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Eastern Hemisphere in early half of 11th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 11th century.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 10th century · 11th century · 12th century
Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s
1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.
In the history of European culture, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages. There was a sudden decline of Byzantine power and rise of Norman domination over much of Europe, along with the prominent role in Europe of notably influential popes. In what is now Northern Italy, a growth of population in urban centers gave rise to early organized capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialized culture by the late 11th century.

In Song Dynasty China and the classical Islamic world, this century marked the high point for both classical Chinese civilization, science and technology, and classical Islamic science, philosophy, technology and literature. There was also a population explosion in China, doubling to the size of 100 million,[citation needed] and an economic revolution in China that spurred manufacture and production rates which rivaled even Great Britain's coal and iron output in the early Industrial Revolution.[citation needed] The Islamic world experienced a similar growth with the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, which led to greater mechanization and economic growth in the Islamic world.[citation needed] Rival political factions at the Song Dynasty court created strife amongst the leading statesmen and ministers of the empire. Chola-era India and Fatimid-era Egypt, had reached their zenith in military might and international influence. The Western Chalukya Empire (the Chola's rival) also rose to power by the end of the century. In this century the Turkish Seljuk dynasty comes to power in the Middle East over the now fragmented Abbasid realm, while the first of the Crusades were waged towards the close of the century. In Japan, the Fujiwara clan continued to dominate the affairs of state. In the Americas, the Toltec and Mixtec civilizations flourished in central America, along with the Huari Culture of South America and the Mississippian culture of North America. In Ukraine, there was the golden age for the principality of Kievan Rus. In Korea, the Goryeo Kingdom flourished and faced external threats from the Liao Dynasty (Manchuria). In Vietnam, the Lý Dynasty began, while in Myanmar the Pagan Kingdom reached its height of political and military power.

Contents

Overview

The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Chola era southern India, completed in 1010, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I.

In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the High Middle Ages, an age subsequent to the Early Middle Ages. The century began while the translatio imperii of 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy that had survived tarnished by the tumultuous tenth century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.

In Germany, the century was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high watermark under the Salians.

In Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was sacked in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.

In Britain, it saw the transformation of Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.

In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism, which emphasized dialectic arguments in disputes of Christian theology as well as classical philosophy.

The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, Song Dynasty China, built in 1049 during the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.

In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms that replaced the fallen caliphate.

In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song Dynasty, the Tanguts-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song Dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture.

In India, the Chola Dynasty reached its height of naval power under leaders such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, dominating southern India (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, and regions of South East Asia. They also sent raids into what is now modern-day Thailand.

In Japan, the Fujiwara clan dominated central politics by acting as imperial regents, controlling the actions of the Emperor of Japan, who acted merely as a 'puppet monarch' during the Heian period.

In the Middle East, the Fatimid Empire of Egypt reached its zenith only to face steep decline, much like the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the century. The Seljuks came to prominence while the Abbasid caliphs held traditional titles without real, tangible authority in state affairs.

In Korea, the rulers of the Goryeo Kingdom were able to concentrate more central authority into their own hands than in that of the nobles, and were able to fend off two Khitan invasions with their armies.

Events

1000s

The Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066
An 11th century rock crystal ewer of Fatimid Egypt.

1010s

1020s1030s

Defeat of the Bulgarians by the Byzantines depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes.

1040s

Celadon statue of an imperial guardian lion of the Chinese Song Dynasty, 11th or 12th century.

1050s

An 11th century Chola Dynasty bronze figurine of Arthanariswara.

1060s

1070s

A flat casket of carved of ivory from Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), c. 1050
A page of the Domesday Book of England.

1080s

1090s

An 11th century reliquary of gold and cloisonné over wood, from the Duchy of Brabant, Maastricht Cathedral, now housed in the Louvre.

Significant people

Empress Agnes, German Queen who became regent of the Holy Roman Empire
Angels crowning Canute the Great as he and his wife Emma of Normandy present the Winchester Cross to the church, dated 1031
The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula.

A

B

C-D

E-F

G

H

I-K

L

Statue of Lady Li Qingzhao in the Grand Hall of Poets in Du Fu Cao Tang, China
Matilda of Tuscany military leader from Italy

M

N-P

Chinese Empress Cao, wife of Emperor Renzong of Song.
Lady Sei Shōnagon, wrote her Pillow Book about life in the Japanese court
Pope Urban II of Rome
Statue of William the Conqueror, holding Domesday Book on the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral.
11th century mosaic of Constantine IX Monomachos, Empress Zoe, and Jesus Christ in the Hagia Sophia.

R

S

T-X

Y-Z

Architecture

St Albans Cathedral of England, completed in 1089.
The Gonbad-e Qabus Tower, built in 1006 during the Ziyarid Dynasty of Iran.
Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Shanxi, China by the Khitan Liao Dynasty in 1056.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Latin translation of the Book of Optics (1021), written by the Iraqi physicist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen).
The original diagram of Su Song's book Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao (published 1092) showing the clepsydra tank, waterwheel, escapement mechanism, chain drive, striking clock jacks, and armillary sphere of his clock tower.
Diagram from al-Bīrūnī's book Kitab al-tafhim showing lunar phases and lunar eclipse.
The spherical astrolabe, long employed in medieval Islamic astronomy, was introduced to Europe by Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II.

Science and technology

Literature

The Ostromir Gospels of Novgorod, 1057.
A Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese Song Dynasty, 11th century.

Decades and years

Notes

  1. ^ ABU ‘ALI AL-HUSAYN
  2. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 120–124.
  3. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 81–84.
  4. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 252.
  5. ^ Bowman, 599.
  6. ^ Mohn, 1.
  7. ^ A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), pp. 877–892.
  8. ^ Ancient surgery
  9. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  10. ^ Abdul Nasser Kaadan PhD, "Albucasis and Extraction of Bladder Stone", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3): 28–33.
  11. ^ Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), pp. 1–15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  12. ^ Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, pp. 279–280:
    "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

    (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
  13. ^ Patricia Skinner (2001), Unani-tibbi, Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine
  14. ^ Abattouy, 109–130.
  15. ^ Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, ISBN 0195146948 
  16. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2 (2002): 2–9 [7]
  17. ^ Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0658003828.
  18. ^ Kennedy, 152.
  19. ^ Salam, 179 – 213.
  20. ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", p. 642, in (Rashed 1996, pp. 614–642)
  21. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Biruni.html .
  22. ^ Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 346.
  23. ^ Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.
  24. ^ Ebrey et al. (2006), 158.
  25. ^ Darlington, 474–475.
  26. ^ Seife, 77.
  27. ^ Darlington, 473.
  28. ^ Tester, 131–132.
  29. ^ Darlington, 467–468.
  30. ^ Tester, 130–131, 156.
  31. ^ Salhab, 51.
  32. ^ Darlington, 475.
  33. ^ Holmes, 646.
  34. ^ Islam, Knowledge, and Science, University of Southern California
  35. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006), Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN 1599350246. (cf. Reviews of Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, The Critics, Barnes & Noble.)
  36. ^ Hamarneh, p. 119.
  37. ^ Rashed (2007), p. 19.
  38. ^ J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson (2002). Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
  39. ^ Omar Khaleefa (Summer 1999). "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2).
  40. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Chapter 5. Morgan Reynolds Publishing. ISBN 1599350246.
  41. ^ Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), pp. 1157–1177.
  42. ^ Richard Power (University of Illinois), Best Idea; Eyes Wide Open, New York Times, April 18, 1999.
  43. ^ H. Salih, M. Al-Amri, M. El Gomati (2005). "The Miracle of Light", A World of Science 3 (3). UNESCO.
  44. ^ Katharine Park (March 1990). "Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 by Nancy G. Siraisi", The Journal of Modern History 62 (1), pp. 169–170.
  45. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science.
    (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.
  46. ^ Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), pp. 475–479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  47. ^ Huff, Toby (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge University Press, p. 218, ISBN 0521529948 
  48. ^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  49. ^ Jonathan D. Eldredge (2003), "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship", Health Information and Libraries Journal 20, pp. 34–44 [36].
  50. ^ Bernard S. Bloom, Aurelia Retbi, Sandrine Dahan, Egon Jonsson (2000), "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine", International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 16 (1), pp. 13–21 [19].
  51. ^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), pp. 447–450 [449].
  52. ^ Walter J. Daly and D. Craig Brater (2000), "Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine", Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4), pp. 530–540 [536], Johns Hopkins University Press.
  53. ^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), pp. 447–450 [448].
  54. ^ S. Safavi-Abbasi, L. B. C. Brasiliense, R. K. Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  55. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), pp. 2–9 [7–8]
  56. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 155, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195135806.
  57. ^ Philip K. Hitti (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).
  58. ^ Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.
  59. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (1992), Avicenna, p. 31, Routledge, ISBN 041501929X.
  60. ^ Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time, p. 64, University of Chicago Press (cf. The Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth sciences)
  61. ^ Munim M. Al-Rawi and Salim Al-Hassani (November 2002). "The Contribution of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) to the development of Earth sciences" (PDF). FSTC. http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/ibnsina.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  62. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482.
  63. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973–1974.
  64. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 291.
  65. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources
  66. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
  67. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 603 – 604, 614, 618.
  68. ^ Sivin, III, 23.
  69. ^ Chan, Clancey, & Loy, 15.
  70. ^ Sivin, III, 16–19.
  71. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 415 – 416.
  72. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 98.
  73. ^ Sivin, III, 34.
  74. ^ Fraser & Haber, 227.
  75. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya
  76. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201.
  77. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 660.
  78. ^ Wu (2005), 5.
  79. ^ Unschuld, 60.
  80. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 446.
  81. ^ Needham, Volume 6, Part 1, 174, 175.
  82. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 648.
  83. ^ Hartwell, 54.
  84. ^ Prioreschi, 193–195.
  85. ^ Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 30, ISBN 0415969301 
  86. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 352.
  87. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 111, 165, 145–148.
  88. ^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 999–1001 , in (Rashed 1996, pp. 985–1007)
  89. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10].
  90. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10–1].
  91. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  92. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [11].
  93. ^ Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004098968, pp. 169–70
  94. ^ Al-Hassani, Salim (2006), 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, FSTC, ISBN 0955242606
  95. ^ Where the heart is, 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, 2006
  96. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam.

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