18th century: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Washington crossing the Delaware, Dec. 25 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 17th century · 18th century · 19th century
Decades: 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s
1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

However, Western historians may sometimes specifically define the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 17151789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.[1][2]

To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [3] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[4] or even later.[5] During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers were dreaming about a better age without the Christian fundamentalism of earlier centuries. This dream turned into a nightmare during the terror of Maximilien Robespierre in the early 1790s. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced enlightenment ideals, but with the French revolution, they were on the side of the counterrevolution.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of her North American colonies after the American revolution. The industrial revolution started in Britain around the 1770s. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the geology of the surface of the earth.

Contents

Events

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1700–1709

Europe on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700)

1710s

Tokugawa Yoshimune, Shogun of Japan.

1720s

1730s

1740s

Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia.
The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.[12]

1750s

1760s

George III, King of Great Britain.

1770s

1780s

1790s

The Battle of New Ross took place in Ireland, during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

Yeongjo, King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea.

Show business, theatre, entertainers

Musicians, composers

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers

Writers, poets

Philosophers, theologians

Scientists, researchers

Pirates

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

References

  1. ^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and the Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198225482. OCLC 185538307. 
  2. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300091516. OCLC 186413657. 
  3. ^ Baines, Paul (2004). The Long 18th Century. London: Arnold. ISBN 0340813725. 
  4. ^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199246777. OCLC 174866045. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
  5. ^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 0340567511. OCLC 243883533. 
  6. ^ "War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714". Historyofwar.org. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_spanishsuccession.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  7. ^ Historic uk – heritage of britain accommodation guide (2007-05-03). "The history of Scotland – The Act of Union 1707". Historic-uk.com. http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/Scotland-History/ActofUnion.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  8. ^ "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History". Britannica.com. 1910-01-31. http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24160. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  9. ^ "Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-620352/Usman-dan-Fodio. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  10. ^ "List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars". Zum.de. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/russia/milxcrimeantatars.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  11. ^ "Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs 'Natural' Climate Trends". Ag.arizona.edu. 1997-08-10. http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/desclim.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  12. ^ "A guide to Scottish clans". Unique-cottages.co.uk. http://www.unique-cottages.co.uk/unspoilt/20/clans. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  13. ^ "Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi Islam". Countrystudies.us. http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/7.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  14. ^ "Sufism in the Caucasus". Islamicsupremecouncil.org. http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/bin/site/wrappers/spirituality-sufism_caucasus.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  15. ^ "Yellow Fever Attacks Philadelphia, 1793". EyeWitness to History. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  16. ^ Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21–5. PMID 16200144. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1200696. 
  17. ^ a b Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521572436. OCLC 123123201. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184–210
  18. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  19. ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (1998) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 146 ISBN 0-471-291-98-6

Decades and years


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 17th century · 18th century · 19th century
Decades: 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s
1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

The 18th Century lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

Historians sometimes specifically define the 18th Century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example the "short" 18th Century may be defined as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution,[1][2] while the "long" eighteenth century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1689 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[3] or even later.[4]

The storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution.

Contents

Events

1700s

John Churchill, ancestor of Winston Churchill and one of England's greatest generals.

1710s

1720s

1730s

1740s

1750s

Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia.

1760s

1770s

1780s

1790s

Significant people

See Founding Fathers of the United States

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Main articles: Timeline of invention#18th century and Timeline_of_scientific_discoveries#18th_century

References

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
  1. ^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and the Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198225482. 
  2. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300091516. 
  3. ^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199246777. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
  4. ^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 0340567511. 
  5. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History
  6. ^ a b Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521572436. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184-210

Decades and years


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 18th century. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "18th century" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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