# Ḟ: Wikis

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# Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Dot (diacritic) article)

 Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ Ạ ạ Ậ ậ Ặ ặ Ḃ ḃ Ḅ ḅ Ċ ċ Ḋ ḋ Ḍ ḍ Ė ė Ẹ ẹ Ệ ệ Ḟ ḟ Ġ ġ Ḣ ḣ Ḥ ḥ İ Ị ị Ḳ ḳ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ȯ ȯ Ọ ọ Ộ ộ Ȱ ȱ Ợ ợ Ṗ ṗ Ṙ ṙ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ṡ ṡ ẛ Ṣ ṣ Ṥ ṥ Ṧ ṧ Ṩ ṩ Ṫ ṫ Ṭ ṭ Ụ ụ Ự ự Ṿ ṿ Ẇ ẇ Ẉ ẉ Ẋ ẋ Ẏ ẏ Ỵ ỵ Ż ż Ẓ ẓ

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (  ̇ ) and 'combining dot below' (  ̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

## Overdot

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics the dot denotes the time derivative as in $v=\dot{x}$.

## Underdot

The underdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called nukta.

## Technical notes

The Overdot diacritic (Unicode combining diacritic "combining dot above" U+0307  ̇ ).

Precomposed characters: Ȧ, , Ċ, , Ė, , Ġ, , İ, , , Ȯ, , , , , , , , Ż.

The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using dot-above sign
Letters using dot-below sign

Basic Latin alphabet
AaBbCcDd
EeFfGgHh
IiJjKkLlMmNn
UuVvWwXxYyZz

F ( /ˈɛf/; named ef, as a verb eff)[1] is the sixth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet.

## History

Proto-Semitic W Phoenician
waw
Etruscan W Greek
Digamma
Roman F

The origin of ‹f› is the Semitic letter vâv that represented the /v/, and originally probably represented either a hook or a club. It may have been based on a comparable Egyptian hieroglyph, such as that for the word mace: T3

F the Phoenician form of the letter was adopted into Greek as a vowel, upsilon (which resembled its descendant, ‹Y›, but was also ancestor to Roman letters ‹U›, ‹V›, and ‹W›); and with another form, as a consonant, digamma, which resembled ‹F›, but indicated the pronunciation /w/, as in Phoenician. (Later on, /w/ disappeared from Greek, resulting in digamma being used as a numeral only.)

In Etruscan, ‹F› also represented /w/; however, they formed the digraph ‹FH› to represent /f/; when the Romans adopted the letter, they had already borrowed ‹U› from Greek upsilon to stand for /w/. At this time, the Greek letter phi ‹Φ› represented an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive, /pʰ/ though it has now come to approximate the sound of /f/ in Modern Greek.

The lower case ‹f› is not related to the visually similar long s, ‹ſ›. The use of the long s largely died out by the beginning of the 19th century, mostly to prevent confusion with ‹f›.

## Usage

In English, ‹f› represents the voiceless labiodental fricative /f/. ‹F› represents the same sound in most other languages written in the Latin alphabet, provided they use the letter at all; some exceptions include Turkmen, where it represents the voiceless bilabial fricative /ɸ/, and Welsh, where it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/.

In formal typography, particularly for serifed fonts, minuscule ‹f› is one of the most commonly ligated letters. Unicode encodes several ligatures beginning with lowercase ‹f› (U+FB00 through U+FB04) for compatibility with old character code sets, but recommends that those should not be used.[2]

## Codes for computing

Alternative representations of F
 NATO phonetic Morse code Foxtrot ··–·

In Unicode the capital ‹F› is codepoint U+0046 and the lower case ‹f› is U+0066.

The ASCII code for capital ‹F› is 70 and for lower case ‹f› is 102; or in binary 01000110 and 01100110, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital ‹F› is 198 and for lowercase ‹f› is 134.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#70;" and "&#102;" for upper and lower case, respectively.

## References

1. ^ "F" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); "ef", "eff", "bee" (under bee eff) op. cit.
2. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0, chapter 7, page 236". Unicode Consortium. 2006-10-01. pp. 37. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
The basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter F with diacritics
ḞḟƑƒ

Basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

F is the sixth letter in the basic modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English (pronounced /ɛf/) is spelled ef or eff.[1][2]

## History

Proto-Semitic W Phoenician W Etruscan W Greek Digamma (W) Roman F

The origin of F is the Semitic letter vâv that represented the sound /v/, and originally probably represented either a "hook" or a "club". It may have been based on a comparable Egyptian hieroglyph, such as that for "mace": T3

The Phoenician form of the letter was adopted into Greek as a vowel, upsilon (which resembled its descendant, Y, but was also ancestor to Roman letters U, V, and W); and with another form, as a consonant, digamma, which resembled our letter F, but was pronounced /w/, as in Phoenician. (Later on, this /w/ phoneme disappeared from Greek, resulting in digamma being used as a numeral only.)

In Etruscan, F also stood for /w/; however, they came up with the innovation of using the digraph FH to represent the sound /f/, and the letter acquired this sound on its own when the Romans picked it up (since they had already borrowed U independently from Greek upsilon to stand for /w/). The letter phi (Φ φ) came to approximate the sound of /f/ in Greek.

The lower case f is not related to the visually similar long s, ſ. The use of the long s died out by the beginning of the 19th century, largely to prevent confusion with f.

## Usage

In English, F represents the voiceless labiodental fricative; this sound is also represented by "f" in the International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA.

In formal typography, particularly for serifed fonts, minuscule f is one of the most commonly ligated letters. Unicode encodes several ligatures beginning with lowercase f (U+FB00 through U+FB04) for compatibility with old character code sets, but recommends that those should not be used.[3]

## Codes for computing

Alternative representations of F
 NATO phonetic Morse code Foxtrot ··–·

In Unicode the capital F is codepoint U+0046 and the lower case f is U+0066.

The ASCII code for capital F is 70 and for lower case f is 102; or in binary 01000110 and 01100110, respectively.

The EBCDIC code for capital F is 198 and for lowercase f is 134.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#70;" and "&#102;" for upper and lower case, respectively.

## References

1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 1976.
2. ^ "F" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); "ef", "eff", "bee" (under bee eff) op. cit.
3. ^ "The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0, chapter 7, page 236". Unicode Consortium. 2006-10-01. 37. Retrieved on 2009-04-14.
The Basic modern Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter F with diacritics
ḞḟƑƒ
Two-letter combinations
Fa Fb Fc Fd Fe Ff Fg Fh Fi Fj Fk Fl Fm Fn Fo Fp Fq Fr Fs Ft Fu Fv Fw Fx Fy Fz
FA FB FC FD FE FF FG FH FI FJ FK FL FM FN FO FP FQ FR FS FT FU FV FW FX FY FZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9     0F 1F 2F 3F 4F 5F 6F 7F 8F 9F



# Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

## Translingual

The Latin script
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Variations of letter F

Letters using dot sign

### Letter

upper case (lower case )

1. The letter E with a dot above.

# Simple English

The Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
Ww Xx Yy Zz

F is the sixth letter in the English alphabet.