|Dutch grammar series|
The 't kofschip rule (also called 't fokschaap) is a mnemonic that determines the endings of a regular Dutch verb in the past simple indicative/subjunctive and the ending of the past participle. This rule should not be confused with the so-called T-rules (t-regels).
The rule goes as follows:
If the verb-root ends in one of the consonants of 't kofschip, being t, f, k, s, ch, and p (or variants), the past simple ends in -te and the past participle in -t. If the verb-root ends in any other consonant or a vowel (except silent e, see later), the past simple ends in -de and the past participle in -d.
|Verb||Meaning||Verb root||Past simple||Past participle|
|rusten||to rest||rust-||ik rustte||gerust|
|werken||to work||werk-||ik werkte||gewerkt|
|spelen||to play||spel-||ik speelde||gespeeld|
|leven||to live||lev-||ik leefde||geleefd|
|crashen||to crash||crash-||ik crashte||gecrasht|
|bingoën||to play bingo||bingo-||ik bingode||gebingood|
|faxen||to fax||fax-||ik faxte||gefaxt|
The rule is expressed in spelling of the verbs, but is actually related to pronunciation. So if the spelled root ends in a silent letter, this letter should be ignored in applying the rule. This includes also the ' (apostrophe) occurring in some verb spellings.
|Verb||Verb root||Past simple||Past participle|
|timen (to time)||time||ik timede||getimed|
|racen (to race)||race||ik racete||geracet|
|deleten (to delete)||delete||ik deletete||gedeletet (the "e" between both "t"s remains silent, so the t's are pronounced as one)|
|sms'en (to send a text message)||sms||ik sms'te||ge-sms't|
|gsm'en (to phone using a mobile phone)||gsm||ik gsm'de||ge-gsm'd|
|petanquen (to play pétanque)||petanque||ik petanquete||gepetanquet|