102d Fighter Wing: Wikis


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102nd Intelligence Wing
102d Intelligence Wing emblem
Active 1946–present
Country United States
Allegiance United States Air Force
Branch Air National Guard/Air Combat Command
Type Wing
Role Ground-based distributed radar installation[1]
Size 950 members
Including:80 officers
745 enlisted personnel
Part of Air National Guard/Air Combat Command
Garrison/HQ Otis ANGB, Massachusetts
Nickname "Eagle Keepers"
"Bear Chasers"
Motto "Omnis Vir Tigris"
Everyone A Tiger
Equipment Distributed Common Ground Systems
Air Operations Center[2]
Engagements World War II
Operation Noble Eagle
Decorations Outstanding Unit ribbon.svg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Personnel Center Awards Search (Post-1991)
Commander Colonel Anthony E. Schiavi
Vice Commander Colonel Christina G. Stevens
Command Chief Chief Master Sargeant Wayne M. Raymondo

The United States Air Force's 102nd Intelligence Wing (102 IW), of the Massachusetts Air National Guard, is an intelligence unit located at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts. It is a parent unit of the 101st Air Operations Squadron. From its creation in 1946 to its mission change in 2008, the 102nd has helped protect the Northeastern United States from foreign attack. The 102nd deployed to France during the Berlin Crisis and later to Panama during Operation Coronet Nighthawk. It also participated in Operation Northern Watch, helping to patrol the No-Fly Zone north of the 36th parallel in Iraq. During the 11 September attacks, the 102nd Fighter Wing deployed the first Air Force aircraft toward New York City, but they arrived too late to help stop the attacks.

Base downsizing through the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process removed the wing's F-15C Eagles beginning in 2007, leaving the 102nd with an intelligence gathering mission which will become fully active in 2010. It is one of three Air National Guard wings that works with the Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency.



The 102nd's mission is to provide world wide precision intelligence and command and control, along with trained and experienced airmen for expeditionary combat support and homeland security.[3]




After World War I ended, the Army showed interest in organizing aviation assets for the National Guard system. At the time, aircraft were attached to infantry units, similar to other weapons like artillery. Guard units without their own aircraft needed assets from other forces to co-operate with them. The War Department agreed the guard should organize aviation squadrons as an organic part of the 18 infantry divisions assigned to the National Guard.[4]

A Curtiss O-11 of the 101st

In Massachusetts, the Archie Club, comprising former Army Air Service pilots, lobbied for the formation of an air unit for the Massachusetts National Guard. The state had earlier been allotted the entire 26th Guard Division. On 27 June 1921, the Adjutant General of Massachusetts authorized the organization of the 101st Observation Squadron, and within weeks, 15 veteran World War I pilots were commissioned and assigned to the 101st under the command of Capt. James K. Knowles. The 101st built its own air base on land-filled tidal flats at Jeffries Point, East Boston.[5] The 101st flew its Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" aircraft throughout New England at air shows, county fairs and other events, and held two-week summer camps to simulate forward deployments.[4] Pilots flew their Curtiss O-11s to temporary fields on Cape Cod while ground crews followed in trucks.[4] One of these fields became Cape Cod Airport.[4]

In 1933 Jeffery Field was rebuilt with new hangars and administrative buildings, and renamed Logan Airport in honor of Major General Edward L. Logan, who commanded the 26th Division from 1923 to 1928.[4] The 101st was ordered into state service in 1936 and 1938 during a flood and hurricane to fly observation missions and to drop food and equipment to stranded fishermen and the residents of Isle au Haut, Maine[4] The 101st gained attention when it played a part in the U.S. Army Air Service's flight around the world.[4] The flight was the crowning achievement in United States aviation because it succeeded where five other nations had failed. The 101st serviced the aircraft at Boston which was on the flight leg from Canada to Washington D.C..[4] It also serviced the Spirit of St. Louis when Charles Lindbergh visited the state.[6]

World War II

101st Squadron
An O-47 observation aircraft.

In 1940, the 101st was separated from the 26th Infantry Division and in November was ordered into active federal service for intensive training. The 101st’s 25 officers and 133 enlisted men initially remained at Logan until 31 July 1941 when moving to Otis Field at Camp Edwards. Otis Field was named after 1st Lt Frank J. Otis, Jr., MD, a 101st flight surgeon killed in a flying accident in 1938. The 101st participated in the North Carolina maneuvers in the fall of 1941 and returned to Otis on 6 December 1941.[4]

A B-25 Mitchell used on patrols.

Following the outbreak of World War II, the 101st flew anti-submarine patrols off the New England coast until 10 September 1942. By then, many of its original members had been reassigned during the expansion of the Army Air Forces. During the next two years, the 101st was transferred to several bases and on 20 May 1944 had its mission re-designated as the 39th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron. It joined the Ninth Air Force and deployed to the European Theater in December, 1944 with 45 officers and 297 enlisted men. The 39th flew P-38 Lightnings and P-51 Mustangs during operational missions from January, 1945 to the end of the war in May. The 39th returned to the US in August, 1945, was re-designated 101st Fighter Squadron in May 1946, and then disbanded two months later.[4]

Veterans of the 101st and Army Air Force reorganized the 101st at Logan Airport on 29 July 1946. The squadron was equipped with the P-47 Thunderbolt and was federally recognized on 15 October 1946.[4]

318th Fighter Group

The 102nd Intelligence Wing traces its roots to the 318th Fighter Group[7] which was formed in 1942. It fought in the Pacific as part of bomber escort missions to Japan, and participated in aircraft carrier operations, rarely experienced by the Army Air Force.[7] The 318th returned to the United States after the war, was deactivated on 12 January 1946[7] and then reactivated as the 102nd Fighter Group on 22 May 1946.[7]

Cold War

Planes lined up on the ramp at night at Logan

In the post-war era the National Guard Bureau began a major expansion of its air units. Massachusetts was allotted the 67th Fighter Wing, which consisted of the 101st Fighter Squadron, the 131st Fighter Squadron, the 132nd Fighter Squadron, the 202nd Air Service Group, 601st Signal Construction Company, 101st Communications Squadron, 101st Air Control Squadron, 151st Air Control and Warning Group, 567th Air Force Band, 101st Weather Flight and the 1801st Aviation Engineer Company.[4] The 67th Wing was assigned to Air Defense Command. In 1950, the 67th Fighter Wing was deactivated and the 102nd Fighter Group took its place.[4] When the 102nd took command, it lost every unit except the 101st Fighter Squadron, the 131st, the 567th, and the 1801st.[4]

Guard units were generally neglected when the US Air Force was created.[4] Despite the introduction of jet fighters, the Guard units were left with generally overused World War II propeller aircraft, and had few funds for training.[4] As the Cold War intensified, the Air Forced looked to the Guard to fill US-based interception missions and started overhauling their organization.[4] On 1 November 1950 the 67th Fighter Wing was deactivated and replaced by the 102nd Fighter Wing, including just the 101st and 131st squadrons and their associated support units,[4] and at some point before 1961 the wing was renamed a Tactical Fighter Wing. The squadrons were issued F-84B Thunderjets, but these were recalled and replaced by F-51 Mustangs which were flown until 1954 when the F-94 Starfire replaced the Mustangs.[4] In 1952 the 253rd Combat Communications Group was activated and added to the 102nd.[4] In 1958 the Wing converted to the F-86H Sabre.[4]

From 1956 to 1976, the 102nd was commanded by Brigadier General Charles W. Sweeney, pilot of the B-29 Superfortress that dropped the Fat Man nuclear bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.[8] During his tenure the wing developed from a rather new unit to the mainstay of air defense in the northeastern United States.[4]

Berlin Wall Crisis

North American YF-86H-5-NA Sabre Serial 52-2116 of the 138th Tactical Fighter Squadron/102d Tactical Fighter Wing deployed at Phalsbourg — 1962. Originally manufactured as a pre-production F-86H, this aircraft was modified to production specifications before seeing operational service.

On 16 August 1961, when the Berlin Wall crisis was unfoldeding, several USAF reserve units were notified of their pending recall to active duty. On 1 October the Massachusetts Air National Guard's 102nd Tactical Fighter Wing and its three squadrons, the 101st, 131st and 138th assumed active duty at Otis Air Force Base.[8]

In late October the 102nd departed Logan for Phalsbourg-Bourscheid Air Base, Phalsbourg, France.[4] The wing had 82 Sabres, plus two C-47 Skytrains and six T-33 Shooting Stars for support and training purposes. During the crisis, the wing controlled the 102nd TFG, the 104th Tactical Fighter Group, and the 174th Tactical Fighter Group from New York.[6] The 102nd's primary mission was to provide close air support to NATO ground forces, including the Seventh Army,[4] and air interdiction.[4] During the blockade, the 102nd did not incur any losses.[4]

During its time in Europe, the 102nd participated in several USAF and NATO exercises, including a deployment to Leck Air Base, West Germany near the Danish border. At Leck, ground and support crews from both countries exchanged duties, learning how to perform aircraft maintenance and operational support tasks.

The 102nd deployed back to the United States in August 1962.[4] Regular USAF personnel and a group of ANG personnel who volunteered to remain on active duty formed the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron of the newly activated 366th Tactical Fighter Wing.

Relocation to Otis

F-15 of the 102nd Intercepting a Tu-95

In 1968, the 102nd Tactical Fighter Wing moved to Otis AFB, and was reassigned from Air Defense Command to Tactical Air Command the next year. The wing flew the F-84F Thunderstreak from 1964 until June 1971, when a squadron of F-100D Super Sabres was transferred directly from units fighting the Vietnam War.[6] These were superseded soon after by the Mach 2 F-106 Delta Darts and on 10 June 1972, the unit became the 102nd Air Defense Wing.[6] On 30 December 1973, Otis AFB was inactivated and transferred to the Massachusetts ANG as Otis Air National Guard Base.[6]

The wing intercepted Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 Bear bombers on many occasions, the first of which occurred off Long Island on 25 April 1975.[5] Many of these incidents involved escorting the Bears to Cuba. The wing occasionally shadowed drug smuggling aircraft, and on one occasion was scrambled to escort an unidentified object, which later turned out to be a weather balloon.[9]

In 1976, the 102nd Fighter Interceptor Group was deactivated and re-formed as the 102nd Fighter Interceptor Wing, assuming authority for the 177th and 125th Fighter Interceptor Groups in Atlantic City, NJ, and Jacksonville, FL, and for the 107th and 147th Fighter Interceptor Groups, flying F-4C Phantom at Niagara Falls, NY, and Ellington Field, TX.[6]

F-15 from the 49th Fighter Wing that was transferred to the 102nd

The 102nd FIW deactivated its F-106s on 5 January 1988. Between January and April 1988, the wing converted to the F-15A Eagle, which it received from a unit deactivating at Minot Air Force Base. It then resumed its alert commitment at Otis, and also established a new Detachment 1 at Loring AFB. The 102nd was the first ANG unit to be equipped with the F-15.[6]

Post-Cold War

F-15's From Otis

The wing continued its air defense mission after the fall of the Soviet Union. In 1992, the wing deployed eight pilots, five F-15 Eagles, and 48 maintenance and security personnel, for five days training at Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada.[10] The same year, with the reorganization of the USAF, the wing was reassigned from the disbanding Tactical Air Command to the new Air Combat Command.[10] In July 1993, the wing deployed 50 personnel from the 102nd Civil Engineering Squadron under field conditions, to the island of Eleuthera in the Bahamas.[10] They helped rebuild schools and municipal facilities damaged by Hurricane Andrew.[10] The same year, Detachment 1 moved from Loring Air Force Base, which was closing, to Bangor International Airport, where it operated until 2008.

Alternate emblem of the 102d with an F-15 in it

Between 1991 and 1995 the wing deployed to Panama as part of Operation Coronet Nighthawk, a drug interdiction operation. In 1992 the wing became simply the 102nd Fighter Wing as part of a USAF-wide renaming of units.[11] From 1995 to 1998 the wing deployed to Iceland for 45 days of air defense duty.[10] During 1998 members both trained for and carried out assignments in Iceland, Canada, Korea, and Europe. In 1999 the wing participated in Operation Northern Watch when it deployed with its F-15s to Turkey to patrol and enforce the no-fly zone north of the 36th Parallel in northern Iraq.[10] The wing again deployed more than 350 personnel to the Middle East and Europe in 2000 to participate in Operation Southern Watch.[6]

Global War on Terror

9/11 Terrorist Attacks

See also: Flight 11, Flight 175

On 11 September 2001, two 102nd Fighter Wing F-15s responded soon after Flight 175 and Flight 11 were hijacked and flown towards New York City. The Federal Aviation Administration had alerted the North American Aerospace Defense Command's Northeast Air Defense Sector who ordered the 102nd into action.

F-15 Over New York City after 9/11

Difficulties in accurately locating Flight 11 caused a delay of five minutes, to 8.43, before the scramble order was given and pilots Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Duffy and Major Daniel Nash could respond. When Flight 11 hit the North Tower at 8:46, the two jets were still readying for flight and did not take off until 8:52. Unsure of their target, they were directed to a holding pattern in military-controlled airspace off Long Island to avoid New York area air traffic. At 9:03, Flight 175 hit the South Tower as the fighters were progressing to their holding position. The Northeast Air Defense Sector was not advised of this hijacked aircraft until 9:03. From 9:09 to 9:13 the F-15s stayed in the holding pattern[12][13][14] until heading for Manhattan where they arrived at 9.25 to establish a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) over the area.[13]

Conspiracy link
See Also: 9/11 Conspiracy theories

After the initial shock of the attacks had passed, questions arose about how the military handled the hijacking and subsequent response with the jets. Some thought that the jets had been purposely kept from flying immediately to New York City.[15] The questions arising from the response time of the jets come from the practice of Cold War era policies which prohibited the immediate response to an emergency like a hijacking.[16] First responder and pilot Daniel Nash said that he couldn't recall being told that the North Tower was hit but he did remember seeing the smoke over 70 miles away.[15] It is also claimed by conspiracists that the calculations of NORAD were incorrect because according to their own calculations, the planes were flying at 24% of their maximum speed.[15] This statement takes into account the time in which the planes were in a holding pattern over military airspace. The jets were also prohibited from going supersonic over land by Federal Aviation Administration rules. These rules are meant to prevent damage to buildings from the shockwave a sonic boom produces.

Operations Noble Eagle

An F-15C from the 102nd Fighter Wing prepares to fire upon an aerial drone over the Gulf of Mexico in 2005

More than 600 wing members were mobilized for Operation Noble Eagle at different times. The wing began flying around-the-clock combat air patrols missions immediately thereafter, and continued doing so until February 2002.[8] In the buildup to the invasion of Afghanistan, 6 F-15s and 161 personnel were sent to the Persian Gulf region.[17] The wing also patrolled the skys of the Northeastern United States during this time period. The wing though never deployed for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The wing converted from the F-15A/B to the F-15C/D in 2004.[18] These planes came from Kadena Air Base.[6]

BRAC 2005

Emblem of the 102d before it changed to its new mission

The BRAC 2005 commission originally planned to close Otis Air National Guard Base and dissolve the 102nd.[10] Locals argued that this would leave a huge gap in the national air defenses. BRAC officials, after visiting the base, decided to keep it open, but the 102nd would still lose its planes, only this time they were only going to the 104th Fighter Wing, based at Barnes Municipal Airport.[9]

The wing hosted the Cape Cod Air Show & Open House, its last air show with the F-15C Eagle at the end of Air Force Week in August, 2007. The wing shared a commonality with the 101st Air Refueling Wing,[19] the 103d Fighter Wing,[19] and the 104th Fighter Wing,[19] which due to BRAC decisions, also changed the type of planes that they flew. Beginning in 2007, the F-15s began moving to Barnes Municipal Airport. With the grounding of the F-15 Eagles, the 158th Fighter Wing, which is based in Vermont took over the role of patrolling the Northeast's skies earlier than expected.[20] This interruption of the F-15's flight, coinciding with the transitioning of the fighter jets to the 104th Fighter Wing, created some issues.[20] The move was originally scheduled to be completed at the end of January, but the grounding of the F-15's in late 2007 and early 2008 delayed this move to the end of February.

F-15 From 101st Fighter Squadron during the 2007 Cape Cod Air Show

On 24 January 2008, the 102d Fighter Wing flew its last patrol mission.[9] The unit's wing commander, Colonel Anthony Schiavi, led the flight, accompanied by Major Daniel Nash, who was one of the first responders for 9/11. Fire trucks were on hand when the team landed a half-hour later, giving the planes and the pilots the customary ceremonial hose-down for the last time.[9]

New Mission

When it was announced that the wing would be restructured and Otis Air National Guard Base would remain open, discussions began about the future of the 102nd. Staff of the 102nd and those at Massachusetts Air National Guard headquarters considered a plan centered around the idea that the wing could transition to an intelligence mission to support the growing War On Terror. The idea hit a roadblock when it was announced that the funds which the wing could use to convert into its new mission had been depleted.[21]

Eventually, Governor Deval Patrick announced that the wing would become an intelligence mission as soon as the aircraft left.[22] Original BRAC plans only hinted at a Distributed Common Ground Station being created at Otis.[23] These plans didn't include the air guardsmen affected by the loss of their jobs. The issue was resolved when the Air Force announced its plans, right before the F-15s started to leave for Barnes.[22]

The 102nd Fighter Wing was formally re-designated 102nd Intelligence Wing on 6 April 2008, will reach and fully operational in 2010.[24]

Members of the wing had the option of moving with the F-15s to Barnes, but most decided to stay behind and train for new missions. The crash trucks went to Barnes, leaving the brush breakers of the Massachusetts Military Reservation behind. The buildings formerly occupied by the fighter wing, including the hangars, will be occupied by the intelligence mission.

On 6 November 2009, ground was broken on new facilities for the 102nd Intelligence Wing.[3] The building will eventually replace the temporary facilities that the wing is now operating in.

Units assigned


The Base Realignment and Closure Commission’s decision dissolved the maintenance unit, because there are no more aircraft.

Fighter Wing

F-106A intercepting Soviet Tu-95 Bear D bomber aircraft off Cape Cod on 15 April 1982
F-106A intercepting a Tu-95 Bear over Nova Scotia. The plane later crashed in 1983.

Units that were part of the 102d Fighter Wing[25]:

  • 102nd Operations Group
  • 102nd Maintenance Group (???–2008?)
    • 102nd Aircraft Maintenance Squadron
    • 102nd Maintenance Squadron
    • 102nd Maintenance Operations Flight
  • 102nd Mission Support Group
    • 102nd Civil Engineering Squadron
    • 102nd Communications Squadron
    • 102nd Logistics Readiness Squadron
    • 102nd Security Forces Squadron
    • 102nd Mission Support Flight
    • 102nd Services Flight
  • 102nd Medical Group
    • 102nd Medical Squadron


  1. ^ "102nd Fighter Wing". Ken Middleton. 22 January 2008. http://www.102ndfighterwing.com/. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  2. ^ 2008.pdf "Commander Environmental Statement". 102IW Public Affairs office. 22 January 2008. http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/COMMANDERPOLICYSTATEMENTApril, 2008.pdf. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  3. ^ a b "102 IW Mission". 102nd Intelligence Wing Public Affairs Office. http://www.102iw.ang.af.mil/main/welcome.asp. Retrieved 23 April 2009.  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Commonwealth of Massachusetts Military Division, Air National Guard History". National Guard Museum & Archives. 29 May 2008. http://www.mass.gov/guard/museum/airhistory.htm. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  5. ^ a b "Team Otis Online, The 102d Intelligence Wing". US Air Force. http://www.maotis.ang.af.mil/102iw.htm. Retrieved 10 July 2008.  
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The 102nd Fighter Wing". Philippe Colin. 22 January 2008. http://www.philippecolin.net/102FW.html. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  7. ^ a b c d "Air Force Combat Units of World War II — Part 5". Maurer, Maurer. 1986. http://libraryautomation.com/nymas/usaaf5.html. Retrieved 10 August 2008.  
  8. ^ a b c "Today in Guard History (August) History". National Guard. 2008. http://www.ngb.army.mil/news/todayinhistory/august.aspx. Retrieved 22 July 2008.  
  9. ^ a b c d "Otis See Its Last Landing". Boston News. 29 May 2008. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2008/01/25/otis_sees_its_last_landing/. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "Global Security History of the 102d Fighter Wing". Global Security. 29 May 2008. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/usaf/102fw.htm. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  11. ^ Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0
  12. ^ "Flight Path Study — American Airlines Flight 11". National Transportation Safety Board. 19 February 2002. http://www.ntsb.gov/info/Flight_%20Path_%20Study_AA11.pdf. Retrieved 25 May 2008.  
  13. ^ a b "'We Have Some Planes'". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. July 2004. http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch1.htm. Retrieved 25 May 2008.  
  14. ^ "9/11 recordings chronicle confusion, delay". CNN. 17 June 2004. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/17/911.transcript/. Retrieved 24 May 2008.   and the 9/11 Commission Report - PAGE NUMBER NEEDED!
  15. ^ a b c "'Conspiracies!'". Telegraph.co.uk. 7 July 2008. http://my.telegraph.co.uk/jah_wibble/blog/2008/07/07/conspiracies?com_num=20&com_pg=2. Retrieved 30 July 2008.  
  16. ^ "'9/11 Panel Suspected Deception by Pentagon'". Washington Post. 2 August 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/01/AR2006080101300.html. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  
  17. ^ "U.S. force buildup under way". USA Today. 20 September 2001. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2001/09/20/army-ready.htm. Retrieved 22 November 2008.  
  18. ^ "102nd Fighter Wing, Massachusetts ANG". The AMARC Experience. 16 August 2006. http://www.amarcexperience.com/AMARCArticle102ndFW.asp. Retrieved 22 November 2008.  
  19. ^ a b c "Displays". capecodairshow2007.org. 2007. http://www.capecodairshow2007.org/displays.htm. Retrieved 2009-1-07.  
  20. ^ a b "'A Falcon for an Eagle". airforce-magazine.com. 14 December 2007. http://www.airforce-magazine.com/DRArchive/Pages/2007/December%202007/December%2004%202007/1050eagle.aspx. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  
  21. ^ "CapeCodTimes.com — New Otis mission in limbo". Cape Cod Times. 29 May 2008. http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070602/NEWS/706020341. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  22. ^ a b "Otis Air Base 'Secure'". Cape Cod Times. 17 September 2007. http://www.house.gov/list/hearing/ma10_delahunt/mmrcct.html. Retrieved 2008-11-252.  
  23. ^ "DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE". DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE. 2005-08. http://www.brac.gov/docs/final/Chap1AirForceFindingsandRecommendations.pd. Retrieved 7 November 2008.  
  24. ^ "A change of the Guard at Otis". Massachusetts National Guard. 7 April 2008. http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080407/NEWS/804070326. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  
  25. ^ "FY05 Annual Report Fina". Massachusetts National Guard. 29 May 2008. http://www.mass.gov/guard/PAO/PAO_Pages_Current_Publications/annual_report.pdf. Retrieved 29 May 2008.  


  • World Airpower Journal. (1992). US Air Force Air Power Directory. Aerospace Publishing: London, UK. ISBN 1-880588-01-3

External links


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