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12th United States Congress
USCapitol1800.jpg
United States Capitol (1800)

Duration: March 4, 1811 – March 3, 1813

President of the Senate: George Clinton (1811–1812)
Vacant (1812–1813)
President pro tempore: William H. Crawford
Speaker of the House: Henry Clay
Members: 36 Senators
143 Representatives
4 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic-Republican
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

Sessions
1st: November 4, 1811 – July 6, 1812
2nd: November 2, 1812 – March 3, 1813
<11th 13th>

The Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1811 to March 3, 1813, during the third and fourth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events

Major legislation

States admitted and territories organized

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

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Senate

TOTAL members: 36

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 143

President of the Senate
George Clinton

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

President pro tempore
William H. Crawford

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1814; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1816; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1812

Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

House of Representatives

Speaker of the House
Henry Clay

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "A/L," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Connecticut

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Delaware
Georgia

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland

The 5th district was a plural district with two representatives.

Massachusetts
New Hampshire

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New Jersey

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New York

There were two plural districts, the 2nd & 6th each had two representatives.

North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania

There were four plural districts, the 1st, 2nd, & 3rd had three representatives each, the 4th had two representatives.

Rhode Island

Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia

Delegates

Illinois Territory
Indiana Territory
Mississippi Territory
Missouri Territory
Orleans Territory
  • A/L: vacant from March 4, 1811 to April 29, 1812

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 1
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 4
  • interim appointments: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • vacancies:1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
State Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Massachusetts
class 2
Vacant Vacancy in term Joseph B. Varnum (DR) Seated June 29, 1811
Rhode Island
class 1
Christopher G. Champlin (F) Resigned October 2, 1811 William Hunter (F) Seated October 28, 1811
Tennessee
class 2
Jenkin Whiteside (DR) Resigned October 8, 1811 George W. Campbell (DR) Appointed October 8, 1811
Louisiana
class 2
New seats Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812. Seats remained vacant until September 3, 1812. Jean Noel Destréhan (DR) Installed September 3, 1812
Louisiana
class 3
Allan B. Magruder (DR)
Louisiana
class 2
Jean N. Destréhan (DR) Resigned October 1, 1812 Thomas Posey (DR) Appointed October 8, 1812
Louisiana
class 2
Thomas Posey (DR) Successor chosen February 4, 1813 James Brown (DR) Seated February 5, 1813

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 3
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 5
  • contested election: 1
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • vacancies: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10
District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Orleans Territory
At-large
Vacant Seat remained vacant from March 4, 1811 to April 29, 1812 Inactive Territory achieves stateood April 29, 1812 as state of Louisiana
Maryland
6th
John Montgomery (DR) Resigned April 29, 1811 after being appointed Attorney General of Maryland Stevenson Archer (DR) Seated October 26, 1811
Massacusetts
4th
Joseph B. Varnum (DR) Resigned June 29, 1811 after being elected to U.S. Senate William M. Richardson (DR) Seated November 4, 1811
Virginia
8th
John Hungerford (DR) Lost contested election November 29, 1811 John Taliaferro (DR) Seated November 29, 1811
Massacusetts
17th
Barzillai Gannett (DR) Resigned in 1812 Francis Carr (DR) Seated April 6, 1812
North Carolina
3rd
Thomas Blount (DR) Died February 7, 1812 William Kennedy (DR) Seated January 30, 1813
Louisiana
At-large
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Seated April 30, 1812
New York
6th
Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) Resigned May 6, 1812 Thomas P. Grosvenor (F) Seated January 29, 1813
Georgia
At-large
Howell Cobb (DR) Resigned prior to October, 1812 William Barnett (DR) Seated October 5, 1812
Missouri Territory
At-large
Vacant Territory delegate seat established Edward Hempstead
Non-voting Delegate
Seated November 9, 1812
Illinois Territory
At-large
Vacant Territory delegate seat established Shadrach Bond
Non-voting Delegate
Seated December 3, 1812
Pennsylvania
9th
John Smilie (DR) Died December 30, 1812 Vacant Not filled for remainder of term

Officers

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  

External links


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