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 â
Ĉ ĉ
Ê ê
ế
Ĝ ĝ
Ĥ ĥ
Î î
Ĵ ĵ
Ô ô
Ŝ ŝ
Û û
Ŵ ŵ
Ŷ ŷ

The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Afrikaans, Breton, Croatian, Esperanto, French, Frisian, Italian, Kurdish, Romanized Japanese, Norwegian, Romanized Persian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Turkish, Vietnamese, Welsh and other languages. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent about)—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispōménē).

Contents

Pitch

The circumflex accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it occurred on the accented syllable on long vowels where there was a rise and then a fall in pitch. The term is also used to describe similar tonal accents that result from combining two vowels in related languages such as Sanskrit and Latin. The circumflex is a combination of an acute and a grave accent. Sometimes it takes the form of a tilde or an inverted breve. Since Modern Greek has a stress accent instead of a pitch accent, this diacritic has been replaced with an acute accent in the modern monotonic orthography. The circumflex accent placed over a vowel symbol may also indicate, in some languages, that the vowel or the syllable containing it is to be pronounced in a certain way. For example, in French, the mark ^ indicates that the vowel so marked is both of a certain quality and long. In Albanian, ˘ indicates that the vowel is nasalized and stressed. In Classical Greek, the mark ~ shows that the syllable beneath bears the word accent and is pronounced, according to the ancient grammarians, with a rise and fall in pitch.

Length

The circumflex accent marks a long vowel in the orthography or transliteration of several languages.

  • Akkadian. In the transliteration of this language, the circumflex indicates a long vowel resulting from an aleph contraction.
  • French. The circumflex is used on â, ê, î, ô, û and, in some varieties of the language, such as in Belgian French pronunciation, these vowels are often long; fête ("party") is longer than faites. Historically, it often represents an earlier s (hôpital < hospital) that became silent.
  • Standard Friulian.
  • Japanese. In the Kunrei-shiki system of Romanization, and occasionally in the Hepburn system (as a surrogate for the macron).
  • Jèrriais.
  • Turkish. According to Turkish Language Association orthography, düzeltme işareti ("correction mark") over a and u is primarily used to indicate a long vowel on a basis of disambiguation. For example ama (but) against âmâ (blind), şura (that place, there) against şûra (council).[1] Although official, the required system is complex and younger generations gradually decline using it.[citation needed]
  • Welsh. The circumflex is colloquially known as the to bach ("little roof"). It lengthens a vowel (a, e, i, o, u, w, y), and is used particularly to differentiate between homographs; e.g. tan and tân, ffon and ffôn, gem and gêm, cyn and cŷn, or gwn and gŵn.
  • J. R. R. Tolkien would use the circumflex to denote a long vowel when transcribing words from some of his fictional languages.

Stress

The circumflex accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in some languages:

  • Portuguese â /ɐ/, ê /e/, and ô /o/ are stressed vowels. May also indicate height (see below).

Height

The circumflex is also used to indicate the relative height of some vowels:

  • Portuguese â, ê, ô, are stressed high vowels, in opposition to á, é, ó which are stressed low vowels.
  • Vietnamese â /ɐ/, ê /e/, and ô /o/ are higher vowels than a /ɑ/, e /ɛ/, and o /ɔ/. The circumflex can appear together with a tone mark on the same vowel, as in the word Việt Nam. Vowels with circumflex are considered separate letters from the base vowels.

Letter extension

  • In Bulgarian, when transliterated with the Latin alphabet (in systems used prior to 1989), the sound represented in Bulgarian by 'â', although called a schwa (misleadingly suggesting an unstressed lax sound), is more accurately described as a mid back unrounded vowel /ɤ/. Unlike English or French, but similar to Romanian and Afrikaans, it can be stressed. The Cyrillic letter 'ъ' (er goljam) sometimes is transliterated as 'â' or 'ŭ'; often it is just written as 'a' or 'u'.
  • In Chichewa, ŵ denotes the voiced bilabial fricative /β/, hence the name of the country Malaŵi.
  • In Esperanto, it is used on ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ. It indicates a different consonant from the unaccented form, and is considered a separate letter for purposes of collation. See Esperanto orthography.
  • In pinyin romanized Mandarin Chinese, the circumflex occurs only on ê, which is used to represent the sound /ɛ/ in isolation. This sound occurs rarely and is only used as an exclamation.
  • In Romanian, the circumflex is used on the vowels â and î to mark the vowel /ɨ/, similar to Russian yery. The names of these accented letters are â din a and î din i, respectively. Note: the letter â appears only in the middle of words; thus, its majuscule version appears only in all-capitals inscriptions.
  • In Slovak, the circumflex (vokáň) turns the letter o into a diphthong ô /wo/.
  • In Old Tupi, the circumflex indicated a semivowel, therefore î was [j], û was [w], and ŷ was a unique semivowel intermediate to these.

Other regular uses

  • In Afrikaans, it simply marks a vowel with an irregular pronunciation that is typically stressed. Examples of circumflex use in Afrikaans are (to say), wêreld (world), môre (tomorrow) and brûe (bridges).
  • In Breton, it is used on an e to show that the letter is poronounced open instead of closed.
  • In Croatian and Serbian, it is mostly found above the letter a. Its function is to distinguish homophones. Examples include sam (am) versus sâm (alone). Thus the correct translation of "I am alone" is Ja sam sâm. This indicates a falling pitch, albeit less vital than other tonal languages. Another example: da (yes), (gives).
  • In French, it generally marks the former presence of the letter s in the spelling of the word – for example, hôpital (hospital), hôtel (hostel), forêt (forest), rôtir (to roast), côte (coast), pâte (paste). Since the older spelling is often one on which English words are based, as in the foregoing examples, the circumflex provides a helpful guide to Anglophone readers of French. Fenêtre (window), for instance, is derived from the Latin word fenestra; the s is seen in the English word defenestrate derived from that Latin root. Certain close homophones are distinguished by the circumflex, for instance cote ("level", "mark") and côte ("rib" or "coast"). The letter ê is also normally pronounced open, like è. In the usual pronunciations of central and northern France, ô is pronounced close, like eau; in Southern France, no distinction is made between close and open o. See also Use of the circumflex in French.
  • In Norwegian, it generally marks the former presence of the letter ð in the spelling of the word – for example, fôr (foðr), vêr (veðr). The ð was replaced by an ordinary d before it disappeared.
  • In Turkish, the circumflex over a and u is used to indicate when a preceding consonant (k, g, l) is to be pronounced as a palatal plosive; [c], [ɟ] (kâğıt, gâvur, mahkûm, Gülgûn) or alveolar lateral [l] (Elâzığ, Halûk). The circumflex over i is used to indicate a nisba suffix (millî, dinî).[1]
  • In Welsh, the circumflex, due to its function as a disambiguating lengthening sign (see above), is used in polysyllabic words with word-final long vowels. The circumflex thus indicates the stressed syllable (which would normally be on the penultimate syllable), since in Welsh, non-stressed vowels may not normally be long. This happens notably where the singular ends in an a, to , e.g. singular camera, drama, opera, sinema → plural camerâu, dramâu, operâu, sinemâu; however, it also occurs in singular nominal forms, e.g. arwyddocâd; in verbal forms, e.g. deffrônt, cryffânt; etc.

Exceptional use

  • In English the circumflex, like other diacriticals, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language; for example, rôle. In Britain in the eighteenth century—before the cheap penny post and an era in which paper was taxed—the circumflex was used in postal letters to save room in an analogy with the French use. Specifically, the letters "ugh" were replaced when they were silent in the most common words, e.g., "thô" for "though", "thorô" for "thorough", and "brôt" for "brought".
  • In French, m with a circumflex is an informal abbreviation for même, "same," for example in taking notes.
  • In Italian, î is sometimes used in the plural of nouns and adjectives ending with -io [jo], although the spelling with a normal i is by far the most usual one. Other possible spellings are -ii and obsolete -j or -ij. For example, the plural of vario ['vaːrjo] ("various") can be spelt vari, varî, varii; the pronunciation will usually stay ['vaːri] with only one [i]. The plural forms of principe /'printʃipe/ ("prince") and of principio /prin'tʃipjo/ ("principle" or "beginning") can be confusing. principi would be a correct writing of both, with the only difference of the stress being on the first or on the second syllable. In such cases, if the context does not allow disambiguation, it is advised to write the plural of principio as principî or as principii.
  • In Norwegian, it is used, with the exception of loan words, on ô and ê, almost exclusively in the words "fôr" (from Norse fóðr) and the related verb "fôre", meaning "lining" and "to line" (for clothes) or "animal food" and "to feed", to differentiate it from for (the preposition); lêr, meaning "leather" (Norse leðr) and "vêr" (Norse veðr), meaning "weather" or "ram", both lêr and vêr occurring only in the Nynorsk Norwegian - in bokmål these words are spelled lær and vær.
  • In Swedish when transcribing dialectal speech, the circumflex is often used to denote an a or o which is pronounced dialectally as if it has been written ä [æ] or ö [ø].

Mathematics

In mathematics, the circumflex is used to modify variable names; it is usually read "hat", e.g. î is "i hat". The Fourier transform of a function ƒ is often denoted by \hat f.

In vector notation, it is used to identify unit vectors; for instance î stands for a unit vector in the direction of the x-axis.

In statistics, it is often used for the maximum likelihood estimator of a parameter.

Technical notes

The ASCII character ^ is covered in the article caret.

The ISO-8859-1 character encoding includes the letters â, ê, î, ô, û, and their respective capital forms. Dozens more letters with the circumflex are available in Unicode. Unicode also uses the circumflex as a combining character with the code point U+0302.

See also

The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using circumflex accent

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646

References

  1. ^ a b www.tdk.gov.tr

External links


Basic Latin alphabet
AaBbCcDd  
EeFfGgHh
IiJjKkLlMmNn
OoPpQqRrSsTt
UuVvWwXxYyZz

W ( /ˈdʌbəljuː/, /ˈdʌbəjuː/, /ˈdʌbəjə/, or /ˈdʌbjə/; named double-u, plural double-ues)[1][2] is the twenty-third letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.

In other Germanic languages including German, it is pronounced like an English V.[3] In American Spanish, it is doble ve, and in Spain uve doble, both literally "double vee".[4]

Contents

History

Pre-Conquest doubled V Post-Conquest "W" and crossed-Vs form Hwair
[[File:|58px]][[File:|58px]] File:Latin alphabet File:Latin alphabet Ƕƕ.svg

The earliest form of the letter ‹W› was a doubled V used in the 5th century by the earliest writers of Old English;[5] it is from this ‹uu› digraph that the modern name "double U" comes. This digraph was not extensively used, as its sound was usually represented instead by the runic wynn (‹Ƿ›), but ‹W› gained popularity after the Norman Conquest, and by 1300 it had taken wynn's place in common use. Other forms of the letter were a pair of Vs whose branches cross in the middle. An obsolete, cursive form found in the nineteenth century in both English and German was in the form of an "n" whose rightmost branch curved around as in a cursive "v" (compare the shape of ƕ).

The sounds /w/ (spelled with ‹U›/‹V›) and /b/ (spelled ‹B›) of Classical Latin developed into a bilabial fricative /β/ between vowels, in Early Medieval Latin. Therefore, ‹V› no longer represented adequately the labial-velar approximant sound /w/ of Old High German. In later German, this phoneme /w/ became /v/; this is why the German ‹W› represents that sound. In Dutch it became a labiodental approximant /ʋ/ (with the exception of words with -‹eeuw›, which have /eːβ/, or other diphthongs containing -‹uw›). However, in many Dutch speaking areas, such as Flanders and Suriname the /β/ pronunciation is used at all times.

The Hebrew letter shin has a W shape; the sounds and histories of the two letters, however, are entirely unrelated—shin represents /ʃ/ or /s/, and developed into the Latin alphabet ‹S›.

Usage

In Arabic, "W" is written using the penultimate letter of the alphabet, و (waw).

In Europe, there are only a few languages that use W in native words and all are located in a central-western European zone between Cornwall and Poland. English, German, Low German, Dutch, Frisian, Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Walloon, Polish, Kashubian, Sorbian and Resian use W in native words. English uses W to represent /w/, German, Polish and Kashubian use it for the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ (with Polish and related Kashubian using Ł for /w/), and Dutch uses it for /w/ or /ʋ/. Unlike its use in other languages, the letter is used in Welsh to represent the vowel /u/ as well as the related approximant consonant /w/. English also contains a number of words beginning with a W that is silent in most dialects before a (pronounced) R, remaining from usage in Anglo-Saxon in which the W was pronounced: wreak, wrap, wreck, wrench, wroth, wrinkle, etc. (Certain dialects of Scottish English still distinguish this digraph.)

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /w/ is used for the voiced labial-velar approximant, probably based on English.

In the Finnish alphabet, "W" is seen as a variant of "V" and not a separate letter. It is however recognised and maintained in the spelling of some old names, reflecting an earlier German spelling standard, and in some modern loan words. In all cases it is pronounced /v/. In the alphabets of most modern Romance languages (excepting far northern French and Walloon), W is little used, it can be found mostly in foreign names and words recently borrowed (le week-end, il watt, el kiwi). When a spelling for /w/ in a native word is needed, a spelling from the native alphabet, such as V, U, or OU, can be used instead. The same was true in the Danish alphabet and Swedish until 1980 and 2006, respectively, when the letter was officially acknowledged as an individual letter.

The Belarusian language uses an analog of "W", "Ў", pronounсеd like English /w/.

The Japanese language uses "W", pronounced /daburu/, as an ideogram meaning "double".[6]

Name

"Double U" is the only English letter name with more than one syllable, except for the occasionally used, though somewhat archaic, "œ" (its name is pronounced similar to "ethel"), and the archaic pronunciation of Z izzard. This gives the nine-syllable initialism www the irony of being an abbreviation that takes three times as many syllables to say as the unabbreviated form. Some speakers therefore shorten the name "double u" into "dub" only; for example, University of Washington, University of Wyoming and University of Western Australia are all known colloquially as "U Dub", and the automobile company Volkswagen, abbreviated VW, is sometimes pronounced "V-Dub". The fact that many website URLs still require a "www." prefix has likewise given rise to a shortened version of the original, three-syllable pronunciation. It is also the only English letter whose name is not pronounced with any of the sounds that the letter typically makes. Many others, however, prefer to pronounce the w as dub-u, reducing it to two syllables. For example, www would be six syllables rather than nine, being pronounced dub-u dub-u dub-u. The common method of pronouncing dub-u would almost be unmistakably double-u.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of W
NATO phonetic Morse code
Whiskey ·––
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital W is codepoint U+0057 and the lower case w is U+0077.

The ASCII code for capital W is 87 and for lowercase w is 119; or in binary 01010111 and 01110111, correspondingly.

The EBCDIC code for capital W is 230 and for lowercase w is 166.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#87;" and "&#119;" for upper and lower case respectively.

See also

References

  1. ^ "W" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993)
  2. ^ Brown & Kiddle (1870) The institutes of grammar, p 19.
    Double-ues is the plural of the name of the letter; the plural of the letter itself is written W's, Ws, w's, or ws.
  3. ^ German
  4. ^ Pronounciation
  5. ^ Oxforddictionaries.com
  6. ^ No-sword.jp
The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter W with diacritics
ẂẃẀẁŴŵẄẅẆẇẈẉW̊ẘⱲⱳ

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Basic Latin alphabet
 AaBbCcDd 
EeFfGgHhIiJj
KkLlMmNnOoPp
QqRrSsTtUuVv
 WwXxYyZz 

W is the twenty-third letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /ˈdʌbəljuː/, /ˈdʌbəjuː/, /ˈdʌbəjə/, or /ˈdʌbjə/) is spelled double-u[1] or colloquially in some dialects dubya.

Contents

History

Old English double V Post-Conquest: W and crossed-Vs form Hwair
[[File:|60px]][[File:|60px]] File:Latin alphabet File:Latin alphabet Ƕƕ.svg

The earliest form of the letter W was a doubled V used in the 7th century by the earliest writers of Old English; it is from this digraph that the modern name "double U" comes. This digraph was not extensively used, as its sound was usually represented instead by the runic wynn (Ƿ), but W gained popularity after the Norman Conquest, and by 1300 it had taken wynn's place in common use. Other forms of the letter were a pair of Vs whose branches cross in the middle. An obsolete, cursive form found in the nineteenth century in both English and German was in the form of an "n" whose rightmost branch curved around as in a cursive "v" (compare the shape of ƕ).

The sounds /w/ (spelled with U/V) and /b/ (spelled B) of Classical Latin developed into a bilabial fricative /β/ between vowels, in Early Medieval Latin. Therefore, V no longer represented adequately the labial-velar approximant sound /w/ of Old High German. In later German, this phoneme /w/ became /v/; this is why German W represents that sound. In Dutch, it became a labiodental approximant /ʋ/ (with the exception of words with EEUW, which have /eːβ/), or other diphthongs containing -uw. However, in many Dutch speaking areas, such as Flanders and Suriname the /β/ pronunciation is used at all times.

The ancient Phoenician letter shin had a W shape; the sounds and histories of the two letters, however, are entirely unrelated—shin represented /ʃ/ or /s/, and developed into the Latin alphabet S.

Usage

In Europe, there are only a few languages that use W in native words and all are located in a central-western European zone between Cornwall and Poland: English, German, Low German, Polish, Dutch, Frisian, Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Kashubian. English uses W to represent /w/, German and Polish use it for the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ (with Polish using Ł for /w/), and Dutch uses it for /w/ or /ʋ/. Unlike its use in other languages, the letter is used in Welsh to represent the vowel /u/ as well as the related approximant consonant /w/. English also contains a number of words beginning with a W that is silent in most dialects before a (pronounced) R, remaining from usage in Anglo-Saxon in which the W was pronounced: wreak, wrap, wreck, wrench, wroth, wrinkle, etc. (Certain dialects of Scottish English still distinguish this digraph.)

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /w/ is used for the voiced labial-velar approximant, probably based on English.

In the Finnish alphabet, "W" is seen as a variant of "V" and not a separate letter. It is however recognised and maintained in the spelling of some old names, reflecting an earlier German spelling standard, and in some modern loan words. In all cases it is pronounced /v/. In the alphabets of most modern Romance languages (excepting far northern French and Walloon), W is little used, it can be found mostly in foreign names and words recently borrowed (le week-end, il watt, el kiwi). When a spelling for /w/ in a native word is needed, a spelling from the native alphabet, such as V, U, or OU, can be used instead. The same was true in the Danish alphabet and Swedish until 1980 and 2006, respectively, when the letter was officially acknowledged as an individual letter.

The equivalent representation of the /w/ sound in the Cyrillic alphabet is Ў, a letter unique to the Belarusian language. The Russians, however, use the Cyrillic character В, (/v/ the equivalent of V in the Latin alphabet), when transliterating "W".

Name

"Double U" is the only English letter name with more than one syllable, except for the occasionally used, though somewhat archaic, "œ" (its name is pronounced similar to "ethel"), and the archaic pronunciation of Z izzard. This gives the nine-syllable initialism www the irony of being an abbreviation that takes three times as many syllables to say as the unabbreviated form. Some speakers therefore shorten the name "double u" into "dub" only; for example, University of Washington and University of Wyoming are both known colloquially as "U Dub", and the automobile company Volkswagen, abbreviated VW, is sometimes pronounced "V-Dub". The fact that many website URLs still require a "www." prefix has likewise given rise to a shortened version of the original, three-syllable pronunciation.

Codes for computing

Alternative representations of W
NATO phonetic Morse code
Whiskey ·––
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

In Unicode the capital W is codepoint U+0057 and the lower case w is U+0077.

The ASCII code for capital W is 87 and for lowercase w is 119; or in binary 01010111 and 01110111, correspondingly.

The EBCDIC code for capital W is 230 and for lowercase w is 166.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#87;" and "&#119;" for upper and lower case respectively.

See also

References

  1. ^ "W" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993).
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter W with diacritics
ẂẃẀẁŴŵẄẅẆẇẈẉW̊ẘⱲⱳ
Two-letter combinations
WaWbWcWdWeWfWgWhWiWjWkWlWmWnWoWpWqWrWsWtWuWvWwWxWyWz
WAWBWCWDWEWFWGWHWIWJWKWLWMWNWOWPWQWRWSWTWUWVWWWXWYWZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
   W0W1W2W3W4W5W6W7W8W9    0W1W2W3W4W5W6W7W8W9W   

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters ISO/IEC 646


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter W

Ẃẃ Ŵŵ Ẅẅ ẘẘ Ⱳⱳ

Letters using circumflex accent

Letter

Ŵ upper case (lower case ŵ)

  1. The letter W with a circumflex.

Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

W is the twenty-third (number 23) letter in the English alphabet.

Meanings for W









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