Ő: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Double acute accent article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. Consequently, it is sometimes referred to as Hungarumlaut (< Hungarian umlaut).[1]. The signs formed with diacritic marks are letters of their own right in the Hungarian alphabet.

Ő ő
Ű ű

Contents

In Hungarian

Standard Hungarian has 14 vowels in a symmetrical system: seven short vowels (a, e, i, o, ö, u, ü) and seven long ones, which are written in the case of a, e, i, o, u with an acute accent, and in the case of ö, ü with the double acute (instead of using trema+acute). (Vowel length has phonemic significance in Hungarian, that is, it has a lexical and grammatical distinctive function.) Note that in the case of á and é, the acute accent changes not only the length but also the quality of the respective vowels.

The double acute acts as combined acute with a diaeresis, giving the longer counterparts of ö and ü.

short a e i o ö u ü
long á é í ó ő ú ű

History

Length marks first appeared in the Hungarian orthography in the 15th century under the influence of the Hussite orthography. Initially, only á and é were marked as these two vowels have a noticeable qualitative difference in addition to the quantitative one. Later í, ó, ú were marked as well, but up to the 18th century length marks were not used for ö and ü. In the 18th century, still before the Hungarian typography was fixed, the trema+acute form (ǘ) was used in some printed documents. The double-acute version was found to be a more esthetic solution and introduced by 19th century typographers.

Cyrillic alphabet

The Chuvash language written in the Cyrillic alphabet extends the basic Cyrillic alphabet by several new letters, among them the by Ӳ, ӳ which is the Cyrillic letter U with double acute accent representing the sound /y/. The double acute accent probably found its way by analogy from Latin script languages (probably German) — cf. ger. u /u/ ~ ü /y/ to chuv. у /u/ ~ ӳ /y/[2] — via its handwritten form[3].

International Phonetic Alphabet

The tonal marking system in IPA (and many other phonetic alphabets) is the following (demonstrated with an 'e'):

Extra high High Mid Low Extra low
diacritic system é ē è ȅ
adscript system

One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of small languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross (Athapascan). In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone.

Other uses

Much less significant uses of this diacritic are the following cases:

Slovak phonetics

At the beginning of 20th century, the letter A̋ a̋ (A with double acute) has seen some marginal use as a long variant of the short vowel Ä ä (A with diaeresis), representing the vowel /æː/ in some loanwords.

This use clearly derives from the Hungarian use of the double acute accent as the long counterpart of the umlaut/diaraesis, but fits well into the Slovak system, where long vowels are marked with an acute accent similarly to Hungarian and Czech.

The letter is still used for this purpose in Slovak phonetic transcription system(s).

Difference between ö and ő and ü and ű respectively in Hungarian handwriting

Handwriting

In several Latin script languages where umlaut/diaraesis is used, but double acute accent is not (i.e., there is no danger of mixing them up) handwriting umlaut may look like double acute accent. This is known for German and Swedish. Classical Danish handwriting uses "ó" for "ø", which becomes a problem when writing Faroese in the same tradition, as "ó" is a part of the Faroese alphabet. Thus ő is sometimes used for ø in Faroese handwriting.

An example of ő used on a Faroese street sign

Technical notes

Hungarian language
Closeup of Hungarian keyboard
Alphabet, including ő ű and
cs dz dzs gy ly ny sz ty zs
Phonetics and phonology
Vowel harmony
Grammar
(Noun phrases · Verbs ·
T-V distinction)
Orthography
Regulatory body
Hungarian names
Language history
(Sound correspondences)
Tongue-twisters

Hungarian pronunciation of English
Old Hungarian script
English words from Hungarian

O and U with double acute accents are supported in the ISO 8859-2 and Unicode character sets.

ISO 8859-2

In ISO 8859-2 Ő, ő, Ű, ű take the place of some similar looking (but distinct, especially at bigger font sizes) letters of ISO 8859-1.

Codepoint 0xD5 0xF5 0xDB 0xFB
ISO 8859-1 Õ õ Û û
ISO 8859-2 Ő ő Ű ű

Unicode

All occurrences of "double acute" in the Unicode 4.1 standard:

Ő &#336; U+0150 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
ő &#337; U+0151 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
Ű &#368; U+0170 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
ű &#369; U+0171 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
˝ &#733; U+02DD DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
˶ &#758; U+02F6 MODIFIER LETTER MIDDLE DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
 ̋ &#779; U+030B COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
Ӳ &#1266; U+04F2 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
ӳ &#1267; U+04F3 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE
&#5157; U+1425 CANADIAN SYLLABICS FINAL DOUBLE ACUTE

Note, that the last entry is unrelated to the others above, and got its name purely by analogy of its shape.

LaTeX Input

In LaTeX, the double acute accent is typeset with the \H{} (mnemonic for Hungarian) command. For example, the name Paul Erdős would be typeset as

Paul Erd\H{o}s.

X11 Input

In modern X11 system, the double acute can be typed by pressing the Compose key followed by = (the equal sign) and desired letter (o or u).

See also

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using double acute sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646

Footnotes

  1. ^ In desktop typography, mostly in Apple and Adobe systems and LaTeX
  2. ^ In many other minority languages of the Russian Federation like Khakass, Mari, Altai, and Khanty the corresponding sound /y/ is represented by Ӱ (with Umlaut) in complete analogy to U ~ Ü.
  3. ^ A possible explanation of the diacritic being influenced by the German handwritten form is the early version of the Chuvash alphabet devised much more than 50 years before the other ones mentioned.

External links



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Hungarian

Letter

Ő (uppercase, lowercase ő)

  1. The O with a double acute accent, a letter of the hungarian alphabet, representing a long Ö.

See also


Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

O is the fifteenth (number 15) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for O









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message