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1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
Image of collapsed double-decker freeway structure in Oakland, California
A map showing the earthquake's epicenter in California's Santa Cruz Mountains, and the various levels of earthquake shaking intensity felt in the surrounding region.
Date October 17, 1989 (1989-10-17)[1]
Magnitude 6.9 Mw[1]
Depth 11 miles (18 km)[1]
Epicenter location 37°02′24″N 121°52′37″W / 37.040°N 121.877°W / 37.040; -121.877Coordinates: 37°02′24″N 121°52′37″W / 37.040°N 121.877°W / 37.040; -121.877[1]
Countries or regions affected United States
(San Francisco Bay Area)
Max. intensity Mostly V (strongly felt) to VII (light damage), with localized areas experiencing IX (heavy damage) to X (extreme damage)[1]
Casualties 63 killed,[2] 3,757 injured[3]

The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Earthquake,[4] was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989, at 5:04 p.m. local time. Caused by a slip along the San Andreas Fault, the temblor lasted 10-15 seconds[1] and measured 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale[5] (surface-wave magnitude 7.1) or 6.9 on the open ended Richter Scale.[1] The quake killed 63[2] people throughout northern California, injured 3,757[3] and left some 3,000-12,000[1][6][7][8] people homeless.

The earthquake occurred during the warm up for the third game of the 1989 World Series, coincidentally featuring both of the Bay Area's Major League Baseball teams, the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants. Because of game-related sports coverage, this was the first major earthquake in America to have its initial jolt broadcast live on television.[9]



The epicenter of the quake was in Forest of Nisene Marks State Park in Santa Cruz County, an unpopulated area in the Santa Cruz Mountains (geographical coordinates 37°02′24″N 121°52′37″W / 37.040°N 121.877°W / 37.040; -121.877),[1] approximately 2–3 miles (3–5 km) north of unincorporated Aptos and approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz. The quake was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak which lies 5 mi (8 km) to the northeast in Santa Clara County.[10]

Injuries and fatalities

Five people were killed on Bluxome Street near Fifth Street and Townsend in San Francisco as a brick facade collapsed onto the sidewalk and street.[11]

Fifty-seven of the deaths were directly caused by the earthquake; six further fatalities were ruled to have been caused indirectly.[2] In addition, there were 3,757[3] injuries as a result of the earthquake—400 severely hurt.[1] The highest number of fatalities, 42,[12] occurred in the City of Oakland because of the failure of the Cypress Street Viaduct on the Nimitz Freeway (Interstate 880), where a double-deck portion of the freeway collapsed, crushing the cars on the lower deck. One 50-foot (15 m) section of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge also collapsed, leading to the single fatality on the bridge.[4]

When the earthquake hit, the third game of the 1989 World Series baseball championship was just starting. Because of the unusual circumstance that both of the World Series teams (the San Francisco Giants and Oakland Athletics) were based in the affected area, many people had left work early or were staying late to participate in after work group viewings and parties. As a consequence, the usually crowded freeways were experiencing exceptionally light traffic. If traffic had been normal for a Tuesday rush hour, injuries and deaths could have been higher. The initial media reports failed to take into account the game's effect on traffic and initially estimated the death toll at 300, a number that was corrected in the days after the earthquake.[13]


The earthquake caused severe damage in some very specific locations in the San Francisco Bay Area, most notably on unstable soil in San Francisco and Oakland, but also in many other communities throughout the region located in Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Cruz, and Monterey counties. Major property damage in San Francisco's Marina District 60 mi (97 km) from the epicenter resulted from liquefaction of soil used to create waterfront land. Other effects included sand volcanoes, landslides, and ground ruptures. Some 12,000 homes and 2,600 businesses were damaged.[1] In Santa Cruz, close to the epicenter, 40 buildings collapsed, killing six people.[14]

The quake caused an estimated $6 billion[1] ($11 billion in current value) in property damage, becoming one of the most expensive natural disasters in U.S. history at the time. It was the largest earthquake to occur on the San Andreas Fault since the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[10] Private donations poured in to aid relief efforts and on October 26, President George H. W. Bush signed a $3.45 billion earthquake relief package for California.[8]


Marina District

A building in the Marina District at Beach and Divisadero settled onto its buckled garage supports.

Four people died in San Francisco's Marina District, four buildings were destroyed by fire, and seven buildings collapsed.[9] Another 63 damaged structures were judged too dangerous to live in.[9] Among the four deaths, one family lost their infant son who choked on dust while trapped for an hour inside their collapsed apartment.[4]

The Marina district was built on filled land made of a mixture of sand, dirt, rubble, and other materials containing a high percentage of groundwater. Some of the fill was rubble discarded after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake but most was sand and debris laid down in preparation for the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, a celebration of San Francisco's ability to rebound after its terrible catastrophe in 1906.[15] After the Exposition, apartment buildings were erected on the filled land. In the 1989 earthquake, the water-saturated unconsolidated mud and sand suffered liquefaction, and the earthquake's vertical shock waves rippled the ground more severely.[8]

A car crushed by the third floor of a collapsed apartment building

At the intersection of San Francisco's Beach and Divisadero Streets, a natural gas main rupture caused a major structure fire.[16][17] The fire department selected bystanders to help run fire hoses from a distance because the nearby hydrant system failed. Water from the bay was pumped by a fireboat, Phoenix, to engines on the shore and used to douse the burning buildings.[18][19] Most of the apartment structures that collapsed were older buildings that included garages that were not originally part of the buildings, but installed some time after, resulting in what engineers refer to as a soft story building.[20]

Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

Santa Cruz's historic Pacific Garden Mall suffered severe damage—three died.

In Santa Cruz, the Pacific Garden Mall was severely damaged, with falling debris killing three people, half of the six earthquake deaths in Santa Cruz County.[14] Some 31 buildings were ruined enough to warrant demolition, seven of which had been listed in the Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey.[21] The four oldest had been built in 1894; the five oldest had withstood the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[21]

Immediately, a number of citizens began to work to attempt to free victims from the rubble of Ford's Department Store and the Santa Cruz Coffee Roasting Company—both buildings had collapsed inward on customers and employees alike.[14] Two police officers who crawled through voids in the debris found one victim alive and another dead inside the coffee house.[22] Santa Cruz beach lifeguards assisted in moving the victims.[22] Police dogs were brought in to help locate further victims.[22] A woman was found dead inside Ford's.[23] The citizens who had been initially helpful soon were viewed by police and fire officials as a hindrance to operations, with frantic coworkers and friends of a coffee house employee who was thought trapped under the rubble continuing their efforts in the dark.[22] Police arrested those who refused to stop searching; this became a political issue in the coming days.[24] The body of the young woman coffee worker was found under a collapsed wall late the next day.[25]

During the first few days following the quake, electric power was out to most Santa Cruz county subscribers and some areas had no water. Cell phone service remained online, providing a crucial link to rescue workers.[24] Widespread search operations were organized to find possible victims within fallen structures. As many as six teams of dogs and their handlers were at work identifying the large number of damaged buildings that held no victims.[24]

The quake claimed one life in Watsonville;[24] a driver who collided with panicked horses after they escaped their collapsed corral.[26] In other Santa Cruz and Monterey county locations such as Hollister, Boulder Creek and Moss Landing, a number of structures were damaged, with some knocked off of their foundations.[27] Many residents slept outside their homes out of concern for further damage from aftershocks, of which there were 51 with magnitudes higher than 3.0 in the following 24 hours, and 16 more the second day.[27] The earthquake damaged several historic buildings in the Old Town district of Salinas, and some were later demolished.[28]

San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge

Collapsed upper deck section of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge

The San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge suffered relatively minor damage, as a 76-by-50-foot (23 m × 15 m) section of the upper deck on the eastern cantilever side crashed onto the deck below. The quake caused the Oakland side of the bridge to shift 7 in (18 cm) to the east, and caused the bolts of one section to shear off, sending the 250-short-ton (230 t) section of roadbed crashing down like a trapdoor.[29] When that part of the bridge collapsed, a few upper deck motorists drove into the hole but landed safely on the lower deck. Traffic on both decks came to a halt, blocked by the section of roadbed. Police began unsnarling the traffic jam, telling drivers to turn their cars around and drive back the way they had come. Eastbound drivers stuck on the lower deck between the collapse and Yerba Buena Island were routed up to the upper deck and westward back to San Francisco. A miscommunication made by emergency workers at Yerba Buena Island routed some of the drivers the wrong way; they were directed to the upper deck where they drove eastward toward the collapse site.[4] One of these drivers did not see the gap in time; the car plunged over the ledge and smashed onto the collapsed roadbed. The driver died and the passenger was seriously injured.[16][30] Caltrans removed and replaced the collapsed section, and re-opened the bridge on November 18.[8]

Oakland and Interstate 880/Cypress Viaduct

Failed support columns and collapsed upper deck of the Cypress Street Viaduct

The worst disaster of the earthquake was the collapse of the two-level Cypress Street Viaduct of Interstate 880 in West Oakland. The failure of a 1.25-mile (2.0 km) section[31] of the viaduct, also known as the "Cypress Structure" and the "Cypress Freeway",[4] killed 42 and injured many more.[32]

Built in the late 1950s, the Cypress Street Viaduct, a stretch of Interstate 880, was a double-deck freeway section made of nonductile reinforced concrete[33] that was constructed above and astride Cypress Street in Oakland. Roughly half of the land the Cypress Viaduct was built on was filled marshland, and half was somewhat more stable alluvium.[7] Because of new highway structure design guidelines—the requirement of ductile construction elements—instituted following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, a limited degree of earthquake reinforcement was retrofitted to the Cypress Viaduct in 1977. The added elements were longitudinal restraints at transverse expansion joints in the box girder spans, but no studies were made of possible failure modes specific to the Cypress Viaduct.[33] When the earthquake hit, the shaking was amplified on the former marshland, and soil liquefaction occurred.[27]

Because of improper rebar placement, the columns broke with ease, sending the structure down.

During the earthquake, the freeway buckled and twisted to its limits before the support columns failed and sent the upper deck crashing to the lower deck. In an instant, 41 people were crushed to death in their cars. Cars on the upper deck were tossed around violently, some of them flipped sideways and some of them were left dangling at the edge of the highway. Nearby residents and factory workers came to the rescue, climbing onto the wreckage with ladders and forklifts[11] and pulling trapped people out of their mangled cars from under a four-foot gap in some sections. Some 60 members of Oakland's Public Works Agency left the nearby city yard and joined rescue efforts.[31] Employees from Pacific Pipe (a now-shuttered factory adjoining the freeway) drove heavy lift equipment to the scene and started using it to raise sections of fallen freeway enough to allow further rescue. Hard-hatted factory workers continued their volunteer operation without stopping night and day until October 21, 1989, when they were forced to pause as U.S. President George H. W. Bush and California Governor George Deukmejian viewed the damage.[34] The stubborn efforts of the rescue workers were rewarded just after dawn on October 21 when survivor Buck Helm was freed from the wreckage, having spent 90 hours trapped in his crushed car under the rubble.[35] Dubbed "Lucky Buck" by the local radio, Helm lived for another 29 days on life support, but finally succumbed to respiratory failure at the age of 57.[36]

Rebuilding the freeway took 11 years.[37] In the meantime, traffic was detoured through nearby Interstate 980, causing increased congestion.[37] Instead of rebuilding Interstate 880 over the same ground, Caltrans rerouted the freeway further west around the outskirts of West Oakland to provide better access to the Port of Oakland and the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, and to meet community desires to keep the freeway from cutting through residential areas.[38] Street-level Mandela Parkway now occupies the previous roadbed of the Cypress Structure.[38]

1989 World Series

The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was one of the few times that the onset of an earthquake of such magnitude has occurred during a live network television broadcast, and as a result, the first moments of the earthquake were seen around the world as it happened. The Series was being televised that year by U.S. network ABC. At the moment the quake struck, sportscaster Tim McCarver was narrating taped highlights of the previous Series game. Viewers saw the video signal begin to break up, heard McCarver repeat a sentence as the shaking distracted him, and heard McCarver's colleague, Al Michaels (who incidentally, served as a broadcaster for the San Francisco Giants from 1974-1976, when he left to work for ABC) exclaim, "I'll tell you what—we're having an earth—."[26] At that moment, the feed from Candlestick Park was lost.[39] The network put up a green ABC Sports graphic as the audio was switched to a telephone link. Michaels cracked, "Well folks, that's the greatest open in the history of television, bar none!" accompanied by the cheering of fans who had no idea of the devastation elsewhere.[40] ABC then switched to their "rain delay" backup program, Roseanne, while attempting to restore electricity to their remote equipment. With anchorman Ted Koppel in position in Washington, D.C., ABC News began continuous coverage of the quake about 5:40 p.m. (Al Michaels, in the process, became a defacto on site reporter for ABC), at the same time as CBS News.[41] NBC News began continuous coverage with Tom Brokaw about an hour later.[41] KGO-TV, a local affiliate of ABC, later won a Peabody Award for their news coverage, as did radio station KCBS (AM).[42]

Fewer than half of the more than 62,000 fans[4] had reached their seats by the time of the quake, and the load on the structure of the stadium was lower than maximum.[43] There had also been a seismic-strengthening project previously completed[44] on the upper deck concrete windscreen. Fans reported that the stadium moved in an articulated manner as the earthquake wave passed through it, that the light standards swayed by many feet, and that the concrete upper deck windscreen moved in a wave-like manner over a distance of several feet. Electrical power to the stadium was lost, forcing the game to be postponed. The series did not resume for 10 days.[43]

After the shaking subsided, many of the players on both teams immediately searched for and gathered family[43] and friends from the stands (while still in full uniform) before evacuating the facility.

Because of the importance of the World Series as a national sporting event, many members of local, regional and national broadcast media were in attendance and would later broadcast their observations of the aftermath of the earthquake to viewers around the world.[45] In addition to broadcast news, many photojournalists were present, and a collection of their photos was released as the book Fifteen Seconds: The Great California Earthquake of 1989, which was published soon after the quake to raise money for the victims.[45]

Goodyear blimp

The Goodyear blimp was aloft above the ballpark to provide aerial coverage of the World Series. Blimp pilot John Crayton reported that he felt four bumps during the quake.[46]

Effects on transportation

Immediately following the earthquake, San Francisco Bay Area airports closed to conduct visual inspection and damage assessment procedures. San Jose International Airport,[47] Oakland International Airport and San Francisco International Airport all opened the next morning.[48] Massive cracks in Oakland's runway and taxiway reduced the usable length to two-thirds normal, and damage to the dike required quick remediation to avoid flooding the runway with water from the bay.[49] Oakland Airport repair costs were assessed at $30 million.[49]

San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni) lost all power to electric transit systems when the quake hit, but otherwise suffered little damage and no injuries to operators or riders.[50] Cable cars and electric trains and buses were stalled in place—50% of Muni's transport capability was lost for 12 hours. Muni relied on diesel buses to continue abbreviated service until electric power was restored later that night, and electric units could be inspected and readied for service on the morning of October 18.[50] After 78 hours, 96% of Muni services were back in operation, including the cable cars.[50]

The earthquake changed the Bay Area's automobile transportation landscape. Not only did the quake force seismic retrofitting of all San Francisco Bay Area bridges,[51] it caused enough damage that some parts of the region's freeway system had to be demolished.[33] Damage to the region's transportation system was estimated at $1.8 billion.[27]

  • San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge, Interstate 80: The Bay Bridge was repaired and reopened to traffic in a month. However, the earthquake made it clear that the Bay Bridge, like many of California's toll bridges, required major repair or replacement for long-term viability and safety. Construction on a replacement for the eastern span began on January 29, 2002. The project is expected to be completed by 2013.
  • Cypress Street Viaduct/Nimitz Freeway, Interstate 880: The double-decked Cypress Street Viaduct, Interstate 880 was demolished soon after the earthquake, and was not rebuilt until July 1997. The rebuilt highway was a single- rather than double-deck structure, and was re-routed around the outskirts of West Oakland, rather than bisecting it, as the Cypress Street Viaduct had done. The former route of the Cypress Street Viaduct was reopened as the ground-level Mandela Parkway.
  • Embarcadero Freeway, California State Route 480: Earthquake damage forced the closure and demolition of San Francisco's incomplete and controversial Embarcadero Freeway (State Route 480). This removal opened up San Francisco's Embarcadero area to new development. The elevated structure, which ran along San Francisco's waterfront, was replaced with a ground-level boulevard.
  • Southern Freeway, Interstate 280: Seismic damage also forced the long-term closure of Interstate 280 in San Francisco (north of US 101), another concrete freeway which had never been completed to its originally planned route. The uncompleted northernmost stub of I-280 was demolished during August–October 1995[52] while one connecting ramp between northbound I-280 and southbound I-101 was opened in December 1995.[53] The full I-280 project was completed in late 1997.[54]
  • Central Freeway, U.S. Route 101: San Francisco's Central Freeway (part of US 101 and a key link to the Bay Bridge flyover) was another concrete double-deck structure which faced demolition because of safety concerns. Originally terminating at Franklin Street and Golden Gate Avenue near San Francisco's Civic Center, the section past Fell Street was demolished first, then later the section between Mission and Fell Streets. The section from Mission Street to Market Street was rebuilt (completed September 2005) as a single-deck elevated freeway, touching down at Market Street and feeding into Octavia Boulevard, a ground-level urban parkway carrying traffic to and from the major San Francisco traffic arterials that the old elevated freeway used to connect to directly, including Fell and Oak Streets (which serve the city's western neighborhoods) and Franklin and Gough Streets (which serve northern neighborhoods and the Golden Gate Bridge).
  • State Route 17: The mountain highway was closed for about 1 month because of a landslide. The route crosses the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains, near the earthquake's epicenter.
State Route 1 collapsed in western Watsonville over Struve Slough.
  • State Route 1: In Watsonville, the Struve Slough Bridge collapsed, with concrete/steel support columns punching through the bridge deck like toothpicks. The highway was closed for several months until it could be demolished and rebuilt. Another section of Highway 1 through Monterey suffered damage and had to be rebuilt as well. Additionally, the bridge carrying Highway 1 over the Salinas River near Fort Ord was damaged and subsequently rebuilt.
  • Bay Area Rapid Transit: The BART rail system, which hauled commuters between the East Bay and San Francisco via the Transbay Tube, was virtually undamaged and only closed for post-earthquake inspection. With the Bay Bridge closed because of its damage, the Transbay Tube became the quickest way into San Francisco via Oakland for a month, and ridership increased in the three work weeks following the earthquake, going from 218,000 riders per average weekday to more than 330,000 post-quake, a 50% increase.[8] BART instituted round-the-clock train service until December 3 when they returned to their normal schedule.[8]
  • Transbay Ferries: Ferry service between San Francisco and Oakland, which had ended decades before, was revived during the month-long closure of the Bay Bridge as an alternative to the overcrowded BART. A ferry terminal was put together in Alameda, and the Army Corps of Engineers dredged a suitable ferry dock at the Berkeley Marina.[49] Additionally, the demolition of the quake-damaged Embarcadero Freeway led to the Ferry Building Terminal renovation, increasing the efficiency of ferry service to the peninsula. The passenger-only service proved popular and continues to expand its service.

Science of the earthquake

Data on magnetic disturbances

The Loma Prieta earthquake was preceded by disturbances in the background magnetic field strength as measured by a sensor placed in Corralitos, California, about 4.5 miles (7 km) from the epicenter.[55] From October 5, a substantial increase in background noise was measured in the frequency range 0.01–10 Hz.[55] The measurement instrument was a single-axis search-coil magnetometer that was being used for low frequency research by Antony C. Fraser-Smith of Stanford University.[55] Signals in the range .01–.5 Hz rose to exceptionally high levels about three hours before the earthquake.[55] Though this pattern gave scientists new ideas for research into potential precursors to earthquakes, more recent studies have cast doubt on the connection, attributing the observations before the Loma Prieta quake to either an unrelated and more geographically widespread magnetic disturbance[56] or to sensor malfunctions.[57]

One person died when a five-story tower collapsed at St. Joseph's Seminary in Santa Clara County.

In fiction, media

  • After The Shock (1990), TV movie with stories of rescue after the disaster.[58]
  • Miracle on Interstate 880 (1993), TV movie fictionalization and re-enactment of events at the Cypress Structure.[59]
  • Journeyman (2007), TV show on NBC in which the main character travels back in time to save a person who died during the Earthquake. Occurs in third episode, "Game Three".[60]
  • Midnight Caller - Based on a True Story (1990), TV Show set in San Francisco in the aftermath of the earthquake.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l USGS. San Andreas Fault, chapter 1, p. 5. "Comparison of the Bay Area Earthquakes: 1906 and 1989." Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c Eberhart-Phillips JE, Saunders TM, Robinson AL, Hatch DL, Parrish RG (June 1994). "Profile of mortality from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using coroner and medical examiner reports". Disasters 18 (2): 160–70. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7717.1994.tb00298.x. PMID 8076160. 
  3. ^ a b c Palm, 1992, p. 63.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Out of the Rubble. Ten Years After: First in a week-long retrospective of the Loma Prieta quake.. Kevin Fagan, Chronicle Staff Writer. Tuesday, October 12, 1999. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  5. ^ USGS. The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake—Selected Photographs Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  6. ^ After The Fall: The earthquake shattered the Bay Area, but the cities hardest hit are now mostly rebuilt—and the scars are hidden deep below the surface. Carl Nolte, Chronicle Staff Writer. Sunday, October 17, 1999. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  7. ^ a b EERI, November 1989. Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989. Preliminary Reconnaissance Report. Retrieved on September 6, 2009.
  8. ^ a b c d e f San Francisco Earthquake History 1915–1989. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  9. ^ a b c Fradkin, 1999, p. 188.
  10. ^ a b Gunn, 2007, p. 608.
  11. ^ a b Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (5 of 8) Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  12. ^ Windmiller, Joel. "Cypress Viaduct Freeway". Retrieved August 29, 2009. 
  13. ^ "1989: Earthquake hits San Francisco". BBC News. 1989-10-17. Retrieved August 29, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c Loma Prieta Earthquake: 15 years later. Shaken—and then stirred. Santa Cruz capitalized on fate, working together to rebuild downtown after quake. Alan Gathright, Chronicle Staff Writer. Saturday, October 16, 2004. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  15. ^ Fradkin, 1999, pp. 138, 193–194.
  16. ^ a b An Oral History of the Presidio of San Francisco During the Loma Prieta Earthquake Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  17. ^ Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (1 of 8) Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  18. ^ Guardians of the City. Fire Department. "SFFD Fireboats: The History of the Fireboat Phoenix." Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  19. ^ FEMA. Technical Report Series. Special Report. USFA-TR-146/May 2003. Fireboats: Then and Now. Case Study #2: 1989 Earthquake, Loma Prieta California. The Phoenix Pumps 5.5 Million Gallons Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  20. ^ Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  21. ^ a b Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Local History. Buildings Demolished in Downtown Santa Cruz as a Result of the Damage from the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  22. ^ a b c d Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Local History. Log of Emergency Response Operations. Tuesday, October 17, 5:04PM, 15-second earthquake! Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  23. ^ Santa Cruz Public Libraries. Local History. Photograph Collection: rs009. The front of Ford's Department Store on the corner of Pacific Avenue and Cathcart Street. A woman inside the store died from falling debris during the earthquake. Ford's was later razed. Date: October 18, 1989. Courtesy of Ray Sherrod. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  24. ^ a b c d Edward J. Phipps. Overview of Fire Service Responses near the Epicenter of the Loma Prieta Earthquake Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  25. ^ Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (6 of 8) Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  26. ^ a b Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (2 of 8) Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  27. ^ a b c d USGS. Historic Earthquakes. Santa Cruz Mountains (Loma Prieta), California. Retrieved on September 6, 2009.
  28. ^ Cheevers, Jack. Los Angeles Times. October 25, 1989 Bay Area Quake—Landmarks Totter—Preservationists Fear Quake-Damaged Historic Buildings Will Be Torn Down. Retrieved on September 6, 2009.
  29. ^ New York Times. October 20, 1989 The California Quake: The Bay Bridge; Damage to Link Across Bay Is More Serious Than Thought. Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  30. ^ Viets, Jack (1989-10-27). "They Drove Into Gap: Survivor Recalls Death Of Sister on Bay Bridge". San Francisco Chronicle (The Chronicle Publishing Co): p. A21. 
  31. ^ a b Fowler, Dave. The Initial Response to the Cypress Freeway Disaster. Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  32. ^ On the Cypress Freeway, Strangers Joined Together for a Snap in Time. Kevin Fagan, Chronicle Staff Writer. Tuesday, October 12, 1999. Retrieved on August 31, 2009.
  33. ^ a b c Housner, George W., Chairman. Competing Against Time, Report to Governor George Deukmejian from The Governor's Board of Inquiry on the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. May 31, 1990. Retrieved on September 11, 2009.
  34. ^ New York Times. October 21, 1989 People Moving Gingerly As They Pick Up Pieces Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  35. ^ "Survivor Pulled From Cypress Carnage, Miracle in the Ruins: Buck Helm is 'Tough as Nails.'". San Francisco Examiner: pp. A1. 22 October, 1989. 
  36. ^ "Man Who Lived 90 Hours In Quake Rubble Is Dead". New York Times. November 20, 1989. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Caltrans. 1998 Highway Congestion Monitoring Report. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
  38. ^ a b Berthelsen, Gene. "Mandela Parkway: Building Pride in West Oakland." California Transportation Journal, November–December 2002, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp. 2–7. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
  39. ^ News report on MLB.COM, 1:50 minutes in. Retrieved on August 29, 2009.
  40. ^ Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (3 of 8) Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  41. ^ a b Gerard, Jeremy. The New York Times, October 24, 1989. "The California Quake; NBC News Tells of Errors and Obstacles to Early Coverage of Quake." Retrieved on September 11, 2009.
  42. ^ San Francisco Earthquake History 1990–1994. Retrieved on September 11, 2009.
  43. ^ a b c Hinshaw, Horace. Pacifica Tribune, June 17, 2009. "Remembering World Series Earthquake." Hosted by Retrieved on August 30, 2009.
  44. ^ Lipman-Blumen, Jean. (2006) The Allure of Toxic Leaders: Why We Follow Destructive Bosses and Corrupt Politicians--and How We Can Survive Them, p. 107. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 0195312007
  45. ^ a b The Tides Foundation. Fifteen Seconds. San Francisco: Island Press, 1989.
  46. ^ Holler, Scott; Vicki Sheff, Lorenzo Benet, Doris Bacon, Tom Cunneff, Michael Alexander, Kristina Johnson, Robin Micheli, Linda Witt (October 30, 1989). "A City Trembled, Its People Held". People 32 (18).,,20121526,00.html. Retrieved August 29, 2009. "High above the ballpark, John Crayton was piloting a Goodyear blimp for ABC. "We were just ready to go on the air when the network feed went blank. The last thing I heard was the director swearing. Then I started noticing transformers blowing up and dust and smoke in the air. I felt—and I know this sounds strange—but I felt four bumps in the blimp.". 
  47. ^ Time magazine. Monday, October 30, 1989. Ed Magnuson. Earthquake (7 of 8) Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  48. ^ Roderick, Kevin. Los Angeles Times. October 19, 1989 Search For Bodies to Take Days—State Puts Toll at 273, Then Says It Is Uncertain. Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  49. ^ a b c McDonnell, Janet A. (1993) Office of History, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Response to the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  50. ^ a b c Stead, William G., Muni Railway Manager. "Municipal Railway Earthquake Notebook Tuesday, 17 October 1989, 5:04 PM", December 15, 1989 letter to Art Agnos, mayor. Retrieved on September 5, 2009.
  51. ^ Golden Gate Bridge. Overview of Golden Gate Bridge Seismic Retrofit. Updated February 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
    Caltrans. Richmond – San Rafael Bridge. Retrofit Project. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
    Caltrans. Bay Area Toll Bridges. Benicia–Martinez Bridge Seismic Retrofit. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
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  • Fradkin, Philip L. Magnitude 8: Earthquakes and Life Along the San Andreas Fault, University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 0520221192
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  • Palm, Risa; Michael E. Hodgson. After a California Earthquake: Attitude and Behavior Change, University Of Chicago Press, 1992. ISBN 0226644995



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