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€2 commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the eurozone since 2004 as legal tender in all eurozone member states. The coins typically commemorate the anniversaries of historical events or draw attention to current events of special importance. As of 2010, eighty-one variations of €2 commemorative coins have been minted—six in 2004, eight in 2005, seven in 2006, twenty in 2007 (including the thirteen versions of the common issue), ten in 2008, twenty-five in 2009 (including the sixteen versions of the common issue) and five in 2010. At least one more is planned to be minted in 2010. The €2 commemorative coins have become collectibles, but are not to be confused with commemorative coins with a face value higher than €2, which are officially designated as "collector coins" and usually made of precious metals.[1]

Only the country sides of the coins may be changed; the common side may not. In 2007 and 2009, all countries released common commemorative coins, though Cyprus, Malta, Ireland, and the Netherlands have not released any independently. Luxembourg and Finland are the only countries to have released commemorative coins every year. The number of commemorative coins is limited to one per country per year and to 5 percent of the total output. Limits on the designs are also in place to ensure uniformity.

The current reverse side of the two euro coin consist of an outer silver ring and an inner gold part; it mostly consists of a map of Europe, going from Spain, Ireland and the United Kingdom (approximately in the centre of the coin) to the Russian border in the east. A large "2" is in the leftmost part of the coin, and "EURO" is overlaid over the central part of the map. Directly above and below the "EURO" inscription, there are six stars each, connected by lines which go through the whole of the coin in a vertical direction.
The new reverse side of all €2 coins from 2007/08 onwards  
The old reverse side only shows the then-15 member countries of the European Union.
The old reverse side for €2 coins minted before 2007/08  

Contents

Regulations and restrictions

The basis for the commemorative coins derived from a decision of the European Council, which repealed the prohibition of changing the national obverse sides of euro coins from 1 January 2004 onwards.[2] However, a number of recommendations and restrictions still apply.

Two restrictions concern the design. For one, nothing has changed about the fact that euro coins have a common reverse side, so only the national obverse sides may be changed. Additionally, the standard national obverse sides per se should not be changed before 2008 at the earliest, unless the head of state depicted on some of the coins changes before then. (This clause already came into effect for Monaco and the Vatican City, whose heads of state—Rainier III and Pope John Paul II respectively—died in 2005 and whose national obverse sides were changed for 2006.)

Further regulations restrict the frequency and number of commemorative coin issues. Each member state shall only issue one commemorative coin per year, and it shall only be denominated as a €2 coin. The total number of such coins put into circulation per year should not surpass the higher of the following two numbers:[3]

  • 0.1 per cent of the total number of €2 coins put into circulation by all members of the eurozone. This limit can exceptionally be increased to up to 2.0 per cent if the coin commemorates a very important and noteworthy event; in this case, the member state issuing this higher number of coins should refrain from putting any commemorative coins into circulation for the following four years.
  • 5.0 per cent of the total number of €2 coins put into circulation by the member state issuing the €2 commemorative coin.

Another decision added two more guidelines regarding the design of the coins. The state issuing a coin should in some way clearly be identified on the obverse side, either by stating the full name or a clearly identifiable abbreviation of it; and neither name nor the denomination of the coin should be repeated on the obverse, as it is already featured on the common reverse side.[4]

These restrictions do not apply retroactively; only new designs—the national obverse sides for regular issues of states newly joining the euro or of eurozone states which change their design, and €2 commemorative coins issued from 2006 onwards—are subject to them. However, the five countries whose designs violated the first update to the rules (Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany and Greece) initially were assumed to have to change their design in the near future, which Finland did for 2007[5] and Belgium for 2008.

Another decision changed the rules again:[6]

  • The twelve stars of the European Union surrounding the coin designs need to surround all of the coin design elements, including year marks, mint marks and the name of the country. The stars have to appear in the same way as they are aligned on the flag of the European Union. (These recommendations are not currently fulfilled by the Dutch, Luxembourgish and Spanish coins.)
  • The design of euro coins may not be changed except for two specific circumstances:
    • If a coin design is in violation of the recommendations, it may be updated to bring it into line with them. (This applies to Austria, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.)
    • If a coin design depicts a head of state, it may be updated:
  1. every fifteen years to bring it into line with the head of state's current appearance;
  2. if the head of state abdicates or dies. However, temporary heads of state may not be used as a reason for changing the design; instead a €2 commemorative coin (potentially a second €2 commemorative coin) will be allowed to be issued.
  • The edge lettering of commemorative coins has to be the same as the one on the regular coins.

(These provisions forced Belgium to change its design back to show the original portrait of its monarch, as the 2008 update to follow the recommendations also updated the portrait, which was against the rules; the Belgian coins from 2009 onwards show the original portrait of 1999, but the new 2008 coin design as far as the country identification and year mark are concerned. These provisions also prohibits further sede vacante sets of coins by the Vatican City, allowing only commemorative coins for such occasions.) Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain were the states which were in breach of these new guidelines. Spain updated their design from 2010 onwards to meet the new rules, leaving Austria, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and Slovakia in breach of them.[7] The recommendation will be reviewed in 2015.

Issues

As of January 2010, fifteen countries have independently issued €2 commemorative coins (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and the Vatican City), with Greece being the first country to issue this type of coin. Four eurozone countries have not yet independently issued such coins (Cyprus, Ireland, Malta and the Netherlands); there have also been two common €2 commemorative coin issued by all eurozone member states (Treaty of Rome in 2007, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union in 2009).

A map of Europe, highlighting the member countries of the eurozone and whether they have issued €2 commemorative coins or not. The eurozone member countries are most of western Europe south of Denmark, as well as Cyprus, Greece, Finland, Ireland and Malta.
     has issued €2 commemorative coins      has not yet independently issued €2 commemorative coins      not part of the eurozone
Country Issues 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
reg. ToR reg. euro
 Austria 3/0 Y Y Y
 Belgium 6/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Cyprus 1/0 Y
 Finland 8/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 France 3/0 Y Y Y
 Germany 7/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Greece 3/0 Y Y Y
 Ireland 2/0 Y Y
 Italy 8/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Luxembourg 9/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Malta 1/0 Y
 Monaco 1/0 Y
 Netherlands 2/0 Y Y
 Portugal 5/0 Y Y Y Y Y S
 San Marino 6/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Slovakia 2/0 Y Y
 Slovenia 4/0 Y Y Y Y
 Spain 4/0 Y Y Y Y
 Vatican City 6/0 Y Y Y Y Y Y
Total 81/1 6 8 7 7 13 10 9 16 5/1
     Y – yes      was not yet part of the eurozone
     no      S – scheduled

The face value of the coins is typically less than their market value of between €3 and €12. The exceptions are San Marino and the Vatican City, where coins from the former are regularly sold for between €30 and €40, while coins from the latter are very rarely obtained for less than €100.

Issued designs are made public in the Official Journal of the European Union (references to these publications are given in the tables below).

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2004 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Greece 2004; see adjacent text
 Greece Summer Olympics in Athens 2004 50 million coins 14 March 2004[8]
Description: The Discobolus (a classical Greek sculpture by Myron) is depicted in the centre of the coin. To the left of it is the logo of the Olympic games (ATHENS 2004) and the five Olympic Rings, while to the right the denomination of the coin in Greek is given (2 ΕΥΡΩ). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design. The year mark is split around the star in the bottom centre (20*04), and the mint mark is to the upper left of the statue's head.[9]
 
Finland 2004; see adjacent text
 Finland Fifth Enlargement of the European Union in 2004 1 million coins FDI:[10] 1 June 2004
FDC:[11] 1 July 2004[12]
Description: The coin's design resembles a stylised pillar from which ten sprouts grow upwards. This is a metaphorical theme: The ten sprouts represent the growth of the European Union (i.e., the 2004 enlargement which added ten new member states), while the pillar represents the foundation for the growth. Near the bottom of the coin, below the pillar, the word EU is written, and together with the right side of the pillar, representing the Greek small letter "ρ" (rho), it reads "euro". The twelve stars of the European Union adorn the outer ring together with the year mark, which is at the top of the ring.[13]
 
Luxembourg 2004; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg Effigy and Monogram of Grand Duke Henri 2.49 million coins 23 June 2004[14]
Description: On the left side of the centre part of the coin, the effigy of Grand Duke Henri is depicted, looking to the right. The right side displays his monogram (the letter H topped with a crown). The twelve stars of the European Union are also on the right side of the inner part, surrounding the monogram in a semicircular form. The year mark, the mint mark and the engraver's initials are written in circular shape at the top of the outer ring, together with the word LËTZEBUERG ("Luxembourg" in Luxembourgish), while the words HENRI – Grand-Duc de Luxembourg appear at the bottom of the ring.[15]
 
Italy 2004; see adjacent text
 Italy Fifth Decade of the World Food Programme 16 million coins 15 December 2004[16]
Description: In the centre of the coin is a globe, tilted to the right. Three ears emerge from behind the globe, reaching out to cross the outer ring; these are maize, rice and wheat, representing the world's basic sources of nourishment. The letters R and I, superimposed over one another, are to the right of the globe (representing Repubblica Italiana), and below them are the engraver's (Uliana Pernazza) initials (a combination of the letters U and P). The mint mark (R) is to the upper left of the globe, the year mark is below it, and the twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring, grouped into three batches of four stars each, separated by the three ears.[17]
 
San Marino 2004; see adjacent text
 San Marino Bartolomeo Borghesi 110,000 coins 15 December 2004[18]
Description: The central piece of this coin is a bust of the famous historian and numismatist Bartolomeo Borghesi. It is surrounded by numerous inscriptions in the centre of the coin: SAN MARINO to the right of the bust, BARTOLOMEO BORGHESI, the mint mark (R) and the engraver's initials (E.L.F.) to the left of it. On the outer ring, the coin displays the twelve stars of the European Union and the year mark (bottom centre).[19]
 
Vatican City 2004; see adjacent text
 Vatican City 75th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Vatican City State 85,000 coins 15 December 2004[20]
Description: The central part of the coin depicts a schematic representation of the perimeter walls of the Vatican City with St. Peter's Basilica in the foreground, together with the inscriptions 75o ANNO DELLO STATO (to the left), 1929–2004 and the mint mark (R) (both to the right). In addition to these, the name of the designer (VEROI) and the initials of the engraver (L.D.S. INC.) are written in the lower right in smaller print. The outer ring is adorned by the twelve stars of the European Union and the inscription CITTÀ DEL VATICANO.[21]

2005 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Luxembourg 2005; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg 50th Birthday of Grand Duke Henri, 5th Anniversary of his Accession to the Throne and 100th Anniversary of the Death of Grand Duke Adolphe 2.8 million coins 15 January 2005[22]
Description: In the centre of the coin, the effigies of the Grand Dukes Henri and Adolphe are displayed, both looking to the right, with Henri's superimposed on Adolphe's. The inscription GRANDS-DUCS DE LUXEMBOURG appears above the effigies, while the inscriptions HENRI *1955 and ADOLPHE †1905 are written below the respective effigies. The outer ring of the coin contains the twelve stars of the European Union, placed between the letters of the word LËTZEBUERG and the year mark, which is centred below the effigies positioned between S (for Suomi) on the left and the mint mark on the right.[23]
 
Belgium 2005; see adjacent text
 Belgium Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union 6 million coins FDI:[10] 1 March 2005
FDC:[11] 1 April 2005[24]
Description: In the centre of the coin, the effigies of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and King Albert II of the Belgians are depicted, looking left. The engraver's initials (LL) are in the lower right, while the year mark is below the effigies. On the outer circle, the twelve stars of the European Union are displayed, along with the mint mark on the bottom, the monogram of Grand-Duke Henri to the left and the monogram of King Albert II to the right.[25]
 
Spain 2005; see adjacent text
 Spain 4th Centenary of the first edition of Miguel de Cervantes' El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha 8 million coins 1 April 2005[26]
Description: The centre of the coin displays Don Quixote holding a lance, with the windmills from one of his most well-known escapades in the background. The inscription ESPAÑA is impressed into the surface of the coin to the left of the image, with the mint mark (an M topped by a crown) below. The twelve stars of the European Union are placed on the outer ring, with the four on the right side impressed into the surface of the coin, as well, and the year mark placed between three of the stars (*20*05*) at the bottom.[27]
 
Austria 2005; see adjacent text
 Austria 50th Anniversary of the Austrian State Treaty 7 million coins 11 May 2005[28]
Description: In the centre of the coin is a depiction of the seals and signatures of the Austrian State Treaty, signed by the foreign ministers of the Allied occupying forces (Vyacheslav Molotov for the Soviet Union, John Foster Dulles for the United States, Harold Macmillan for the United Kingdom and Antoine Pinay for France), the High Commissioners of the four sectors, as well as the Foreign Minister of Austria (Leopold Figl) on 15 May 1955. The inscription 50 JAHRE STAATSVERTRAG is above the seals, while the year mark is below it; in the background, vertical stripes serve as a heraldic depiction of Austria's national flag (red-white-red). The outer ring contains the twelve stars of the European Union.[29]
 
San Marino 2005; see adjacent text
 San Marino World Year of Physics 2005 130,000 coins 14 October 2005[30]
Description: The centre of the coin contains a free interpretation of the allegorical painting of Galileo Galilei known as La fisica antica or The Study of the Planets. The year mark is inscribed below a globe standing on a desk. The mint mark (R) is to the left of the image, while the engraver’s initials (LDS) appear on the right. The inscription SAN MARINO is aligned in a semicircle above the image, while the inscription ANNO MONDIALE DELLA FISICA forms another semicircle below it. The outer ring bears the twelve stars of the European Union which are separated by the outer edges of a stylised atom depicted in the background of the entire coin.[31]
 
Finland 2005; see adjacent text
 Finland 60th Anniversary of the Establishment of the United Nations and 50th Anniversary of Finland's UN Membership 2 million coins 25 October 2005[32]
Description: The centre of the coin contains part of a jigsaw puzzle showing a dove of peace. On the bottom of the centre part, the inscription FINLAND – UN and the year mark is displayed; the artist's initial (K) appears above the last digit of the year mark, while the mint mark (M) is between the inscription and the dove. The twelve stars of the European Union adorn the outer ring.[33]
 
Italy 2005; see adjacent text
 Italy 1st Anniversary of the Signing of the European Constitution 18 million coins 29 October 2005[34]
Description: The centre of the coin features Europa and the bull (Zeus), together with the European Constitution; Europa is holding a pen over it, symbolising its signing. The mint mark (R) is to the upper left of the image, the engraver's (Maria Carmela Colaneri) initials (MCC) to the lower left, and the year mark is to the upper right. The monogram of the Italian Republic (RI) is at the bottom of the centre part, slightly to the left. The outer ring features the inscription COSTITUZIONE EUROPEA, forming almost a full semicircle, while the remainder of the outer ring is taken up by the twelve stars of the European Union.[35]
 
Vatican City 2005; see adjacent text
 Vatican City 20th World Youth Day, held in Cologne in August 2005 100,000 coins 6 December 2005[36]
Description: The centre of the coin contains the Cologne Cathedral and a comet passing by above it. The inscription XX GIORNATA MONDIALE DELLA GIOVENTÙ is written in the upper part of the centre, separated by the tail of the comet and two of the cathedral's spires, one of which extends into the outer ring. The outer ring contains the inscription CITTÀ DEL VATICANO in the lower half and the twelve stars of the European Union in the upper half, with the year mark and the mint mark (R) separating them in the top centre.[37]

2006 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Italy 2006; see adjacent text
 Italy Winter Olympics in Turin 2006 40 million coins FDI:[10] 10 January 2006
FDC:[11] 10 February 2006[38]
Description: The coin depicts a racing skier and the visitor attraction of Turin, the Mole Antonelliana (which incidentally is also depicted on the Italian 2 cent coin), together with a large number of inscriptions: above the skier's head, GIOCHI INVERNALI ("Winter Games"); below the tower, the name of the host city TORINO; beside the skier's right thigh, the engraver's initials (MCC); also to the right of the skier, the year mark (written vertically); and finally, to the right of the tower, the monogram of the Italian Republic (RI) and the mint mark (R). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[39]
 
Luxembourg 2006; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg 25th Birthday of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume 1.1 million coins 11 January 2006[40]
Description: The coin depicts the effigy of Grand Duke Henri on the right side of the inner part, superimposed on the effigy of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume on the left side; both are looking to the right. The year mark appears below the effigies, flanked by the letter S and the mint mark. The inscription LËTZEBUERG appears above the effigies along the upper edge of the inner part of the coin. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[41]
 
Germany 2006; see adjacent text
 Germany Holstentor in Lübeck (Schleswig-Holstein)
First of the Bundesländer series
30 million coins 3 February 2006[42]
Description: The coin shows the Holstentor in Lübeck in the centre part, with the inscription SCHLESWIG–HOLSTEIN below the gate at the bottom of the centre part. The mint mark is to the left, while the designer's initials (HH) are to the right. The inscription BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND is written in a semicircle in the lower part of the outer ring, and the year mark at the top; the twelve stars of the European Union are positioned between the year mark and the inscription at the bottom, in two groups of six stars each.[43]
 
Belgium 2006; see adjacent text
 Belgium Renovation of the Atomium in Brussels 5 million coins 10 April 2006[44]
Description: The coin shows the Atomium in the centre part, with the mint marks to the lower right and left of it. The designer's initials (LL) are to the left. The letter B for Belgium is written at the top of the outer ring, and the year mark at the bottom; the twelve stars of the European Union are positioned between the year mark and the inscription at the top, in two groups of six stars each.[45]
 
Finland 2006; see adjacent text
 Finland 1st Centenary of the Introduction of Universal and Equal Suffrage 2.5 million coins 4 October 2006[46]
Description: The coin shows two stylised faces in the centre part, one male and the other female; they are separated by a thin curved line. Two capital M's appear to the left of each face, one of them the mint mark and the other one the artist's initial. On the left side, the date of the introduction of universal and equal suffrage in Finland (1. 10. 1906) is inscribed, while the right side of the coin contains the year mark and the country abbreviation (20 FI 06). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[47]
 
San Marino 2006; see adjacent text
 San Marino 500th Anniversary of the Death of Christopher Columbus 120,000 coins 17 October 2006[48]
Description: A portrait of Christopher Columbus (looking to the right) before a background of the three caravels (the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María), which he used in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, forms the central part of the coin's design. At the top of the inner part is the inscription SAN MARINO together with a compass rose, in the centre is the mint mark R, and at the bottom is a cartouche containing the inscription 1506–2006 and the initials of the designer (LDS). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[49]
 
Vatican City 2006; see adjacent text
 Vatican City 500th Anniversary of the Swiss Guard 100,000 coins 9 November 2006[50]
Description: The centre part of the coin features a member of the Swiss Guard taking his oath on the flag of the Swiss Guard, facing the right side. In the top part of the inner circle, the inscription GUARDIA SVIZZERA PONTIFICIA surrounds the guard, while the bottom part carries the inscription CITTÁ DEL VATICANO. The guard is surrounded by four other inscriptions, with the year 1506 and the signature of the designer O. ROSSI to his left and the year mark 2006 and the mint mark R to his right. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[51]

2007 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Germany 2007; see adjacent text
 Germany Schwerin Castle (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
Second of the Bundesländer series
30 million coins 2 February 2007[52]
Description: The centre part of the coin shows a representation of Schwerin Castle. The inscription MECKLENBURG–VORPOMMERN and the engraver's initials HH appear underneath while the mint mark appears above. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin, with the year mark inscribed at the top of the outer ring.[53]
 
Luxembourg 2007; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg Grand Ducal Palace 1.1 million coins 2 February 2007[54]
Description: The inner part of the coin design is divided into two halves: The right side shows Grand Duke Henri (looking to the left), while the Grand Ducal Palace is shown on the left side. Between the Grand Ducal Palace and the outer ring of the coin, the year mark is inscribed vertically, with the engraver's initials above and the mint mark below. The inscription LËTZEBUERG appears superimposed on the two elements of the main design of the coin. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[55]
 
Vatican City 2007; see adjacent text
 Vatican City 80th Birthday of Pope Benedict XVI 100,000 coins FDI:[10] 16 April 2007
FDC:[11] 1 October 2007[56]
Description: The inner part of the coin features a bust of Pope Benedict XVI in profile facing to the left. The legend BENEDICTI XVI P.M. AETATIS ANNO LXXX CITTÀ DEL VATICANO is engraved surrounding the portrait. On the right hand side, the mintmark R, the year mark and the initials of the engraver M.C.C. INC. are written, while the left hand side shows the name of the author LONGO. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[57]
 
Portugal 2007; see adjacent text
 Portugal Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the European Union 2 million coins FDI:[10] 1 June 2007
FDC:[11] 1 July 2007[58]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows a cork oak (Quercus suber) taking up most of the coin's design; under the branches, on the right hand side, is the coat of arms of Portugal and on the right hand side the word POR TU GAL written over three lines. The inscription 2007 PRESIDÊNCIA DO CONSELHO DA UE is written in a semicircle along the bottom of the inner part, with the artist's signature on the right and the mint mark near the coat of arms. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[59]
 
 Monaco 25th Anniversary of the Death of Grace Kelly 20,001 coins 1 July 2007[60]
Description: On the inner part of the coin there is an effigy of Grace Kelly in profile, facing to the right. MONACO, the mint mark, the year mark and the engraver's mark are engraved in an arc at the bottom right of the inner part. The name of the artist R. B. BARON is engraved under the Princess' hair. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[61]
 
San Marino 2007; see adjacent text
 San Marino 200th Birthday of Giuseppe Garibaldi 130,000 coins 9 October 2007[62]
Description: The inner circle of the coin features a portrait of Giuseppe Garibaldi. The inscription SAN MARINO and the year mark are engraved along the circle on the left and right sides respectively. The mint mark R and the initials of the author Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini, E.L.F., appear on the right side of the inner circle. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[63]
 
Finland 2007; see adjacent text
 Finland 90th Anniversary of Finland's Independence 2 million coins 1 December 2007[64]
Description: The centre part of the coin shows nine people rowing a boat with long oars. The year mark 2007 and the year 1917 (when Finland became independent) appear on the top and the bottom of the design respectively. The mint mark appears on the left side, and the inscription FI on the right side. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[65]

2007 commonly issued coin

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Basic design; see adjacent text
 European Union 50th Anniversary of the Signature of the Treaty of Rome 87.453 million coins 25 March 2007[66]
Description: The centre part of the coin shows the treaty signed by the original six member states of the European Coal and Steel Community, on a background symbolising Michelangelo's paving on the Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome where the treaty was signed. The translation of EUROPE is inscribed above the book, but within the central design, whereas the translation of TREATY OF ROME 50 YEARS appears above the design. The year mark and the name of the issuing country are inscribed below the design, and the twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin. (The location of the mint mark (and the engraver's initials, if they are shown) differs between the thirteen different versions.)[67]
Image Country Volume
Austria ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Austria 9 million coins
Inscription: VERTRAG VON ROM 50 JAHRE, EUROPA, REPUBLIK ÖSTERREICH
Belgium ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Belgium 5 million coins
Inscription: PACTVM ROMANVM QVINQVAGENARIVM, \scriptstyle {\it EUROP}^A_E, BELGIQUEBELGIEBELGIEN
Finland ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Finland 1.4 million coins
Inscription: ROOMAN SOPIMUS 50 V, EUROOPPA, SUOMI FINLAND
France ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 France 9.4 million coins
Inscription: TRAITÉ DE ROME 50 ANS, EUROPE, RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE
Germany ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Germany 30 million coins
Inscription: RÖMISCHE VERTRÄGE 50 JAHRE, EUROPA, BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND
Greece ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Greece 4 million coins
Inscription: ΣΥΝΘΗΚΗ ΤΗΣ ΡΩΜΗΣ 50 XPONIA, EYPΩΠΗ, ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ
Ireland ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Ireland 4.82 million coins
Inscription: CONRADH NA RÓIMHE 50 BLIAIN, AN EORAIP, ÉIRE[68]
Italy ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Italy 5 million coins
Inscription: TRATTATI DI ROMA 50° ANNIVERSARIO, EUROPA, REPUBBLICA ITALIANA
Luxembourg ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg 2.1 million coins
Inscription: TRAITÉ DE ROME 50 ANS, EUROPE, LËTZEBUERG
Netherlands ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Netherlands 6.333 million coins
Inscription: VERDRAG VAN ROME 50 JAAR, EUROPA, KONINKRIJK DER NEDERLANDEN
Portugal ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Portugal 2 million coins
Inscription: TRATADO DE ROMA 50 ANOS, EUROPA, PORTUGAL
Slovenia ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Slovenia 400,000 coins
Inscription: RIMSKA POGODBA 50 LET, EVROPA, SLOVENIJA
Spain ToR 2007; see adjacent text
 Spain 8 million coins
Inscription: TRATADO DE ROMA 50 AÑOS, EUROPA, ESPAÑA
Due to special laws requiring that every coin bear the incumbent Grand Duke's portrait, the Luxembourgish edition of the common €2 commemorative coin differs slightly from the others in addition to the translated inscriptions, since a latent image of the Grand Duke's portrait was added (as required by national law) using a technique called multi-view minting.[69]

A similar Dutch law, which requires the portrait of the current head of state of the Netherlands and the words NAME (Koning/Koningin) der Nederlanden to appear on all coins issued by the Netherlands (for example, currently Beatrix Koningin der Nederlanden) was amended so that the Netherlands could take part in this program; the amendment completely removed the requirement for €2 commemorative coins.

Furthermore, due to Belgium's special multilingual society, the Belgian coin features the inscription PACTVM ROMANVM QVINQVAGENARIVM in Latin.

The three micro-states which also use the euro due to an official agreement with the European Union (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City) did not issue this coin, as they are not member states of the European Union. However, some member states of the European Union which had not yet introduced the euro also took part in this program. For example, Cyprus issued a £1 coin and Hungary a 50 Ft coin with the same design.

2008 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Germany 2008; see adjacent text
 Germany St. Michaelis Church (Hamburg)
Third of the Bundesländer series
30 million coins 1 February 2008[70]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows St. Michaelis Church in Hamburg. The name of the federal State HAMBURG is inscribed beneath the image of the church. To the right of the church are the engraver's stylised initials OE and above it towards the centre the mint mark. The outer ring has the year mark inscribed at the top, six stars on each side and below them the words BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND.[71]
 
Luxembourg 2008; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg Berg Castle 1.3 million coins 2 February 2008[72]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows, in the foreground on the left side the effigy of Grand Duke Henri looking to the right and in the background on the right side the picture of Berg Castle. The year mark is flanked by the mint mark and the mint master mark of the engraving workshop at the top of the coin. The name of the issuing country LËTZEBUERG appears at the bottom of the design. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[73]
 
Italy 2008; see adjacent text
 Italy 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 5 million coins April 2008[74]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows a man and a woman with an olive branch, an ear of corn, a cogwheel and some barbed wire, symbols respectively representing the right to peace, food, work and freedom, along with the links of a broken chain which form the figure 60°. In the centre of the coin are the initials of the issuing country RI; to the left the year mark; to the right the initials MCC of the artist, Maria Carmela Colaneri, and the mint mark; at the bottom, a cartouche with the inscription DIRITTI UMANI. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[75]
 
San Marino 2008; see adjacent text
 San Marino European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 130,000 coins April 2008[76]
Description: The inner part of the coin represents the different cultures of the five regions within the European continent, symbolized by five human silhouettes and the sacred texts of the different communities. Arched inscriptions complete the design: at the top, SAN MARINO, and below that the year mark; at the bottom, ANNO EUROPEO DEL DIALOGO INTERCULTURALE and the initials E.L.F. of the artist, Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini; and to the left, the mint mark. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[77]
 
Belgium 2008; see adjacent text
 Belgium 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 5 million coins April/May 2008[78]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows curved lines around a rectangle marked with the figure 60. The year mark is inscribed above the rectangle and the words UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS appear below it. The name of the country in its three official languages (BELGIE – BELGIQUE – BELGIEN) is inscribed in a semicircle below the design. The mint marks appear to the left and right of the design respectively. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[79]
 
Slovenia 2008; see adjacent text
 Slovenia 500th Birthday of Primož Trubar 1 million coins May 2008[80]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts an effigy of Primož Trubar in right profile. On the left the inscriptions PRIMOŽ TRUBAR and 1508–1586 appear in two semicircles, and towards the bottom right SLOVENIJA 2008 is inscribed (also in a semicircle). The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[81]
 
France 2008; see adjacent text
 France French Presidency of the Council of the European Union 20 million coins July 2008[82]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows the inscription 2008

PRÉSIDENCE FRANÇAISE UNION EUROPÉENNE RF; the mint mark and the mintmaster's mark are located below, to the left and the right respectively. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[83]

 
Portugal 2008; see adjacent text
 Portugal 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1,025,000 coins 15 September 2008[84]
Description: The inner part of the coin features the Portuguese coat of arms at the top, above the name of the issuing country PORTUGAL, the year mark and a geometric design in the bottom half of the centre. The legend 60 ANOS DA DECLARAÇÃO UNIVERSAL DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS adorns edge of the bottom two thirds of the inner ring and is followed by the inscription Esc. J. Duarte INCM in very small characters. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[85]
 
Vatican City 2008; see adjacent text
 Vatican City 2008 – Year of Saint Paul the Apostle 100,000 coins 5 September 2008[86]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts the conversion of Saint Paul on the road to Damascus (with the city visible in the background); the saint, dazzled by a light from the sky, falls from his rearing horse. Two inscriptions are engraved around the portrait: on the left side, an inscription denoting the issuing country CITTÀ DEL VATICANO; on the right side, the legend ANNO SANCTO PAULO DICATO. The year mark is inscribed to the right of the portrait, as well as the mintmark R and the artist's name VEROI. Beneath the portrait are the initials of the engraver Luciana De Simoni, L.D.S. INC.. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[87]
 
Finland 2008; see adjacent text
 Finland 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1.5 million coins October 2008[88]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts a human figure seen through a heart-shaped hole in a stone wall. The text HUMAN RIGHTS is inscribed under the heart, and the year mark is engraved above it. The indication of the issuing country FI, the letter K (initial of the artist Tapio Kettunen) and the mint mark appear at the bottom of the design. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[89]

2009 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Luxembourg 2009; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg 90th Anniversary of Grand Duchess Charlotte's Accession to the Throne 1.4 million coins 1 January 2009[90]
Description: The coin shows the effigy of Grand Duke Henri on the left hand side of its inner part, superimposed on the effigy of the Grand Duchess Charlotte, both looking to the left. The vertically aligned text LËTZEBUERG and the year mark, flanked by the mint master's mark and the mint mark, appear on the right hand side of the inner part of the coin. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[91]
 
Germany 2009; see adjacent text
 Germany Ludwigskirche in Saarbrücken (Saarland)
Fourth of the Bundesländer series
30 million coins 2 February 2009[92]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts the Ludwigskirche in Saarbrücken. The name of the state SAARLAND and the mint mark appear under the monument; the engraver's initials FB (Friedrich Brenner) are displayed on the right of the monument. The lower part of the outer ring of the coin features the inscription BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, and the upper part bears the year mark. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[93]
 
San Marino 2009; see adjacent text
 San Marino European Year of Creativity and Innovation 130,000 coins May 2009[94]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts objects representing scientific research: a book, a compass, a test tube and a flask. On the left are the three emblematic feathers of the Republic of San Marino. On the right the mint mark and year mark are shown. On the top is the legend CREATIVITÀ INNOVAZIONE. At the bottom are the inscription SAN MARINO and the initials of the artist A.M.. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[95]
 
Portugal 2009; see adjacent text
 Portugal 2009 Lusophony Games 1.25 million coins 9 June 2009[96]
Description: The inner part of the coin shows a gymnast swirling a long ribbon. At the top, the Portuguese coat of arms appears within a semicircle formed by the inscription PORTUGAL. In a semicircle at the bottom the legend 2.os JOGOS DA LUSOFONIA LISBOA is inscribed between the initials INCM on the left and the artist's name J. AURÉLIO on the right. The year mark appears above the gymnast's head, to the left. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin (on a background of concentric circular lines).[97]
 
Belgium 2009; see adjacent text
 Belgium 200th Birthday of Louis Braille 5 million coins 25 September 2009[98]
Description: The inner part of the coin features a portrait of Louis Braille between his initials (L and B) in the Braille alphabet that he designed. Above the portrait is the inscription LOUIS BRAILLE, and underneath is the inscription BE between the dates 1809 and 2009. To the left and right respectively are the mint mark and the mint master mark. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[99]
 
Italy 2009; see adjacent text
 Italy 200th Birthday of Louis Braille 2 milion coins 15 October 2009[100]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts a hand reading an open book by touch. Above the index finger, which is pointing at the vertical inscription LOUIS BRAILLE 1809–2009, are two birds symbolising freedom of knowledge. The issuing country reference RI is at the top right, while the mint mark R is at the bottom right. Braille's name is written under the book in the Braille alphabet that he invented. At the very bottom are the initials MCC of the artist Maria Carmela Colanéri. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[101]
 
Slovakia 2009; see adjacent text
 Slovakia 20th Anniversary of the Start of the Velvet Revolution 1 million coins November 2009[102]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts a stylised bell made up of a series of keys. This recalls the demonstration on 17 November 1989, when marching citizens shook their keyrings to make a jangling sound. This marked the beginning of the Velvet Revolution. To the bottom right of the design are the artist’s mark and the mint mark of the Slovak Mint (Mincovňa Kremnica). The design is surrounded above by the legend 17. NOVEMBER SLOBODA — DEMOKRACIA and the dates 1989–2009 and below by the name of the issuing country SLOVENSKO. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[103]
 
Vatican City 2009; see adjacent text
 Vatican City International Year of Astronomy 106,084 October 2009[104]
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts an allegory of the birth of the stars and planets together with several astronomical instruments. The mint mark R is situated in the bottom left quadrant and the year mark 2009 is at the bottom. The design is surrounded on the bottom left-hand side by the legend ANNO INTERNAZIONALE DELL´ASTRONOMIA and on the top right-hand side by the name of the issuing country CITTÀ DEL VATICANO. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[105]
 
Finland 2009; see adjacent text
 Finland 200th Anniversary of Finnish Autonomy 1.6 million coins October 2009
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts the profile of the Porvoo Cathedral, which was the site of opening of the first Diet of Finland. The date 1809 appears on the top, and the year mark is on the right side. The indication of the issuing country FI and the mint mark are on the left side. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[106]

2009 commonly issued coin

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Basic design; see adjacent text
 European Union Ten years of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the birth of the euro. 84.085 million coins 1 January 2009[107]
Description: The centre of the coin shows a stylised human figure whose left arm is prolonged by the euro symbol. The initials ΓΣ of the sculptor appear below the euro symbol. The name(s) of the issuing country in the national language(s) appear(s) at the top, while the indication 1999–2009 and the acronym EMU translated into the national language(s) appear at the bottom. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[108]
Image Country Volume
Austria EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Austria 5 million coins
Inscription: REPUBLIK ÖSTERREICH, WWU (Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion)
Belgium EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Belgium 5 million coins
Inscription: BELGIQUEBELGIEBELGIEN, EMU (Economic and Monetary Union)
Cyprus EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Cyprus 1 million coins
Inscription: KYΠPOΣ KIBRIS, ONE (Οικονομική και Νομισματική Ένωση)
Finland EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Finland 1.4 million coins
Inscription: SUOMI FINLAND, 2009, EMU
Coin edge inscription: TALOUS – JA RAHALIITTO EMU[109]
France EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 France 10 million coins
Inscription: RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, UEM (l'Union économique et monétaire)
Germany EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Germany 30 million coins
Inscription: BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, WWU (Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion)
Greece EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Greece 4 million coins
Inscription: ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ, ONE (Οικονομική και Νομισματική Ένωση)
Ireland EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Ireland 5 million coins
Inscription: éıʀe, AEA (Aontas Eacnamaíochta Airgeadaíochta)
Italy EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Italy 2.5 million coins
Inscription: REPUBBLICA ITALIANA, UEM (l'unione economica e monetaria)
Luxembourg EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg 1.4 million coins
Inscription: LËTZEBUERG, UEM (l'Union économique et monétaire).

Due to special laws requiring that every coin bear the incumbent Grand Duke's portrait, the Luxembourgish edition of the common €2 commemorative coin differs slightly from the others in addition to the translated inscriptions, since two latent image of the Grand Duke's portrait were added (as required by national law). The method used (multi-view-minting) was even more sophisticated than the one used in 2007, as portraits of the Grand Duke from the left and the right could be seen, depending on which way one tilted the coin.[110]

Malta EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Malta 700,000 coins
Inscription: MALTA, UEM (l-Unjoni Ekonomika u Monetarja)
Netherlands EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Netherlands 5.3 million coins
Inscription: Nederland, EMU (economische en monetaire unie)
Portugal EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Portugal 1.285 million coins
Inscription: PORTUGAL, UEM (União Económica e Monetária)
Slovakia EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Slovakia 2.5 million coins
Inscription: SLOVENSKO, HMÚ (Hospodárska a menová únia)
Slovenia EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Slovenia 1 million coins
Inscription: SLOVENIJA, EMU (Ekonomska in monetarna unija)
Spain EMU 2009; see adjacent text
 Spain 8 million coins
Inscription: ESPAÑA, UEM (Unión Económica y Monetaria)
The final design of the coin was chosen by electronic voting from 31 January 2008 to 22 February 2008, with the result announced on 25 February 2008. The designs were pre-selected by the national mint directors of the eurozone.[111]

The winner was George Stamatopoulos, a sculptor from the Bank of Greece Mint.

The design which was chosen, see above for detailed description.
1st position (41.48%)  
A design showing the euro sign in the centre, surrounded by a spiral consisting of stylized swallows.
2nd position (32.67%)  
A design featuring the euro sign and the roman numeral X at the top, with a nautilus-like spiral in the lower left of the coin.
3rd position (11.15%)  
A design showing a geometric square border containing the euro sign and the roman numeral X.
4th position (7.71%)  
A design featuring the euro sign in the lower left within a circle; six rounded arrows in increasing size go from the upper left of the circle to the lower right giving wide berth at the top; in the empty room left by these arrows, the abbrevation EMU (for Economic and Monetary Union) is shown.
5th position (7.01%)  

2010 coinage

Image Country Feature Volume Date
Luxembourg 2010; see adjacent text
 Luxembourg Arms of the Grand Duke 500 000 coins 14 January 2010
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts, on the left, a portrait of Grand Duke Henri facing towards the right, and on the right, the Coat of Arms of the Grand Duke, above which the year mark is shown between mint marks, overlapping slightly into the outer ring. Below, the name of the issuing country LËTZEBUERG overlaps slightly into the outer ring. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[112]
 
Germany 2010; see adjacent text
 Germany City Hall and Roland (Bremen) 30 million coins 29 January 2010
Description: The inner part of the coin features the Bremen City Hall, with the Roland (a statue) in the foreground. The word BREMEN is inscribed below the town hall on the right. The mint mark appears at the top left. The initials of the artist Bodo Broschat are at the very bottom, just below the statue. The initial of the issuing country D and the year mark are inserted at the top and bottom of the outer ring of the coin respectively, where the twelve stars of the European Union surround the design.[113]
 
Spain 2010; see adjacent text
 Spain Historic Centre of Córdoba 8 million coins February 2010
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts the interior of the Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba. On the left is the mint mark, and below is the name of the issuing country followed by the year mark ESPAÑA 2010. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[114]
 
Slovenia 2010; see adjacent text
 Slovenia 200th Anniversary of the Botanical Garden of Ljubljana 1 million coins May 2010
Description: The inner part of the coin depicts the Rebrinčevolistna Hladnikija plant. On the left under the plant, its scientific name HLADNIKIA PASTINACIFOLIA is written in an arc. Around the image in a circle is the legend SLOVENIJA 2010. 200 LET. BOTANIČNI VRT. LJUBLJANA. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[115]
 
 Italy 200th Birthday of Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour 4 million coins March 2010
Description: The inner part of the coin shows a detail of the portrait of the Italian statesman in the centre, the inscriptions CAVOUR and RI on the left, and the mint mark, the dates 1810 and 2010 and the initials of the artist Claudia Momoni (C.M.) on the right. The twelve stars of the European Union surround the design on the outer ring of the coin.[116]
 
 Portugal Centenary of the Portuguese Republic 2 million coins September 2010
Description: Forthcoming.

German Bundesländer series

Germany started the commemorative coin series Die 16 Bundesländer der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (The 16 States of the Federal Republic of Germany) in 2006, which will continue until 2021. The year in which the coin for a specific state is issued coincides with that state's Presidency of the Bundesrat.[117] The coins issued are:

Year Number State Design
2006 1 Schleswig-Holstein Holstentor in Lübeck
2007 2 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin Castle
2008 3 Hamburg St. Michaelis Church
2009 4 Saarland Ludwigskirche in Saarbrücken
2010 5 Bremen City Hall and Roland

The other eleven coins will be issued in the following years; note that some designs are not yet finalised and still subject to change. Originally, the designs for the following states were different:[117]

Year Number State Design
2011 6 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne Cathedral
2012 7 Bavaria Neuschwanstein Castle near Füssen
2013 8 Baden-Württemberg Maulbronn Abbey
2014 9 Lower Saxony St. Andrew's Church in Hildesheim
2015 10 Hesse Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main
2016 11 Saxony Zwinger Palace in Dresden
2017 12 Rhineland-Palatinate Porta Nigra in Trier
2018 13 Berlin Charlottenburg Palace
2019 14 Saxony-Anhalt Cathedral of Magdeburg
2020 15 Thuringia Wartburg Castle in Eisenach
2021 16 Brandenburg Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam

The series is similar to the United States' 50 State Quarters series, which saw fifty coins issued for its fifty constituent states, five per year between 1999 and 2008. A separate program saw six coins issued in 2009 for the District of Columbia and five territories of the United States.

Spanish UNESCO World Heritage Sites series

Spain will start the commemorative coin series Patrimonio de la Humanidad de la UNESCO (UNESCO World Heritage) in 2010, commemorating all of Spain's UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which could continue until 2050. The order in which the coin for a specific site is issued coincides with the order in which they were declared a UNESCO World Heritage site.[118] The coins issued are:

Year Number Design
2010 1 Historic Centre of Córdoba

The coins planned to be issued in the coming years are:

Year Number Design
2011 2 Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada
2012 3 Burgos Cathedral
2013 4 Monastery and Site of the Escorial, Madrid
2014 5 Works of Antoni Gaudí
2015 6 Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain

Notes

  1. ^ European Commission. "Euro coins". http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/the_euro/notes_coins8787_en.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  2. ^ "OJ 2003/C 247/03". Official Journal of the European Union. 15 October 2003. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2003:247:0005:0006:EN:PDF. 
  3. ^ General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union (2003-11-17). "Draft Council conclusions on the Commission Recommendation on a common practice for changes in the design of national obverse sides of euro circulation coins" (PDF). http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/03/st14/st14941.en03.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  4. ^ "OJ 2005/L 186/01" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 18 July 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_186/l_18620050718en00010002.pdf. 
  5. ^ Bank of Finland (2006-12-27). "Designs of euro coins will be amended in 2007". Press release. http://www.bof.fi/en/suomen_pankki/ajankohtaista/tiedotteet/2006/tiedote33_2006.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  6. ^ "OJ 2009/L 9/52" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 14 January 2009. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:009:0052:0055:EN:PDF. 
  7. ^ European Commission (2009-07-16). "European Commission – Economic and Financial Affairs – National Sides [ES]". http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/the_euro/coins8656_en.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  8. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – Greece". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.01.greece.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  9. ^ "OJ 2004/C 91/06" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 15 April 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_091/c_09120040415en00050005.pdf. 
  10. ^ a b c d e FDI = first date of issue
  11. ^ a b c d e FDC = first date of circulation
  12. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – Finland". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.02.finland.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  13. ^ "OJ 2004/C 243/03" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 30 September 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_243/c_24320040930en00030003.pdf. 
  14. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – Luxembourg". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.03.luxembourg.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  15. ^ "OJ 2004/C 243/05" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 30 September 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_243/c_24320040930en00060006.pdf. 
  16. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – Italy". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.04.italy.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  17. ^ "OJ 2004/C 313/03" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 18 December 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_313/c_31320041218en00030003.pdf. 
  18. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – San Marino". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.05.sanmarino.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  19. ^ "OJ 2004/C 298/02" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 3 December 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_298/c_29820041203en00020002.pdf. 
  20. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2004 – Vatican". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2004.06.vaticancity.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  21. ^ "OJ 2004/C 321/03" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 28 December 2004. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2004/c_321/c_32120041228en00030003.pdf. 
  22. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Luxembourg". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.01.luxembourg.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  23. ^ "OJ 2005/C 11/03" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 15 January 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_011/c_01120050115en00030003.pdf. 
  24. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Belgium". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.02.belgium.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  25. ^ "OJ 2005/C 61/08" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 11 March 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_061/c_06120050311en00070007.pdf. 
  26. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Spain". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.04.spain.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  27. ^ "OJ 2005/C 131/09" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 28 May 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_131/c_13120050528en00090009.pdf. 
  28. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Austria". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.03.austria.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  29. ^ "OJ 2005/C 61/07" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 11 March 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_061/c_06120050311en00060006.pdf. 
  30. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – San Marino". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.05.sanmarino.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  31. ^ "OJ 2005/C 244/03" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 4 October 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_244/c_24420051004en00030003.pdf. 
  32. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Finland". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.06.finland.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  33. ^ "OJ 2005/C 244/04" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 4 October 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_244/c_24420051004en00040004.pdf. 
  34. ^ "The Euro – €2 Commemorative Design 2005 – Italy". 2007-04-07. http://www.ibiblio.org/theeuro/files/files.c2e/2e.2005.07.italy.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  35. ^ "OJ 2005/C 283/06" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 16 November 2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/c_283/c_28320051116en00170017.pdf. 
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References


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