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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 39,818,449, an increase of 22.6 percent over the 31,443,321 persons enumerated during the 1860 Census. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker.[1]


Census questions

The 1870 census collected the following information[2]:

  • name
  • address
  • age
  • sex
  • color (including Chinese and Indian)
  • citizenship for males over 21
  • profession, occupation or trade
  • value of real estate owned
  • value of personal estate
  • place of birth
  • whether father and mother were foreign born
  • born within the year
  • married within the year
  • attended school within the year
  • whether able to read and write (for persons 10 years old and over)
  • whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic

Full documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Data availability

Microdata from the 1870 population census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.


  1. ^ Billings, John S. (1902). Biographical Memoir of Francis Amasa Walker 1840–1897. National Academy Press. Archived from the original on 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  2. ^ "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 44 (p. 50 of PDF). 

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