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100°
100th meridian west
Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska

The meridian 100° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 100th meridian west forms a great circle with the 80th meridian east.

Contents

Geography

Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 100th meridian west passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
90°0′N 100°0′W / 90°N 100°W / 90; -100 (Arctic Ocean) Arctic Ocean
80°6′N 100°0′W / 80.1°N 100°W / 80.1; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut - Meighen Island
79°52′N 100°0′W / 79.867°N 100°W / 79.867; -100 (Peary Channel) Peary Channel
78°44′N 100°0′W / 78.733°N 100°W / 78.733; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut - Ellef Ringnes Island
77°48′N 100°0′W / 77.8°N 100°W / 77.8; -100 Unnamed waterbody
76°45′N 100°0′W / 76.75°N 100°W / 76.75; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut - Berkeley Islands and Bathurst Island
74°59′N 100°0′W / 74.983°N 100°W / 74.983; -100 (Parry Channel) Parry Channel
73°57′N 100°0′W / 73.95°N 100°W / 73.95; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut - Prince of Wales Island
71°52′N 100°0′W / 71.867°N 100°W / 71.867; -100 (M'Clintock Channel) M'Clintock Channel
70°35′N 100°0′W / 70.583°N 100°W / 70.583; -100 (Larsen Sound) Larsen Sound Passing just east of Gateshead Island, Nunavut,  Canada
69°58′N 100°0′W / 69.967°N 100°W / 69.967; -100 (Victoria Strait) Victoria Strait
69°3′N 100°0′W / 69.05°N 100°W / 69.05; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut - Royal Geographical Society Islands
68°57′N 100°0′W / 68.95°N 100°W / 68.95; -100 (Queen Maud Gulf) Queen Maud Gulf Passing just east of Hat Island, Nunavut,  Canada
67°50′N 100°0′W / 67.833°N 100°W / 67.833; -100 (Canada)  Canada Nunavut
Manitoba
49°0′N 100°0′W / 49°N 100°W / 49; -100 (United States (North Dakota))  United States North Dakota
South Dakota - 45°56′N 100°0′W / 45.933°N 100°W / 45.933; -100 (South Dakota)
Nebraska - 43°0′N 100°0′W / 43°N 100°W / 43; -100 (Nebraska)
Kansas - 40°0′N 100°0′W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 (Kansas)
Oklahoma - 37°0′N 100°0′W / 37°N 100°W / 37; -100 (Oklahoma)
Texas / Oklahoma border - 36°30′N 100°0′W / 36.5°N 100°W / 36.5; -100 (Texas / Oklahoma border)
Texas - 34°34′N 100°0′W / 34.567°N 100°W / 34.567; -100 (Texas)
28°0′N 100°0′W / 28°N 100°W / 28; -100 (Mexico)  Mexico Coahuila
Nuevo León
Tamaulipas
San Luis Potosí
Tamaulipas
San Luis Potosí
Guanajuato
Querétaro
Mexico State
Guerrero
16°54′N 100°0′W / 16.9°N 100°W / 16.9; -100 (Pacific Ocean) Pacific Ocean
60°0′S 100°0′W / 60°S 100°W / -60; -100 (Southern Ocean) Southern Ocean
71°55′S 100°0′W / 71.917°S 100°W / -71.917; -100 (Antarctica) Antarctica Unclaimed territory

United States

In the United States the meridian 100° west of Greenwich forms the eastern border of the Texas panhandle with Oklahoma (which traces its origin to the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819 which settled the border between New Spain and the United States between the Red River and Arkansas River).

In the central Great Plains, the meridian roughly marks the western boundary of the normal reach of moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, and the approximate boundary (although some areas do push the boundary slightly farther east) between the semi-arid climate to the west and the humid continental (north of about 37°N) and humid subtropical (south of about 37°N) climates to the east. The type of agriculture west of the meridian typically relies heavily on irrigation. Historically the meridian has often been taken as a rough boundary between the eastern and western United States. White settlement, spreading westward after the American Civil War, encroached in the meridian in the 1870s.

A sign across U.S. Highway 30 in Cozad, Nebraska prominently marks the place where the meridian intersects the routes of the Oregon Trail, Pony Express, transcontinental railroad, and the Lincoln Highway.

In Popular Culture

Wallace Stegner's Beyond the Hundredth Meridian (1954), is a biography of John Wesley Powell, an explorer of the American West. The song "At the Hundredth Meridian" by The Tragically Hip is about the 100th meridian west, specifically in Canada, and how it has traditionally been considered "where the great plains begin."

See also

External links


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