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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters. It may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in various contexts.

Å å
Ǻ ǻ
Ů ů


Ring above

The Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Walloon character Å (å) is typically seen as an A with a ring above. However, in the languages in which it is used, the letter is seen as a unique symbol, rather than an A with a diacritic.

Other characters with a ring diacritic are Ů and ů (a Latin U with ring above). These characters are used in the Czech language (where the ring is known as a kroužek), together with háček and čárka (like an acute accent) above many other letters. This vowel "ů" shows how the pronunciation of various words evolved during the centuries. For example, the word for "horse" used to be written kóň, which evolved, along with pronunciation, into kuoň. Ultimately, the vowel [o] disappeared completely, and in its modern form kůň it has become the ring above "u". The letter ů now has the same pronunciation as the letter ú (long [uː]), but changes to a short o in declension (e.g. kůňkoně), thus showing the historical evolution of the language. For historical reasons, ů can never be the first letter of the word; however, ú is almost always the first letter of the word or the word root.

The ring is also used in Bolognese (a dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language) to distinguish the sound /ɑ/ (å) from /a/ (a).

Ring above has been used in Lithuanian Cyrillic alphabet promoted by Russian authorities at the last quarter of 19th century in the letter У̊ / у̊, used to represent the /wɔ/ diphthong (now written uo in contemporary Lithuanian orthography).

Many more characters can be created in Unicode using the 'combining ring above' U+030A, including the above mentioned у̊ (Cyrillic у with ring above) or even ń̊ (n with acute and ring above). The standalone ring above symbol has the codepoint U+02DA.

Ring below

Unicode encodes "combining ring below" at U+0325 (  ̥). The diacritic is used in IPA to indicate voicelessness, and in Indo-European studies to indicate syllabicity ( corresponding to IPA [ɹ̩]).


Half rings

Half rings also exist as diacritic marks, these are characters U+0351 (combining left half ring above) and U+0357 (combining left half ring below). These characters may be used with the International Phonetic Alphabet. They are here given with the lowercase a: and . These may or may not display correctly in your user agent.

Other, similar signs are in use in Armenian: the 'left half ring above' U+0559 ( ՙ ), and the Armenian comma or 'right half ring above' U+055A ( ՚ ).

The ring as a diacritic mark should not be confused with the dot above or comma above diacritic marks, with the combing o above (U+0366 ͦ), or with the degree sign °. Additionally this symbol Å is the proper ångström sign.

External links

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using ring sign

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary


The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter U

Úú Ùù Ŭŭ Ûû Ǔǔ Ůů Üü Ǘǘ Ǜǜ Ǚǚ Ǖǖ Űű Ũũ Ṹṹ Ųų Ūū Ṻṻ Ủủ Ȕȕ Ȗȗ Ưư Ṳṳ Ṷṷ Ṵṵ Ʉʉ

Letters using ring sign

Åå Ǻǻ Ůů W̊ẘ Y̊ẙ


Ů upper case (lower case ů)

  1. The letter U with a ring above.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

U (lowercase u) is the twenty-first (number 21) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for U

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