In their realizations in several fonts, the common ligatures for "fi" and "ffi" make the dot of the letter "i" disappear by merging it with the dot-like end of the curve of the minuscule "f". These ligatures should be avoided when typesetting text in Turkish.

In computing

In Unicode U+0131 is a lower case letter dotless i (ı). U+0130 (İ) is capital i with dot. ISO-8859-9 has them at positions 0xDD and 0xFD respectively. In normal typography, when lower case i is combined with other diacritics, the dot is generally removed before the diacritic is added; however, Unicode still lists the equivalent combining sequences as including the dotted i, since logically it is the normal dotted i character that is being modified.

Software handling Unicode uppercasing and lowercasing will generally change ı to I and İ to i but unless it is specifically set up for Turkish it will change I to i and i to I rather than I to ı and i to İ. This means that the effect of uppercasing followed by lowercasing can be different from the effect of just lowercasing for texts that contain these characters.

In the Microsoft Windows SDK, beginning with Windows Vista, several relevant functions have a NORM_LINGUISTIC_CASING flag, to indicate that for Turkish and Azerbaijani locales, I should map to ı and i to İ.

In the LaTeX typesetting language the dotless i can be written with the backslash-i command: \i. The İ can be written using the normal accenting method (i.e. \.{I}).

Dotless i (and dotted capital I) is also famous for its problematic handling under Turkish locales in several software packages, including Oracle DBMS, Java[1], and Unixware 7, where implicit capitalization of names of keywords, variables, and tables has effects not foreseen by the application developers. When applications written for such software act strangely, it is better to switch locale to C or US English via system-wide or application-specific settings. Bugs should be logged in such situations, and if necessary patches submitted by developers to the software involved.

Usage in other languages

Dotted and dotless "i" are used in several other writing systems for Turkic languages:

  • Azerbaijani: The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet in the Republic of Azerbaijan is modeled after Turkish since 1991.
  • Kazakh: The Kazakh alphabet as used in Kazakhstan is Cyrillic; however, several Romanization schemes exist. Dotted and dotless I, in addition to I with diaraesis (Ï) are employed in the Latin script versions of the Kazakh Wikipedia and of several governmental websites, among them the main website of the government of Kazakhstan and the national information agency KazInform-QazAqparat.
  • Tatar: The Tatar alphabet in Russia is officially Cyrillic due to the requirements of Russian federal law. Several Romanization schemes exist, which are often used on the Internet and some printed publication. Most of them are modeled in different ways on Turkish and employ dotted and dotless I, while some also use I with acute (Í), although for different phonemes.
  • Crimean Tatar: The Latin alphabet is officially used for the Crimean Tatar language and does use both dotted and dotless I letters. Cyrillic script is still used in daily life in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, but is not the official script for the language.
  • In Irish, see Tittle#Dotless and dotted i.

See also

  • Tittle: the dot above "i" and "j" in most of the Latin scripts


The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter I with diacritics
Letters using dot-above sign
Letters using dot-below sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646

Basic Latin alphabet

I is the ninth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its English name (pronounced /aɪ/) is spelled i.



Egyptian hieroglyph ˁ Proto-Semitic Y Phoenician Y Etruscan I Greek Iota Old Turkic ı/i

In Semitic, the letter Yôdh was probably originally a pictogram for an arm with hand, derived from a similar hieroglyph that had the value of a voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ʕ/) in Egyptian, but was reassigned to /j/ (as in English "yes") by Semites, because their word for "arm" began with that sound. This letter could also be used for the vowel sound /i/, mainly in foreign words.

The Greeks adopted a form of this Phoenician yodh as their letter iota (Ι, ι). It stood for the vowel /i/, the same as in the Old Italic alphabet. In Latin (as in Modern Greek), it was also used for the consonant sound of /j/. The modern letter J was originally a variation of this letter, and both were interchangeably used for both the vowel and the consonant, only coming to be differentiated in the 16th century.

In modern English, I represents different sounds, mainly a "long" diphthong /aɪ/, that developed from Middle English /iː/ after the Great Vowel Shift of the 15th century, as well as the "short", open /ɪ/ as in "bill". The dot over the lowercase 'i' is sometimes called a tittle. In the Turkish alphabet, dotted and dotless I are considered separate letters and both have uppercase (I, İ) and lowercase (ı, i) forms.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of I
NATO phonetic Morse code
India ··
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode, the capital I is codepoint U+0049 and the lower case i is U+0069.

The ASCII code for capital I is 73 and for lowercase i is 105; or in binary 01001001 and 01101001, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital I is 201 and for lowercase i is 137.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "I" and "i" for upper and lower case, respectively.

See also


The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter I with diacritics
Two-letter combinations
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
   I0I1I2I3I4I5I6I7I8I9    0I1I2I3I4I5I6I7I8I9I   

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter I

Íí Ìì Ĭĭ Îî Ǐǐ Ïï Ḯḯ Ĩĩ Įį Īī Ỉỉ Ȉȉ Ȋȋ Ḭḭ Ɨɨ İi Iı ɪ IJij IJij

Letters using dot sign


İ upper case (lower case i)

  1. The letter i with a dot above, in both the upper case and the lower case versions.



İ i

  1. The 14th letter of the Azeri alphabet, preceded by I and followed by J, and representing /ɪ/.

See also



İ i

  1. The 12th letter of the Turkish alphabet, preceded by I and followed by J, and representing /i/.

See also

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

I is the ninth (number 9) letter in the English alphabet.

In English, I is a pronoun which means "me".

Meanings for I

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