.44 Magnum: Wikis

  
  

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.44 Magnum
44-cartridge.jpg
.44 Magnum cartridge
Type Handgun/Revolver/Rifle
Place of origin  United States
Production history
Designer Elmer Keith
Designed 1950s
Produced 1955–Present
Specifications
Parent case .44 Special
Bullet diameter .429 in (10.9 mm)
Neck diameter .457 in (11.6 mm)
Base diameter .457 in (11.6 mm)
Rim diameter .514 in (13.1 mm)
Rim thickness .060 in (1.5 mm)
Case length 1.285 in (32.6 mm)
Overall length 1.61 in (41 mm)
Rifling twist 1-38
Primer type Large pistol
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
240 gr (16 g) Bonded JSP 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) 1,200 ft·lbf (1,600 J)
250 gr (16 g) SWC Keith Style 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) 1,250 ft·lbf (1,690 J)
300 gr (19 g) XTP JHP 1,350 ft/s (410 m/s) 1,215 ft·lbf (1,647 J)
320 gr (21 g) WFNGC HC 1,300 ft/s (400 m/s) 1,201 ft·lbf (1,628 J)
340 gr (22 g) LFN +P+ 1,425 ft/s (434 m/s) 1,533 ft·lbf (2,078 J)
Test barrel length: 6.5"(DoubleTap) 7.5"(Buffalo Bore)
Source: DoubleTap[1] Buffalo Bore[2]

The .44 Remington Magnum, or simply .44 Magnum, is a large-bore cartridge originally designed for revolvers. After introduction, it was quickly adopted for carbines and rifles. Despite the ".44" designation, all guns chambered for the .44 Magnum case, and its parent case, the .44 Special, use bullets of approximately 0.429in. (10.9 mm) in diameter.[3]

The .44 Magnum is based on a lengthened .44 Special case, loaded to higher pressures for greater energy. The .44 Magnum has since been eclipsed in power by the .454 Casull cartridge, and others; nevertheless, it has remained one of the most popular commercial large-bore magnum cartridges.[4][5] When loaded to its maximum and with heavy, deeply penetrating bullets, the .44 Magnum cartridge is suitable for short-range hunting of all North American game—though at the cost of much recoil and muzzle flash, when fired in handguns. In short carbine rifles, recoil and muzzle blast are a non-factor. [6]

Contents

Origin

The .44 Magnum cartridge was the end result of years of tuned handloading of the .44 Special.[7] The .44 Special, and other large-bore handgun cartridges, were being loaded with heavy bullets, pushed at higher than normal velocities for better hunting performance. One of these handloaders was Elmer Keith, a writer and outdoorsman of the 20th Century.[8]

Elmer Keith settled on the .44 Special cartridge as the basis for his experimentation, rather than the larger .45 Colt. At the time the selection of .44 caliber projectiles for handloaders was more varied, and the .44 Special case was smaller in diameter than the .45 Colt case. In revolvers of the same size, this meant the .44 caliber revolvers had thicker, and therefore stronger, cylinder walls than the .45. This allowed higher pressures to be used without risk of a burst cylinder.[4]

Keith encouraged Smith & Wesson and Remington to produce a commercial version of this new high pressure loading, and revolvers chambered for it. While S&W produced the first prototype revolver chambered in .44 Magnum, the famous Model 29, Sturm, Ruger actually beat S&W to market by several months in 1956 with a .44 Magnum version of the single action Blackhawk revolver. The exact reason for this is unclear. One version says a Ruger employee found a cartridge case marked ".44 Remington Magnum" and took it to Bill Ruger, while another says a Remington employee provided Ruger with early samples of the ammunition.[9]

The .44 Magnum case is slightly longer than the .44 Special case, not because of the need for more room for propellant, but to prevent the far higher pressure cartridge from being chambered in older, weaker .44 Special firearms.[4].

The .44 Magnum was an immediate success, and the direct descendants of the S&W Model 29 and the .44 Magnum Ruger Blackhawks are still in production, and have been joined by numerous other makes and models of .44 Magnum revolvers and even a few semi-automatic pistols, the first being the gas operated Desert Eagle pistol in 1982.

Ruger introduced its first long gun, a semi-automatic carbine chambered for the .44 Magnum, in 1959, and Marlin followed soon after with a lever action model 1894 in .44 Magnum.[5][8] Having a carbine and a handgun chambered in the same caliber is an old tradition; the .44-40 Winchester was introduced by Winchester in a lever action in 1873, and Colt followed in 1878 with a revolver chambered in the same caliber. The .38-40 Winchester and .32-20 Winchester were also available chambered in both carbines and revolvers, allowing the shooter to use one type of ammunition for both firearms.[10]

While modern steels and manufacturing techniques have allowed even stronger cylinders, leading to larger and more powerful cartridges such as the .454 Casull and .480 Ruger in revolvers the same size as a .44 Magnum, the .44 Magnum is still considered a top choice today.[6] In 2006, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the .44 Magnum, Ruger introduced a special 50th anniversary Blackhawk revolver, in the "Flattop" style.[9]

Technical specifications

.44 Magnum Colt Anaconda

The .44 Magnum delivers a large, heavy bullet with high velocity for a handgun. In its full-powered form, it produces too much recoil and muzzle blast to be suitable for a police weapon as it makes rapid fire difficult and strenuous on the users' hands; in particular for shooters of smaller build or with small hands.[11][12]

Some gun styles are more comfortable to use when shooting this caliber. Many shooters find the rounded grip shape of the single action better for handling heavy recoil than the grip shape of double-action revolvers, which have a shoulder on top of the grip. Many shooters, consider the ideal type of grip for heavy recoiling guns to be the longer "Bisley" style single action grip, and it can be found on single actions from Ruger (models marked "Bisley") and Freedom Arms, as well as many custom makers.[13]

Dual-purpose use

.44 Magnum Marlin Model 1894 carbine

The concept of a dual-purpose handgun/rifle cartridge has been popular since the Old West, with cartridges like the .44-40 Winchester, whose "High-Speed" rifle loadings were precursor magnum loads. Other dual-use rounds were the .32-20 Winchester and the .38-40 Winchester.[5][10]

Some past dual-purpose cartridges, like the .44-40 Winchester, gave their manufacturers trouble when people loaded the "High-Speed" versions designed for rifles into handguns.[5] Since the .44 Magnum was designed from the start as a revolver cartridge, such issues are moot, and SAAMI compliant ammunition should fire from any handguns or rifles chambered for the .44 Magnum.

As a rifle or carbine cartridge the .44 Magnum is sufficiently powerful for medium-sized game, yet fits easily into a compact, lightweight package. In 1969, Ruger introduced their .44 Carbine, the first .44 Magnum carbine. The lever-action Marlin Model 1894, Ruger Deerfield, and many other firearms are currently available in this caliber. With significantly longer barrels than revolvers, carbines will generate a significantly higher velocity than a revolver loaded with the same ammunition. Tests with various ammunition in the Ruger Deerfield yielded a 100 yard (90 m) velocity of over 1,300 ft/s (400 m/s) with a 240-grain (16 g) bullet, comparable to the muzzle velocity out of a revolver.[14][15] Loads using slow burning powders maximize performance in both short and long barrels, with one published load generating 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) from a revolver, and 1,625 ft/s (495 m/s) from a carbine with a 240-grain (16 g) bullet.[16]

Suitable game

The .44 Magnum is well-suited for game up to brown bear size. With precise shot placement and deep penetrating cartridges it has even been used to take the largest of game, including Cape Buffalo. Publisher Robert E. Petersen took a record setting polar bear with a .44 Magnum.[8][17] It has even been used against elephants with success.[18]

In addition to beating the ballistics of the old .44-40 rifle loads, long considered a top deer cartridge,[5] the heavy, flat point bullets typically used in the .44 Magnum have an additional advantage. Tests performed where bullets are shot through light cover, intended to represent twigs and brush, have shown that the high velocity, light weight, thin jacketed, pointed bullets used by most hunting cartridges today are easily deflected by contact with the brush. The ideal bullets for penetrating brush with minimal deflection are heavy, flat point bullets at moderate velocities.[14]

Range

The accuracy of the .44 Magnum is very good, with models from Colt, Smith & Wesson, and Ruger producing bullet groups of 3 to 4 inches (7.5 to 10 cm) at 50 yards, with most ammunition.[19][20] The limiting factor of the .44 Magnum cartridge is not terminal ballistics, because a heavy, non-expanding bullet at .44 Magnum velocities will shoot through large game such as elk and even bison.[21] The limiting factor is the bullet's trajectory; the best hunting bullets are heavy, thus, relatively slow, meaning a significant drop-out of trajectory at ranges beyond 100 yards (90 m); with a 50-yard zero, the point of which the "line of sight" and the "bullet trajectory" meet, drop-out at 100 yards is about 2 inches (5 cm), and drop-out at 150 yards (135 m) is more than 8 inches (20 cm); with a 100-yard zero, drop-out at 150 yards is more than 6 inches (15 cm).[22] Experts recommend limiting hunting ranges to 100 yards (90 m) when shooting .44 Magnum cartridges, less if practical accuracy requires it.[14][23]

.44 Magnum in popular culture

While the .44 Magnum was very popular among shooters for many years after its introduction, it did not come to the attention of the general public until 1971, when Clint Eastwood's character "Dirty" Harry Callahan described the .44 Magnum as "the most powerful handgun in the world" in the film Dirty Harry. While this was not strictly true in 1971 (the more powerful .454 Casull was announced in 1959, and was available in custom revolvers),[5] it still caused prices of the Smith & Wesson Model 29 to skyrocket; demand far exceeded supply, and guns were selling for triple the normal retail price. This sudden surge in popularity elevated the .44 Magnum to "magical" levels, spawning a mythos, such as the (false) claim that the .44 Magnum could "put a bullet right through an engine block"—a claim made by Easy Andy, the gun dealer character in the 1976 film Taxi Driver.[8][24] The .44 Magnum continued to be associated with Dirty Harry's character, including the scene with Eastwood's famous line "Go ahead, make my day" in the 1983 film Sudden Impact.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ "DoubleTap". Archived from the original on 2009-07-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5igmV3zv0. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  2. ^ "Buffalo Bore". Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. http://www.webcitation.org/5gZq9wQ10. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  3. ^ Lyman Reloading Handbook, 48th edition, 2002
  4. ^ a b c Taffin, John. (September–October, 2005). "The .44 Magnum: 50 years young!". American Handgunner. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0BTT/is_177_29/ai_n14816284. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Frank C. Barnes, ed. Stan Skinner (2003). Cartridges of the World, 10th Ed.. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87349-605-1. 
  6. ^ a b Craig Boddington. The Fabulous .44 Mag. Guns & Ammo. http://www.gunsandammomag.com/ammunition/fabulous_44_mag/. 
  7. ^ Barnes, Frank C.; Skinner, Stan (2003). Cartridges of the World: 10th Edition, Revised and Expanded. Krause Publications. pp. 528. ISBN 978-0873496056. 
  8. ^ a b c d Garry James (June 2005). "A Big 50 For The .44". Guns & Ammo. http://www.gunsandammomag.com/ammunition/fifty_101105/. 
  9. ^ a b Bill Hamm (September 28, 2004). "Ruger Blackhawk .44 Magnum 'Flattop'". GunBlast.com. http://www.gunblast.com/Hamm_44-Flattop.htm. 
  10. ^ a b Abraham Lincoln Artman Himmelwright (1908). The Pistol and Revolver. 
  11. ^ Terry Riebling (November 1996). "Taking the Bite Out of the Mighty .44 Magnum". Performance Shooter. http://www.gun-tests.com/performance/nov96biteout.html. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Chuck (1981). Complete Book Of Combat Handgunning. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press. pp. 200. ISBN 9780873643276. 
  13. ^ John Taffin. "I LIKE SINGLE ACTIONS BECAUSE....". Sixguns.com. http://www.sixguns.com/range/single_actions.htm. 
  14. ^ a b c Chuck Hawks. "Woods and Brush Rifles". http://www.chuckhawks.com/woods_rifles.htm. 
  15. ^ Rick Jamison (August 2000). "Ruger's All New .44 Deerfield". Shooting Times. http://www.galleryofguns.com/shootingtimes/articles/DisplayArticles.asp?ID=38. 
  16. ^ Accurate Arms, 21.3 grains of #9 and an IMI 240 grain JHP bullet; see rifle and handgun data.
  17. ^ JOHN TAFFIN. "TAFFIN TESTS: THE .44 MAGNUM". http://www.sixguns.com/tests/tt44mag.htm. 
  18. ^ Fryxell, Glen E.. "The Bullets of SSK". Sixguns. John Taffin. http://www.sixguns.com/crew/sskbullets.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  19. ^ GGG Staff (October 1997). ".44 Magnums: Accuracy Problems Plague the Model 29". Guns, Gear & Game. http://www.gun-tests.com/performance/oct97gggmagnums.html. 
  20. ^ PS Staff (July 1997). "Stock Silhouette Revolvers: Anaconda Versus Redhawk". Performance Shooter. http://www.gun-tests.com/performance/jul97silhouette.html. 
  21. ^ Patrick Sweeney. "Reloading the .44 Magnum". Guns & Ammo Handguns. http://www.handgunsmag.com/ammunition/44mag_081005/index1.html. 
  22. ^ "Ballistics Results". Remington. http://www.remington.com/products/ammunition/ballistics/comparative_ballistics_results.aspx?data=R44MG2*R44MG3*RH44MGA. 
  23. ^ Chuck Hawks. "Handgun Hunting". http://www.chuckhawks.com/handgun_hunting.htm. 
  24. ^ J. Hoberman (March 28, 2006). Dirty Harry. http://www.villagevoice.com/film/0614,hoberman,72749,20.html. 
  25. ^ "AFI's list of 100 famous movie quotes" (pdf). American Film Institute. http://www.afi.com/Docs/about/press/2005/quotesannouned.pdf. 

Simple English

[[File:|right|180px]] .44 Magnum is a large revolver caliber. It is also used in some carbines and rifles. It is common in action movies such as Dirty Harry.








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