11th century: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on 11th century

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eastern Hemisphere in early half of 11th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 11th century.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 10th century · 11th century · 12th century
Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s
1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.
In the history of European culture, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages. There was a sudden decline of Byzantine power and rise of Norman domination over much of Europe, along with the prominent role in Europe of notably influential popes. In what is now Northern Italy, a growth of population in urban centers gave rise to early organized capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialized culture by the late 11th century.

In Song Dynasty China and the classical Islamic world, this century marked the high point for both classical Chinese civilization, science and technology, and classical Islamic science, philosophy, technology and literature. There was also a population explosion in China, doubling to the size of 100 million,[citation needed] and an economic revolution in China that spurred manufacture and production rates which rivaled even Great Britain's coal and iron output in the early Industrial Revolution.[citation needed] The Islamic world experienced a similar growth with the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, which led to greater mechanization and economic growth in the Islamic world.[citation needed] Rival political factions at the Song Dynasty court created strife amongst the leading statesmen and ministers of the empire. Chola-era India and Fatimid-era Egypt, had reached their zenith in military might and international influence. The Western Chalukya Empire (the Chola's rival) also rose to power by the end of the century. In this century the Turkish Seljuk dynasty comes to power in the Middle East over the now fragmented Abbasid realm, while the first of the Crusades were waged towards the close of the century. In Japan, the Fujiwara clan continued to dominate the affairs of state. In the Americas, the Toltec and Mixtec civilizations flourished in central America, along with the Huari Culture of South America and the Mississippian culture of North America. In Ukraine, there was the golden age for the principality of Kievan Rus. In Korea, the Goryeo Kingdom flourished and faced external threats from the Liao Dynasty (Manchuria). In Vietnam, the Lý Dynasty began, while in Myanmar the Pagan Kingdom reached its height of political and military power.

Contents

Overview

The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Chola era southern India, completed in 1010, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I.

In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the High Middle Ages, an age subsequent to the Early Middle Ages. The century began while the translatio imperii of 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy that had survived tarnished by the tumultuous tenth century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.

In Germany, the century was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high watermark under the Salians.

In Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was sacked in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.

In Britain, it saw the transformation of Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.

In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism, which emphasized dialectic arguments in disputes of Christian theology as well as classical philosophy.

The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, Song Dynasty China, built in 1049 during the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.

In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms that replaced the fallen caliphate.

In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song Dynasty, the Tanguts-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song Dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture.

In India, the Chola Dynasty reached its height of naval power under leaders such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, dominating southern India (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, and regions of South East Asia. They also sent raids into what is now modern-day Thailand.

In Japan, the Fujiwara clan dominated central politics by acting as imperial regents, controlling the actions of the Emperor of Japan, who acted merely as a 'puppet monarch' during the Heian period.

In the Middle East, the Fatimid Empire of Egypt reached its zenith only to face steep decline, much like the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the century. The Seljuks came to prominence while the Abbasid caliphs held traditional titles without real, tangible authority in state affairs.

In Korea, the rulers of the Goryeo Kingdom were able to concentrate more central authority into their own hands than in that of the nobles, and were able to fend off two Khitan invasions with their armies.

Events

1000s

The Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066
An 11th century rock crystal ewer of Fatimid Egypt.

1010s

1020s1030s

Defeat of the Bulgarians by the Byzantines depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes.

1040s

Celadon statue of an imperial guardian lion of the Chinese Song Dynasty, 11th or 12th century.

1050s

An 11th century Chola Dynasty bronze figurine of Arthanariswara.

1060s

1070s

A flat casket of carved of ivory from Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), c. 1050
A page of the Domesday Book of England.

1080s

1090s

An 11th century reliquary of gold and cloisonné over wood, from the Duchy of Brabant, Maastricht Cathedral, now housed in the Louvre.

Significant people

Empress Agnes, German Queen who became regent of the Holy Roman Empire
Angels crowning Canute the Great as he and his wife Emma of Normandy present the Winchester Cross to the church, dated 1031
The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula.

A

B

C-D

E-F

G

H

I-K

L

Statue of Lady Li Qingzhao in the Grand Hall of Poets in Du Fu Cao Tang, China
Matilda of Tuscany military leader from Italy

M

N-P

Chinese Empress Cao, wife of Emperor Renzong of Song.
Lady Sei Shōnagon, wrote her Pillow Book about life in the Japanese court
Pope Urban II of Rome
Statue of William the Conqueror, holding Domesday Book on the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral.
11th century mosaic of Constantine IX Monomachos, Empress Zoe, and Jesus Christ in the Hagia Sophia.

R

S

T-X

Y-Z

Architecture

St Albans Cathedral of England, completed in 1089.
The Gonbad-e Qabus Tower, built in 1006 during the Ziyarid Dynasty of Iran.
Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Shanxi, China by the Khitan Liao Dynasty in 1056.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Latin translation of the Book of Optics (1021), written by the Iraqi physicist, Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen).
The original diagram of Su Song's book Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao (published 1092) showing the clepsydra tank, waterwheel, escapement mechanism, chain drive, striking clock jacks, and armillary sphere of his clock tower.
Diagram from al-Bīrūnī's book Kitab al-tafhim showing lunar phases and lunar eclipse.
The spherical astrolabe, long employed in medieval Islamic astronomy, was introduced to Europe by Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II.

Science and technology

Literature

The Ostromir Gospels of Novgorod, 1057.
A Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese Song Dynasty, 11th century.

Decades and years

Notes

  1. ^ ABU ‘ALI AL-HUSAYN
  2. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 120–124.
  3. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 81–84.
  4. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 252.
  5. ^ Bowman, 599.
  6. ^ Mohn, 1.
  7. ^ A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), pp. 877–892.
  8. ^ Ancient surgery
  9. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  10. ^ Abdul Nasser Kaadan PhD, "Albucasis and Extraction of Bladder Stone", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2004 (3): 28–33.
  11. ^ Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), pp. 1–15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  12. ^ Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, pp. 279–280:
    "The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

    (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
  13. ^ Patricia Skinner (2001), Unani-tibbi, Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine
  14. ^ Abattouy, 109–130.
  15. ^ Finger, Stanley (1994), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 70, ISBN 0195146948 
  16. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2 (2002): 2–9 [7]
  17. ^ Marlene Ericksen (2000). Healing with Aromatherapy, p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0658003828.
  18. ^ Kennedy, 152.
  19. ^ Salam, 179 – 213.
  20. ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", p. 642, in (Rashed 1996, pp. 614–642)
  21. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Al-Biruni.html .
  22. ^ Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 346.
  23. ^ Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.
  24. ^ Ebrey et al. (2006), 158.
  25. ^ Darlington, 474–475.
  26. ^ Seife, 77.
  27. ^ Darlington, 473.
  28. ^ Tester, 131–132.
  29. ^ Darlington, 467–468.
  30. ^ Tester, 130–131, 156.
  31. ^ Salhab, 51.
  32. ^ Darlington, 475.
  33. ^ Holmes, 646.
  34. ^ Islam, Knowledge, and Science, University of Southern California
  35. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006), Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN 1599350246. (cf. Reviews of Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, The Critics, Barnes & Noble.)
  36. ^ Hamarneh, p. 119.
  37. ^ Rashed (2007), p. 19.
  38. ^ J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson (2002). Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
  39. ^ Omar Khaleefa (Summer 1999). "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2).
  40. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Chapter 5. Morgan Reynolds Publishing. ISBN 1599350246.
  41. ^ Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), pp. 1157–1177.
  42. ^ Richard Power (University of Illinois), Best Idea; Eyes Wide Open, New York Times, April 18, 1999.
  43. ^ H. Salih, M. Al-Amri, M. El Gomati (2005). "The Miracle of Light", A World of Science 3 (3). UNESCO.
  44. ^ Katharine Park (March 1990). "Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 by Nancy G. Siraisi", The Journal of Modern History 62 (1), pp. 169–170.
  45. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science.
    (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.
  46. ^ Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), pp. 475–479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  47. ^ Huff, Toby (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge University Press, p. 218, ISBN 0521529948 
  48. ^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  49. ^ Jonathan D. Eldredge (2003), "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship", Health Information and Libraries Journal 20, pp. 34–44 [36].
  50. ^ Bernard S. Bloom, Aurelia Retbi, Sandrine Dahan, Egon Jonsson (2000), "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine", International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 16 (1), pp. 13–21 [19].
  51. ^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), pp. 447–450 [449].
  52. ^ Walter J. Daly and D. Craig Brater (2000), "Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine", Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (4), pp. 530–540 [536], Johns Hopkins University Press.
  53. ^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), pp. 447–450 [448].
  54. ^ S. Safavi-Abbasi, L. B. C. Brasiliense, R. K. Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  55. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 2002 (2), pp. 2–9 [7–8]
  56. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 155, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195135806.
  57. ^ Philip K. Hitti (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).
  58. ^ Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.
  59. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (1992), Avicenna, p. 31, Routledge, ISBN 041501929X.
  60. ^ Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965), The Ancestry of Science: The Discovery of Time, p. 64, University of Chicago Press (cf. The Contribution of Ibn Sina to the development of Earth sciences)
  61. ^ Munim M. Al-Rawi and Salim Al-Hassani (November 2002). "The Contribution of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) to the development of Earth sciences" (PDF). FSTC. http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/ibnsina.pdf. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  62. ^ A. Sayili (1987), "Ibn Sīnā and Buridan on the Motion of the Projectile", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1), pp. 477–482.
  63. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islamic Conception Of Intellectual Life", in Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Vol. 2, p. 65, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973–1974.
  64. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 291.
  65. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources
  66. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
  67. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 603 – 604, 614, 618.
  68. ^ Sivin, III, 23.
  69. ^ Chan, Clancey, & Loy, 15.
  70. ^ Sivin, III, 16–19.
  71. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 415 – 416.
  72. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 98.
  73. ^ Sivin, III, 34.
  74. ^ Fraser & Haber, 227.
  75. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya
  76. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201.
  77. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 660.
  78. ^ Wu (2005), 5.
  79. ^ Unschuld, 60.
  80. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 446.
  81. ^ Needham, Volume 6, Part 1, 174, 175.
  82. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 648.
  83. ^ Hartwell, 54.
  84. ^ Prioreschi, 193–195.
  85. ^ Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 30, ISBN 0415969301 
  86. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 352.
  87. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 111, 165, 145–148.
  88. ^ Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", pp. 999–1001 , in (Rashed 1996, pp. 985–1007)
  89. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10].
  90. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10–1].
  91. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  92. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [11].
  93. ^ Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004098968, pp. 169–70
  94. ^ Al-Hassani, Salim (2006), 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, FSTC, ISBN 0955242606
  95. ^ Where the heart is, 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, 2006
  96. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam.

References

  • Abattouy, Mohammed. (2002), "The Arabic Science of weights: A Report on an Ongoing Research Project", The Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies 4, pp. 109–130:
  • Bowman, John S. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Chan, Alan Kam-leung and Gregory K. Clancey, Hui-Chieh Loy (2002). Historical Perspectives on East Asian Science, Technology and Medicine. Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971692597
  • Darlington, Oscar G. "Gerbert, the Teacher", The American Historical Review (Volume 52, Number 3, 1947): 456 – 476.
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Anne Walthall, James B. Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
  • Fraser, Julius Thomas and Francis C. Haber. (1986). Time, Science, and Society in China and the West. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-495-1.
  • Hartwell, Robert. "Markets, Technology, and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh-Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry", The Journal of Economic History (Volume 26, Number 1, 1966): 29–58.
  • Holmes, Jr., Urban T. "The Idea of a Twelfth-Century Renaissance", Speculum (Volume 26, Number 4, 1951): 643 – 651.
  • Kennedy, E. S. (1970–80). "Bīrūnī, Abū Rayḥān al-". Dictionary of Scientific Biography II. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0684101149.
  • Mohn, Peter (2003). Magnetism in the Solid State: An Introduction. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc. ISBN 3540431837.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 1, Physics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology; the Gunpowder Epic. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 1, Botany. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Prioreschi, Plinio. (2003). A History of Medicine. Omaha: Horatius Press. ISBN 1-888456-05-1.
  • Rashed, Roshdi, ed. (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Routledge, ISBN 0415020638 
  • Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 179–213.
  • Salhab, Walid Amine. (2006). The Knights Templar of the Middle East: The Hidden History of the Islamic Origins of Freemasonry. San Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser LLC. ISBN 1-57863-346-X.
  • Seife, Charles. (2000) Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 067088457X.
  • Sivin, Nathan (1995). Science in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing.
  • Tester, S. Jim. (1987). A History of Western Astrology. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer Inc. ISBN 0851154468.
  • Unschuld, Paul U. (2003). Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Wu, Jing-nuan (2005). An Illustrated Chinese Materia Medica. New York: Oxford University Press.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 10th century · 11th century · 12th century
Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s
1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
Establishments – Disestablishments
Eastern Hemisphere in 1025 AD.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100.

In the history of European culture, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages. There was a sudden decline of Byzantine power and rise of Norman domination over much of Europe, along with the prominent role in Europe of notably influential popes. In what is now northern Italy, a growth of population in urban centers gave rise to early organized capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialized culture by the late 11th century. In Song China and the Islamic world, this century marked the high point for both classical Chinese civilization, science, and technology and medieval Islamic science, technology, and literature. Rivaling political factions at the Song Dynasty court created strife amongst the leading statesmen and ministers of the empire. There was also a population explosion, doubling to the size of 100 million, and an economic revolution in China that spurred manufacture and production rates which rivaled even Great Britain's coal and iron output in the early Industrial Revolution. For Chola-era India and Fatimid-era Egypt, they had reached their zenith in military might and international influence. The Western Chalukya Empire (the Chola's rival) also rose to power by the end of the century. In this century the Turkish Seljuk dynasty comes to power in the Middle East over the now fragmented Abbasid realm, while the first of the Crusades were waged towards the close of the century. In Japan the Fujiwara clan continued to dominate the affairs of state. In the Americas the Toltec civilization flourished in central America, along with the Huari Culture of South America. In Russia, there was the golden age for the principality of Kievan Rus. In Korea the Goryeo Kingdom flourished and faced external threats from the Liao Dynasty (Manchuria). In Vietnam the Lý Dynasty began, while in Myanmar the Pagan Kingdom reached its height of political and military power.

Contents

Overview

The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Chola era southern India, completed in 1010 AD, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I.

In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the High Middle Ages and is therefore sometimes termed the Early Middle Ages, though this term has another common meaning synonymous with Dark Ages. The century began while the translatio imperii of 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy which survived tarnished by the tumultuous tenth century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.

In Germany, it was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high watermark under the Salians.

In Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was sacked in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.

In Britain, it saw the transformation of Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.

In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism.

The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, Song Dynasty China, built in 1049 AD during the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.

In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms which replaced the fallen caliphate.

In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song Dynasty Chinese, the Tanguts of the Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song Dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture.

In India, the Chola Dynasty reached its height of naval power under leaders such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, dominating southern India (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, and regions of South East Asia. They also sent raids into what is now modern-day Thailand.

In Japan, the Fujiwara clan dominated central politics by acting as imperial regents, controlling the actions of the Emperor of Japan, who acted merely as a 'puppet monarch' during the Heian period.

In the Middle East, the Fatimid Empire reached its zenith only to face steep decline, much like the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the century. The Seljuks came to prominence while the Abbasid caliphs held traditional titles without real, tangible authority in state affairs.

In Korea, the rulers of the Goryeo Kingdom were able to concentrate more central authority into their own hands than in that of the nobles, and were able to fend off two Khitan invasions with their armies.

Events

The Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Defeat of the Bulgarians by the Byzantines depicted in the Madrid Skylitzes.
A Chinese Song Dynasty naval ship with a traction trebuchet catapult, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.
An 11th century Chola Dynasty bronze figurine of Arthanariswara.
A page of the Domesday Book of England.

Significant people

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) of Basra, Iraq.
The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula.
Pope Urban II of Rome.

Architecture

Further information: 1000s in architectureImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
St Albans Cathedral of England.
Marble pillar from Western India, 11th century.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

File:Latin Ibn Haithem's book.jpg
A Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese Song Dynasty, 11th century.

Science and technology

Literature and Trade

Decades and years

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 11th century. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found
Facts about 11th centuryRDF feed

This article uses material from the "11th century" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century
Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s

The 11th century is the century from 1001 to 1100.

Decades and years

Note: years before or after the 11th century are in italics.

990s 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999
1000s 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009
1010s 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019
1020s 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029
1030s 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039
1040s 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049
1050s 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059
1060s 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069
1070s 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079
1080s 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089
1090s 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099
1100s 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message