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Hubble Space Telescope Gulf War Oslo Accords World Wide Web Collapse of the Soviet Union Dolly the sheep Death of Diana, Princess of Wales Rwandan Genocide
From left, clockwise: Hubble Space Telescope in 1990; America engages in Operation Desert Storm, also known as the 1991 Gulf War; The signing of the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993; The World Wide Web gains a public face during the start of decade and as a result gains massive popularity worldwide; The August Coup leads to the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991; Dolly the sheep is the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell; Princess Diana dies in 1997 from Paris car crash, mourned by billions; the Rwandan Genocide of 1994.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century20th century21st century
Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s1990s2000s 2010s 2020s
Years: 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Categories: BirthsDeathsArchitecture
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1990s, known as "the Nineteen Nineties" or abbreviated as "the Nineties", was the decade that started on January 1, 1990 and ended on December 31, 1999. It was the last full decade of both the 20th century and the 2nd millennium.

A combination of factors including the mass mobilization of capital markets through neoliberalism, the beginning of the widespread proliferation of new media such as the Internet, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a realignment and reconsolidation of economic and political power across the world, and within countries. Living standards and democratic governance generally improved in many areas of the world, notably East Asia, much of Eastern Europe, Latin America, and South Africa. New ethnic conflicts emerged in Africa, the Caucusus and the Balkans, and signs of any resolution of tensions in the Middle East remained elusive.[1]

Contents

Politics and wars

Wars

The most prominent armed conflicts of the decade include:

==== International wars === wORLD WAR 1 WORLD WAR 2 COMING SOON WORLD WAR 3

  • The Gulf War - Iraq was left in severe debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil and driving down prices. As a result, on August 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait. The UN immediately condemned the action, and a coalition force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991 (see also Gulf War), and a month later, the UN forces drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in just four days. In the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off from much of the world.
  • The Congo wars break out in the 1990s:
  • The Chechen wars break out in the 1990s:
  • Kargil War (1999) - In May 1999, Pakistan sends troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month later the Kargil War with India results in a political fiasco for Nawaz Sharif, followed by a military withdrawal to the Line of Control. The incident leads to a military coup in October in which the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf.
  • War between ethnic-Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place.
  • In 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) led by the United States launched air attacks against Yugoslavia (then composed of only Serbia and Montenegro) to pressure the Yugoslav government to end its military operations against ethnic Albanian separatists in Kosovo due to accusations of war crimes being committed by Yugoslav military forces working alongside nationalist Serb paramilitary groups. After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATO's demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo and later UN peacekeeping forces to take control of Kosovo.
Bosnian parliament building burns after being hit by Serbian tank fire.

Civil wars and Guerrilla wars

  • The Rwandan Genocide - between April 6, 1994 until mid-July 1994 a mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates occurred by the Hutu dominated government under the Hutu Power ideology. Over the course of approximately 100 days, at least 500,000 people were killed.[3] Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[4] or as much as 20% of the total population of the country. It resulted in serious criticism of the United Nations and major countries for failing to stop the genocide.
  • In Algeria a long period of violence in the north African country starts by the cancellation of the first ever held democratic elections by a group of high ranking army officers.
  • The Ethiopian Civil War ends in 1991, ending over twenty years of internal conflict. The end of the war coincides with the collapse of the communist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam and the establishment of a coalition government of various factions.
  • Oka Crisis takes place in 1990 involving an armed standoff between people of the Mohawk nation (North American indigenous peoples in Canada), and the Canadian military over a dispute involving land held via treaty to the Mohawk people.
  • A large number of the Zapatista indigenous people of Mexico join the Zapatista Army of National Liberation that begins armed conflict with the Mexican government in 1994 and continues through the 1990s.
  • The Taliban seize control of Afghanistan in 1996.
  • The 1992 Los Angeles riots occurred, with 53 deaths and 5,500 property fires in a 100-square-mile (260 km2) riot zone. The riots were a result of the state court acquittal of three White and one Hispanic L.A. police officers by an all-white jury in a police brutality case involving motorist Rodney King, but in 1993, all four officers were convicted in a federal civil rights case.
  • The Pakistan Army overthrows the democratically elected government of Pakistan on October 12, 1999. Army chief Pervez Musharraf takes control of government as Prime Minister of Pakistan; he would dominate Pakistan's political leadership for nine years.
  • The Somali Civil War (1991–Present) and the Battle of Mogadishu.
  • Somali president Mohamed Siad Barre, who had ruled since 1969, was overthrown in 1991 and the country fell into a state of anarchy and civil war which continues today.
  • Severe political deadlock between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the Supreme Soviet (Russia's parliament at this time) result in Yeltsin ordering the controversial shelling of the Russian parliament building by tanks in 1993.

Terrorist attacks

Nuclear threats

  • The rival countries India and Pakistan in succession reveal their acquisition of nuclear weapons in 1998 with two separate missile tests amid escalating tensions over the disputed region of Kashmir.

Decolonization and Independence

  • Great Britain hands sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997...
  • Portugal hands sovereignty of Macau to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999.
  • Eritrea gains independence from Ethiopia (1993).
  • East Timor breaks away from Indonesian control in 1999, merely a year after the fall of Suharto from power, ending a twenty-four year guerrilla war with more than 200,000 casualties. The UN deploys a peace keeping force, spearheaded by the Australian and New Zealand armed forces. The United States deploys police officers to serve with the International Police element, to help train and equip an East Timorese police force.
  • The republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia.
  • Dissolution of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia (1993).

Prominent political events

  • the 1990s was an era of spreading democracy.[5] The former countries of the Warsaw Pact moved from totalitarian regimes to democratically elected governments.[5] The same happened in other non-communist countries, such as Taiwan, Chile, South Africa, and Indonesia. Capitalism made great changes to the economies of communist countries like China and Vietnam.
  • The ethnic tensions and violence in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s create a greater sense of ethnic identity of the nations in the new countries, especially involving increased popularity of nationalism.

Africa

North America

  • United States President Bill Clinton was a dominant political figure in international affairs during the 1990s known especially for his attempts to negotiate peace in the Middle East and end the ongoing wars occurring in the former Yugoslavia; his promotion of international action to decrease human-created climate change; and his endorsement of advancing free trade in the Americas.
  • Lewinsky scandal - US president Bill Clinton was caught in a media-frenzied scandal involving inappropriate relations with a White House intern Monica Lewinsky, first announced on January 21, 1998. After the U.S. House of Representatives impeached Clinton on December 19, 1998 for perjury under oath, following an investigation by federal prosecutor Kenneth Starr, the Senate acquitted Clinton of the charges on February 12, 1999 and he finished his second term.
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide becomes the first democratically elected President of Haiti in 1990.
  • Canadian politics is radically altered in the 1993 federal election with the collapse of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, (a major political party in Canada since 1867) from being government to only 2 seats and the New Democratic Party collapsing from 44 seats to 9. The Liberal Party of Canada is the only genuine national political party that remains while the regionally based parties such as the Quebec-based Bloc Québécois and the almost entirely Western Canada-based Reform Party of Canada rise from political insignificance to being major political parties.
  • After the collapse of the Meech Lake constitutional accord in 1990, the province of Quebec in Canada experienced a rekindled wave of separatism by francophone Québécois nationalists, who sought for Quebec to become an independent country. In 1995, during a referendum on Quebec sovereignty, Quebec voters narrowly reject the vote for independence.
  • The 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty is held in the predominantly francophone province of Quebec in Canada, a majority anglophone country. If accepted Quebec would become an independent country with an economic association with Canada. The proposal is narrowly rejected by Quebec's voters by 50.4% no, and 49.6% yes.
  • California voters passed Proposition 215 in 1996, to legalize cannabis only for medical purposes, the debate over legalization of marijuana in the U.S. goes on today.
  • The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on January 1, 1994, creating a North American free trade zone consisting of Canada, Mexico, and the United States.

Asia

Europe

  • The Moscow Coup and subsequent break-up of the Soviet Union on December 26, 1991.
  • The improvement in relations between the countries of NATO and the former members of the Warsaw Pact ended the Cold War both in Europe and other parts of the world.
  • German reunification - Germany reunified on October 3, 1990 as a result of the fall of the Berlin Wall and after integrating the economic structure and provincial governments, focused on modernization of the former communist East. People who were brought up in a communist culture became integrated with those living in democratic western Germany.
  • Margaret Thatcher who had been the United Kingdom's Prime Minister since 1979 resigned as Prime Minister on November 22, 1990 after been challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by Michael Heseltine because of widespread opposition to the introduction of the controversial Community Charge and the fact that her key allies such as Nigel Lawson and Geoffrey Howe resigned over the deeply sensitive issues of the Maastricht Treaty and Margaret Thatcher's resistance to Britain joining the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. Less than two years later on the infamous Black Wednesday of September 1992, the pound sterling crashed out of the system after the pound fell below the agreed exchange rate with the Deutsche Mark.
  • The Belfast Agreement (a.k.a. the Good Friday Agreement) is signed by U.K. and Irish politicians on April 10, 1998, declaring a joint commitment to a peaceful resolution of the territorial dispute between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom over Northern Ireland.
  • The IRA agreed to a truce in 1994. This marked the beginning of the end of 25 years of violence between the IRA and the United Kingdom, and the start of political negotiations.
  • The European Union forms in 1992 under the Maastricht Treaty.

South America

Assassinations

The 1990s were marked by several notable assassinations and assassination attempts:

Disasters

Natural disasters

The 1999 İzmit earthquake which occurred in the northwestern of Turkey killed 17,217 and injured 43,959.

Non-natural disasters

The crash site of El Al Flight 1862 in 1992
  • Gulf War oil spill - the worst oil spill in history, resulting from actions taken during the Gulf War in 1991 by the Iraq military. The oil spill caused considerable damage to wildlife in the Persian Gulf especially in areas surrounding Kuwait and Iraq.
  • On December 15, 1991, The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.
  • On October 4, 1992 - El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo airplane heading to Tel Aviv, suffered physical engine separation of both right-wing engines (#3 and #4) just after taking off from Schiphol and crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmer neighbourhood of Amsterdam while attempting to return to the airport. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a "non revenue passenger". Several others were injured.
  • On July 26, 1993, Asiana Airlines Flight 733 crashes into Mt. Ungeo in Haenam, South Korea killing 68.
  • On June 29, 1995, the Sampoong Department Store collapses in Seoul, South Korea, killing 502.

Economics

The Dow Jones Index of 1990s
  • Many countries, institutions, companies, and organizations were prosperous during the 1990s. High-income countries such as the United States, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and those in Western Europe experienced steady economic growth for much of the decade. However, in the former Soviet Union GDP decreased as their economies restructured to produce goods they needed and some capital flight occurred.
  • GATT update and creation of the World Trade Organization and other global economic institutions, but opposition by anti-globalization activists showed up in nearly every GATT summit, like the demonstrations in Seattle in December 1999.

North America

Asia

  • The government of the People's Republic of China announces major privatization of state-owned industries in September 1997.
  • China started the '90s in a bad way, shunned by much of the world after the Tiananmen Square Massacre and controlled by hard line politicians who reigned in private enterprise and attempted to revive old-fashioned propaganda campaigns. Relations with the United States deteriorated sharply, and the Chinese leadership was further embarrassed by the disintegration of communism in Europe. In 1992, Deng Xiaoping travelled to southern China in his last major public appearance to revitalize faith in market economics and stop the country's slide back into Maoism. Afterwards, China recovered, and would experience explosive economic growth during the rest of the decade. In spite of this, dissent continued to be suppressed, and President Jiang Zemin launched a brutal crackdown against the Falun Gong religious sect in 1999. Deng Xiaoping himself died in 1997 at the age of 93. Relations with the US deteriorated again in 1999 after the death of a Chinese journalist during the bombing of Serbia by NATO forces, and allegations of Chinese espionage at the Los Alamos Nuclear Facility.
  • South-East Asia economic crisis starting from 1997.
  • Financial crisis hits East and Southeast Asia in 1997 and 1998 after a long period of phenomenal economic development, which continues by 1999. This crisis begins to be felt by the end of the decade.
  • In Japan, after three decades of economic growth put them in second place in the world's economies, the situation worsened after 1993. The recession went on into the early 2000s, bringing an end to the seemingly unlimited prosperity that the country had hitherto enjoyed.
  • The Philippines saw great economic development after the People Power Revolution. The economy gains 5% from its deficit until the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.
  • Less affluent nations such as India, Malaysia, and Vietnam also saw tremendous improvements in economic prosperity and quality of life during the 1990s. Restructuring following the end of the Cold War was beginning. However, there was also the continuation of terrorism in Third World regions that were once the "frontlines" for American and Soviet foreign politics, particularly in Asia.

Europe

  • By 1990, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms were causing major inflation and economic chaos. A coup attempt by hard-liners in August 1991 failed, marking the effective end of the Soviet Union. All its constituent republics declared their independence in 1991, and on Christmas, Gorbachev resigned from office. After 73 years, the Soviet Union had ceased to exist. The new Russian Federation was headed by Boris Yeltsin, and would face severe economic difficulty. Oligarchs took over Russia's energy and industrial sectors, reducing almost half the country to poverty. With a 3% approval rating, Yeltsin had to buy the support of the oligarchs to win reelection in 1996. Economic turmoil and devaluation of the ruble continued, and with heart and alcohol troubles, he stepped down from office on the last day of 1999, handing power to Vladimir Putin.
  • Russian financial crisis in the 1990s results in mass hyperinflation and prompts economic intervention from the International Monetary Fund and western countries to help Russia's economy recover.
  • Eastern European economies struggled after the fall of communism, but Poland, Hungary, Estonia, and Lithuania saw healthy economic growth rates in the late 1990s.
  • The first McDonald's restaurant opens in Moscow in 1990 with then-President of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR and future Russian President Boris Yeltsin attending, symbolizing Russia's transition towards a capitalist free market economy and a move towards adopting elements of western culture.
  • Oil and gas were discovered in many countries in the former Soviet bloc, leading to economic growth and wider adoption of trade between nations. These trends were also fueled by inexpensive fossil energy, with low petroleum prices caused by a glut of oil. Political stability and decreased militarization due to the winding down of the Cold War led to economic development and higher standards of living for many citizens.
  • Much of Europe had serious economic problems including the massive 1995 general strikes in France during its worst recession since World War II and the problems associated with German reunification. The French economy mildly rebounds at the end of the decade as does Germany. During the late 90s, the economies of particularly Spain, Scandinavia and former Eastern Bloc countries accelerate at rapid speed. After the early 1990s recession, the United Kingdom and Ireland experience rapid economic growth that continues throughout the decade. Unemployment is a persistent problem in many countries throughout the 90s.
  • With the creation of the E.U. there is freedom of movement between member states, such as the 1992 and 1995 free trade agreements.
  • The Euro is adopted by the European Union on January 1, 1999, which begins a process of phasing out national currencies of EU countries.

South America

  • The sluggish economies of Brazil, by a new emphasis on free markets for all their citizens, and Mexico, under economist president Ernesto Zedillo elected in 1994, were in their best shape by the late 1990s.

Technology and science

Technology

The 1990s were an incredibly revolutionary decade for digital technology. Cell phone usage was at only a few percent in 1990, and almost non-existent in 1985, but Internet usage in that year was higher; by 1999, more than 50% of some Western countries had Internet access, and more than 25% had cell phone access.

Electronics and communications

The World Wide Web project historic logo designed by Robert Cailliau
Mobile phones gained massive popularity worldwide during the decade.
  • On 6 August 1991, CERN, a pan European organization for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project.[8] Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s.
  • Y2K spread fear throughout the United States and eventually the world in the last half of the decade particularly 1999 about possible massive computer malfunctions on January 1, 2000. As a result, many people stocked up on supplies for fear of a world wide disaster. Eventually no globally significant computer failures occurred when the clocks rolled over into 2000.
  • Advancements in computer modems, ISDN, cable modems, and DSL lead to faster connection to the Internet.
  • The Pentium processor is developed by Intel.
  • E-mail becomes popular; as a result Microsoft acquires the popular Hotmail webmail service.
  • Instant messaging and the Buddy list becomes popular. AIM and ICQ are two early protocols.
  • Businesses start to build E-commerce websites; E-commerce-only companies such as Amazon.com, eBay, AOL, and Yahoo! grow rapidly.
  • The introduction of affordable, smaller satellite dishes and the DVB-S standard in the mid-1990s expanded satellite television services that carried up to 500 television channels..
  • The first MP3 Player, the MPMan, is released in late spring of 1998. It came with 32Mb of flash memory expandable to 64Mb.
  • The first GSM network is launched in Finland in 1991.
  • Digital SLRs and regular digital cameras become commercially available.
  • IBM introduces the 1-inch (25 mm) wide Microdrive hard drive in 170 MB and 340 MB capacities.
  • Apple introduces the iMac computer, initiating a trend in computer design towards translucent plastics and multicolor case design, discontinuing many legacy technologies like serial ports, and beginning a resurgence in the company's fortunes that continues unabated to this day.
  • CD burner drives are introduced.
  • The CD-ROM drive became standard for most personal computers during the decade.
  • The DVD media format is developed and popularized along with a plethora of Flash memory card standards.
  • Pagers are initially popular but ultimately are replaced by mobile phones toward the end of the decade.
  • Hand-held satellite phones are introduced towards the end of the decade.

Software

Automobiles

The 1990s began with another recession that dampened car sales. General Motors continued to suffer huge losses thanks to an inefficient structure and stale designs. Sales improved with the economy by the mid-'90s, but GM's US market share gradually declined to less than 40% (from a peak of 53% in the '70s). While the new Saturn division fared well, Oldsmobile declined sharply, and attempts to remake the division as a European-style luxury car were unsuccessful.

Cars in the 1990s had a rounder shape than those of the 1970s and 1980s; this style would continue into the 2000s.

Chrysler ran into financial troubles again as the '90s started. Like GM, it too had a stale model lineup (except for the best-selling minivans ) that was largely based on the aging K-car platform. In 1992, chairman Lee Iacocca retired, and the company began a remarkable revival, introducing the new LH platform and "Cab-Forward" styling, along with a highly successful redesign of the full-sized Dodge Ram in 1994. Chrysler's minivans continued to dominate the market despite increasing competition. In 1998, Daimler-Benz (the parent company of Mercedes-Benz) merged with Chrysler. The following year, it was decided to retire Plymouth, which had been on a long decline since the '70s. Ford continued to fare well in the '90s, with the second and third generations of the Ford Taurus being named the best selling car in the United States.

Japanese cars continued to be highly successful during the decade. The Honda Accord vied with the Taurus most years for being the best-selling car in the United States. SUVs and trucks became hugely popular during the economic boom in the second half of the decade. Many makes that had never built a truck before started selling SUVs. Car styling during the 1990s became gradually more round and ovoid, the third-generation Taurus and Mercury Sable being some of the more extreme examples. Safety features such as airbags and shoulder belts became mandatory equipment on new cars.

Science

Dolly the sheep is the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell

Environment

NASA satellite observation of deforestation in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil. The transformation from forest to farm is evident by the paler square shaped areas under development.

Society

  • The decade started out with Baby boomers from the 1960s finally entering the middle-aged Establishment with a progressive politico-economic message for youth ("peace", "save the earth"; "stop racism"; "greed is bad") mixed or paired with a mostly conservative or "cautious" socio-cultural one ("Believe"; "Jesus is the answer"; "just say no to drugs"; "don't drink, smoke, or do dope"...etc...)[citation needed]

Third-wave feminism

Women's rights demonstration in Paris, November 1995)

Additional significant world-wide events

  • Worldwide New Year's Eve celebrations on December 31, 1999 welcoming the year 2000. The 2nd millennium and the 20th century would end on December 31, 2000.

Europe

  • 1991 – Soviet Union military troops attack Lithuanian independence supporters in Vilnius. Killed 14 people and wounding 1000.
  • In Paris, France, Princess Diana and her boyfriend, Dodi Al-Fayed, were killed in a car accident in August 1997, when their chauffeured, hired Mercedes-Benz S-Class crashed in the Pont de l'Alma tunnel. The chauffeur, Henri Paul died at the scene, as did Al-Fayed. Diana and an Al-Fayed bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived the accident. The former Princess died at a Paris hospital hours later. The bodyguard, Rees-Jones, is the sole survivor of the now infamous accident.
  • Mother Teresa, the Roman Catholic nun who won the Nobel Peace Prize, dies at age 87.
  • The birth of the "Second Republic" in Italy, with the Mani Pulite investigations of 1994.
  • The Channel Tunnel across the English Channel opens in 1994, connecting France and England. As of 2007 it is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world, but with the undersea section of 37.9 km (23.55 miles) being the longest undersea tunnel in the world.
  • The resignation of President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1999 resulting in Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's succession to the position.

Americas

Asia

Popular Culture

Film

The highest-grossing film of the decade was "Titanic" (1997)

Television

The comedy show Seinfeld becomes popular.
  • Beverly Hills, 90210 ran throughout the entire decade from 1990–2000 and established the teen soap genre paving the way for Dawson's Creek, Felicity, and other shows that are currently airing today. The show was then remade and renamed simply '90210' and premiered in 2008.
  • Baywatch, a hugely popular TV show that dominated throughout the nineties, became the most watched TV show in history and made huge impact on pop culture.
  • The U.S. animated television comedy series The Simpsons becomes a huge domestic and international success in the 1990s. The show has made it beyond 2010 and has become an institution of pop culture, and has spawned the animated sitcom genre, inspiring racier shows such as Beavis and Butthead along with South Park and Family Guy, the latter two of which began in the late 1990s and lasted past 2009.

Music

Nirvana performing at the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards.
  • U2's groundbreaking Zoo TV and PopMart tours were the top selling tours of 1992 and 1997.
  • In the UK the uniquely British alternative rock Britpop genre emerged as part of the more general Cool Britannia culture. The Britrock band Oasis was formed in 1991. Female icons of Cool Britannia, the "Spice Girls", manage to do what the britpop boys couldn't manage and break America, taking the world by storm and becoming the most commercially successful British Group since The Beatles[11][12]. Their impact brings about a widespread invasion of teen pop acts around the world[13][14] such as Britney Spears, 'N Sync, Backstreet Boys and Hanson who come to prominence into the new millennium.
  • Controversy surrounded The Prodigy with the release of the track 'Smack My Bitch Up'. The National organization for Women(NOW) claimed that the track was "advocating violence against women" due to the lyrics of that song. The music video (directed by Jonas Åkerlund) featured a first-person POV of someone going clubbing, indulging in large amounts of drugs and alcohol, getting into fist fights with men, abusing women and picking up a prostitute. At the end of the video the camera pans over to a mirror, revealing the subject to be a woman.
  • The rave movement that emerged in the late 1980s rises incredibly in the early to mid 1990s, and continues to exist as late as 2010.

Video games

Doom (1993) is widely recognized for having popularized the first-person shooter genre.
The PlayStation was released in the mid 1990s and became the best-selling gaming console of its time
Tomb Raider's Lara Croft become a video game sex symbol and a major icon of the video game industry
  • 3-D graphics become the standard by end of decade. Although FPSs had long since seen the transition to full 3D, other genres begin to copy this trend by the end of the decade.
  • Lara Croft became a video game sex symbol, becoming a recognizable figure in the entertainment industry throughout the late 1990s.
  • The console wars, primarily between Sega (Mega Drive, marketed as the Sega Genesis in North America, introduced in 1988) and Nintendo (Super NES, introduced in 1990), sees the entrance of Sony with the PlayStation in 1994, which becomes the first successful CD-based console (as opposed to cartridges). By the end of the decade, Sega's hold on the market becomes tenuous after the end of the Saturn in 1998 and the Dreamcast in 2001.
  • Doom (1993) bursts onto the world scene and instantly popularizes the FPS genre, and even how games are played, as Doom is among the first games to feature multiplayer capabilities. It is not until Quake (1996), however, that game developers begin to take multiplayer features into serious consideration when making games. Half-Life (1998) features the next evolutionary step in the genre with continual progression of the game (no levels in the traditional sense) and an entirely in-person view, and becomes one of the most popular computer games in history.
  • The real-time strategy (RTS) genre is introduced in 1992 with the release of Dune II. Warcraft: Orcs & Humans (1994) popularizes the genre, with Command & Conquer and Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness in 1995 setting up the first major real-time strategy competition and popularizing multiplayer capabilities in RTS games. StarCraft in 1998 becomes the second best-selling computer game of all time. It remains among the most popular multiplayer RTS games to this day, especially in South Korea. Homeworld in 1999 becomes the first successful 3d RTS game. The rise of the RTS genre is often credited with the fall of the turn-based strategy (TBS) genre, popularized with Civilization in 1991.
  • Final Fantasy first debuted (in North America) in 1990 for the NES, and remains among the most popular video game franchises, with 12 new titles to date, with another in development, plus numerous spin-offs, sequels, movies and related titles. Final Fantasy VII, released in 1997, especially popularized the series.
  • Zelda continues its massive popularity with a series of groundbreaking releases, including A Link to the Past in 1991 and Ocarina of Time in 1998, both of which are considered some of the greatest and most influential games of all time.[16][17]
  • Resident Evil is released in 1996 and becomes the most popular survival-horror series in video gaming well into the next decade.

Sports

The Denver Broncos win their first Super Bowl title in 1997 against the Green Bay Packers 31-24 and again in 1998 defeating the Atlanta Falcons 34-19.

Architecture

Petronas Twin Towers were the world's tallest buildings when completed in 1999.

Art

Literature

Fashion

Significant fashion trends of the 1990s include:

  • The Rachel, Jennifer Aniston's hairstyle on the hit show Friends, becomes a cultural phenomenon with millions of women copying it worldwide.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio popularises the long fringe and cropped back hairstyle in fashion and culture amongst teenage boys in the late 1990s after the success of the movies, Titanic and Romeo + Juliet.
  • The model 1300 Wonderbra style has a resurgence of popularity in Europe in 1992 which kicks off a multinational media sensation, the 1994 re-introduction of "The Wonderbra" brand, and a spike in push-up, plunge bras around the world.
  • Additional fashion trends of the 1990s include the Tamagotchi ,Rollerblades, Pogs and Dr. Martens shoes.

Miscellaneous

  • Feminism is one of the core defining elements of 1990s pop culture, and the overall image of the decade. You go, girl! was a popular phrase in the media as feminism became more widely accepted and publicized with the Spice Girls, the WNBA, women's boxing, Girl Power, Sex and the City, and others showcasing modern femininity and challenged the problem of sexism. Girl Power and feminism were not considered as "cool" in the 2000s, though its legacy lasted in the female-dominated culture it ushered in.
  • Anime and manga become popular and known in the mainstream. Previously restricted to fringe or niche circles within existing science fiction and comic book fandom, anime and manga fandom in the west begins expanding and organizing its own fan conventions such as Otakon and Katsucon. Such conventions have continued to expand covering gaming, cosplay, and J-pop as well as other elements of Japanese and east Asian culture in general.

People

World leaders

Entertainers

Musicians

Bands

Sports figures

Soccer

Basketball

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2004). The Roaring Nineties. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393326185. 
  2. ^ GlobalSecurity.org, Second Chechnya War - 1999-???
  3. ^ Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-171-1. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  4. ^ See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  5. ^ a b Sorin Antohi and Vladimir Tismăneanu, "Independence Reborn and the Demons of the Velvet Revolution" in Between Past and Future: The Revolutions of 1989 and Their Aftermath, Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9116-71-8. p.85.
  6. ^ Archive copy at the Internet Archive
  7. ^ "The Urban Institute | Welfare Reform: Ten Years Later". Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. http://www.webcitation.org/5gcvXIA1b. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  8. ^ Grossman, Lev (31 March 2003). "How the Web Was Spun". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5iMYqOSsr. Retrieved 19 July 2009. "Berners-Lee's computer faithfully logged the exact second the site was launched: 2:56:20 p.m., Aug. 6, 1991." 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ "Titanic (1997)". Archived from the original on 2009-05-27. http://www.webcitation.org/5h5sUMZQc. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  11. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2007/10_october/19/spice.shtml
  12. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/31/newsid_2494000/2494855.stm
  13. ^ "Teen Pop Music: A Guide". Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. http://www.webcitation.org/5jXPLbn7Q. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  14. ^ http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:7232
  15. ^ Wolf, Mark J.P. (2008). "Arcade Games of the 1990s and Beyond". The video game explosion: a history from PONG to PlayStation and beyond. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 135. ISBN 031333868X. OCLC 154776597. http://books.google.com/books?id=to5zEwOC9BcC&pg=PA135. Retrieved 19 July 2009. "The decline of arcade video games would come back in the 1990s, despite attempts to redefine the arcade experience and attract players back to the arcade." 
  16. ^ "The Greatest Games of All-Time: The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past". GameSpot. 2006-03-17. http://www.gamespot.com/features/6145817/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  17. ^ "The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time (Inducted 2008)". IGN Entertainment, Inc. Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5iMXuzp0H. Retrieved 19 July 2009. "Get past the fact that it is one of the few videogames to ever get a score of 10 on IGN, and you'll be left with a deep, engaging and rewarding tale" 

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Noun

Singular
1990s

Plural
uncountable

1990s (uncountable)

  1. The decade from 1990 to 1999. Also known as the '90s.

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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Issue: Brief Summary for each

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Decades
1960s - 1970s - 1980s - 1990s - 2000s - 2010s
Years
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Contents

Hardware Releases

Software Releases

Key Events

Expected Events

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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Millennia: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s
Years: 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Categories: Births - Deaths - Architecture
Establishments - Disestablishments

The 1990s refers to the time period between the beginning of 1990 and the end of 1999. The 1990s were marked by rapid progression of globalization following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. Key forces shaping the decade were the recession of the late 80s, and the advent of PCs in middle-class homes, resulting in the rise to prominence of the internet. The Internet would go on to revolutionize modern culture, and has served as a major medium for the integration and the spread of popular culture in the entire world. The 1990s are between the Short Twentieth Century and the Cold War and the War on Terror declared by U.S President Bush after the 9/11 attacks.

The widespread adoption of personal computers and the Internet increased economic productivity, while high levels of private investment in equity markets increased personal wealth among many Americans, Japanese, South Koreans, Australians and Europeans.

Contents

Economics

Skyline of Sanhattan, Santiago, Chile's Financial District — Example of global economic growth during the 1990s.

Despite economic prosperity and democracy, there were problems in the 1990s that became more visible after the decade ended. In Africa a rapid increase in incidence of AIDS contributed to falling life expectancy and zero or negative growth rates. In the former Soviet Union GDP decreased as their economies restructured to produce goods they needed and some capital flight occurred. Financial crises in the developing world after 1994 (i.e. the Asian economic crises of 1997) began to undermine some support for a global economy.

Many countries, institutions, companies, and organizations experienced the 1990s as a prosperous time. Despite the recession that affected much the world in late 1980s, high income economies such as the United States, Canada, Ireland, Australia, and South Korea experienced steady economic growth for much of the decade.

In many countries, political stability and decreased militarization due to the winding down of the Cold War led to economic development and higher standards of living for many citizens. These trends were also fueled by inexpensive fossil energy, with low petroleum prices caused by a glut of oil. Oil and gas were discovered in many countries in the former Soviet bloc, leading to economic growth and wider adoption of trade between nations, but the 15 new nations of the old USSR, plus Russia, struggled to adjust to the new economic reality. Consequently, the decade ended in a painful recession for it.

  • US economy ends the decade with a 4% unemployment rate, personal incomes doubled from the recession in 1990, overall higher productivity. After the 1996 Welfare Reform act there was a great reduction of poverty rates, and the Wall Street stock exchange stayed over the 10,000 mark from 1999 to 2001.
  • After 1992 the booming of the US stock market, in reference to which Alan Greenspan coined the memorable phrase "irrational exuberance", eventually merged into the dot-com boom / dot-com bubble (2000 – 2001).
  • GATT update and creation of the World Trade Organization and other global economic institutions, but opposition by anti-globalization activists showed up in nearly every GATT summit, like the violent street demonstrations in Seattle in December 1999.
  • With the creation of the E.U. there is free movement of labour between member states, such as the 1992 and 1995 free trade agreements. The EU agreed to have a single currency, and the Euro began circulation in March 1999 in 15 member states.
  • Philippines shown a great economic development after The People Power revolt. The economy gains 5% from its deficit until the Asian financial crisis of 1997
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which phases out trade barriers between the United States, Mexico and Canada is signed into law by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
  • From 1990 until 1998 inclusive, the economy of Russia and some former USSR states was in a severe depression. Eastern European economies struggled after the fall of communism, but Poland, Hungary, Estonia and Lithuania saw healthy economic growth rates in the late 1990s.
  • Except for Great Britain and Ireland, much of Europe had serious economic problems, such as the massive 1995 general strikes in France during its worst recession since World War II. The French economy mildly rebounds at the end of the decade.
  • Democracy, economic reform and peace arrive in Latin America, while the sluggish economies of Brazil, by a new emphasis on free markets for all their citizens, and Mexico, under economist president Ernesto Zedillo elected in 1994, were their best shape by the late 1990s.
  • Financial crisis hits East and Southeast Asia in 1997 and 1998 after a long period of phenomenal economic development. Japan was heavily affected, as was Indonesia when the 30-year rule of dictator Suharto ended in his resignation after widespread protests in May 1998. See East Asian Tigers.

World-changing events

Significant events that occurred during or after 1990 which would influence the course of history and character of the decade, include:

Significant events that marked the passing of the decade include:

Social Trends

HIV Awareness

HIV awareness reached across the world in this decade, and many new drugs were developed to fight the spread of the disease.

Racial Tensions

Racial tensions, exacerbated by immigration and issues around multiculturalism, manifested in western Europe. In the United States the issue of race relations, brought into the public consciousness by the 1992 Los Angeles riots, the O. J. Simpson murder case in 1994 – 95, and the Million Man March in 1995, served to make Americans more concerned about racial equality than at any time since the 1960s.

Science

Technology

Some technologies invented and improved during the 1990s:

Graphic representation of the WWW

Culture

Cultural Trends

A Ford Taurus, which was one of the best selling vehicles in the U.S. throughout the decade.
The Ford Explorer, which sparked the SUV craze among families in the 90s. The Explorer was also one of the most popular vehicles in the 90s
  • Due to the success of the Ford Explorer, Sport Utility Vehicles became very popular among families, and effectively replaced the station wagon as the stereotypical family vehicle.
  • Major 1990s slang words/phrases, mostly related to hip hop culture, include: "dawg" "homie", "phat", "da bomb", "tight", "word to your mother", "Talk to the hand [because the face ain't listening]", "it's goin' down", "You go girl!", "yo", "whatever!", "all that and a bag of chips".
  • Young adult and teenage fiction books become popular due to the efforts of R. L. Stine and Christopher Pike throughout the entire 1990s.
  • Dogme 95 becomes an important European artistic film movement by the end of the decade.
  • Eurodance music dominates discotheques and has numerous major mainstream hits in European (and to a lesser extent, North American) music charts.
  • Mainstream "Techno", as it is dubbed by the media, became hugely popular in Europe and the U.S. From the early raves of 1990 to about 1996, electronic music gradually gained widespread recognition as a new genre in its own right. This trend reached a head in the latter part of the decade as underground parties were largely replaced by massive commercially sponsored parties, and as music media such as MTV began coverage of it.
Breakdancer in Ljubljana, Slovenia when hip-hop music swept the globe in the 1990s.

Fashion

See also: 1990s in fashion

The 1990s in popular culture is typically referred to as the decade of "anti-fashion". In reality, anti-fashion was only one of many trends in fashion in the 1990s. The fashion of the 1990s was characterized by minimalist styles, and many overlapping, often contradictory trends. The most significant event was the rise of grunge fashion in 1992. In the late 1990s there was a move away from grunge. Retro clothing inspired by the 1960s and 1970s was popular for much of the 1990s.

Music

Television

Computer and video games

  • 3-D graphics become the standard by end of decade. Although FPSs had long since seen the transition to full 3D, other genres begin to copy this trend by the end of the decade.
  • Lara Croft became the first video game sex symbol, becoming a recognisable figure in the entertainment industry throughout the late 1990s.
  • The console wars, primarily between Sega (Sega Mega Drive (marketed as the Sega Genesis in North America), introduced in 1988) and Nintendo (Super NES, introduced in 1990), sees the entrance of Sony with the PlayStation in 1994, which becomes the first successful CD-based console (as opposed to cartridges). By the end of the decade, Sega's hold on the market becomes tenuous after the commercial failures of the Saturn in 1994 and the Dreamcast in 2001.
  • Mario finds a rival in Sonic the Hedgehog with the release of the original game on the Genesis in 1991.
  • Nintendo released the first 3-D styled video game Donkey Kong Country for the SNES in 1994, and three sequels to further advance video game design.
  • Arcade games rapidly decrease in popularity.
  • Fighting games like Capcom's Street Fighter II, Sega's futuristic Virtua Fighter and the more violent Mortal Kombat from Acclaim prompted the video game industry to adopt a game rating system, and hundreds of knock-offs are widely popular in mid-to-late1990s.
  • Sony's PlayStation becomes the top selling game console and changes the standard media storage type from cartridges to compact discs in consoles.
  • Doom (1993) bursts onto the world scene and instantly popularizes the FPS genre, and even how games are played, as Doom is among the first games to feature multiplayer capabilities. It is not until Quake (1996), however, that game developers begin to take multiplayer features into serious consideration when making games. Half-Life (1998) features the next evolutionary step in the genre with continual progression of the game (no levels in the traditional sense) and an entirely in-person view, and becomes one of the most popular computer games in history.
  • The strategy genre becomes popular with games such as Dune II (1992) and Warcraft: Orcs & Humans (1994). Command & Conquer (1995) and Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness (1995) further advance and popularize the genre. StarCraft (1998) becomes the second-best selling game in computer game history.
  • Final Fantasy first debuted (in North America) in 1990 for the NES, and remains among the most popular video game franchises, with 11 total sequels to date, with another in development, plus numerous spin-offs and related titles.
  • Massively Multiplayer Online Role-playing games (MMORPGs) see their entrance into the computer game world with Ultima Online in 1997, although they don't gain widespread popularity until EverQuest and Asheron's Call in 1999. MMORPGs go on to become among the most popular genres in the 2000s.
  • Pokémon entered the world scene with the release of the original Game Boy Pokemon Red and Pokemon green games in Japan in 1996, later changed to pokemon red and pokemon blue for worldwide release in 1998. It soon becomes popular in the U.S. and is adapted into a popular children's anime series and trading card game, among other media forms. Its popularity remains well into the 2000's.
Popular video games of the 1990s

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Internet

  • Beginnings of MP3 music downloading; in 1999 and 2000 the Napster controversy.
  • The first MP3 Player, the MPMan, is released in late spring of 1998. It came with 32Mb of flash memory expandable to 64Mb.
  • The Internet begins to affect pop culture, beginning around 1996.
  • Most television stations establish an Internet presence during the later half of the decade.
  • Earliest examples of Internet film.
  • Bulletin Board System interest decreases heavily with introduction of the Web.
  • Pornography on the Internet launches and grows rapidly (one of the few industries to experience growth during dot.com bust of 2000)
  • A concept of online social ettiquette, "Netiquette" begins to form in 1995.
  • Online chat debuts in the mid 1990s, along with social networking and teen community sites such as Classmates.com and Xanga in the late 1990s.

International Issues

Politically, the 1990s was an era of spreading democracy. The former countries of the Warsaw Pact moved from totalitarian regimes to democratically-elected governments. The same happened in other non-communist countries, such as Taiwan, Chile, South Africa, and Indonesia. Capitalism made great changes to the economies of communist countries like China and Vietnam, and even Cuba where old-school leader Fidel Castro continued to blast American corruption.

The improvement in relations between the countries of NATO and the former members of the Warsaw Pact ended the Cold War both in Europe and other parts of the world. In 1993, the Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, and PLO leader Yasser Arafat shook hands in agreement for peace, at the conclusion of peace talks sponsored by US president Bill Clinton. The outcome of these talks, known as the Oslo Accords, was an agreement by Israel to allow Palestinian self-government.

Conflicts like the Balkan Wars, the Rwandan genocide, the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia and the first Gulf War, as well as the continuation of terrorism, led some to hypothesize a Clash of Civilizations, but the decade was also a time of peace in terror-ridden Northern Ireland when the IRA agreed to a truce in 1994. This marked the beginning of the end of 25 years of violence between the two sectarian groups, Protestant and Catholic, and the start of political negotiations.

In the United States

In the United States, Bill Clinton was president for much of the decade. Under Clinton, the United States was involved in few foreign wars and saw a resurgence of liberal movements. However, the end of the Cold War dramatically changed the political landscape of the world as the long-standing "Communism vs. Capitalism" conflict essentially came to an end. One result of this was the establishment of political allegiances between many developing countries, and concurrent changes within their own governments. Great strides were made towards Israeli-Palestinian peace in the early part of the decade, due to official PLO recognition of Israel in 1993. However, later in the decade, the peace process became derailed and eventually the conflict escalated once again, especially in the 2000s. Al Qaeda became visible as a terrorist threat against the U.S. after the bombing of the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998.

In Canada

In Europe

In the United Kingdom

  • The United Kingdom, after a recession in 199192 and its withdrawal from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism on Black Wednesday, experienced sustained economic growth that stretched into the new millennium.
  • In the UK in 1994, Tony Blair becomes leader of the British Labour Party and begins the "New Labour" project moving the party to the centre of British politics, which in 1997 ends 18 years of government by the Conservative party in a landslide election victory.
  • Peace process begins in Northern Ireland in 1995.

In the Middle East

In Eastern Europe

In Asia

  • In Japan, after three decades of economic growth put them in third place in the world's economies, the situation worsened after 1993. The recession went on into the early 2000s, bringing an end to the seemingly unlimited prosperity that the country had hitherto enjoyed. However, the rise of free market economics in China under more socialist regulation had not slowed that country's economic prosperity in the 1990s, and its economic growth continues.
  • Less affluent nations such as India, Malaysia and Vietnam also saw tremendous improvements in economic prosperity and quality of life during the 1990s. Optimism and hopes were high following the collapse of Communism, and restructuring following the end of the Cold War was beginning. However, there was also the continuation of terrorism in Third World regions that were once the "frontlines" for American and Soviet foreign politics, particularly in Asia.
  • South-East Asia economic crisis starting from 1997.
  • Spratly islands became one of the most controversial issue in South East Asia. Malaysia,Thailand,Vietnam and People's Republic of China wants to occupied the zone. But the sovereign country Philippines aimed for its hurisdiction.
  • The Tibetan Freedom Concert brings 120,000 people together in the interest of increased human rights and autonomy for Tibet from China.
  • Portugal hands sovereignty of Macau to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999.
  • East Timor breaks away from Indonesian control in 1999, merely a year after the fall of Soeharto from power, ending a twenty-four year guerrilla war with more than 200,000 casualties. The UN deploys a peace keeping force, spearheaded by the Australian and New Zealand armed forces. America deploys US police officers to serve with the International Police element, to help train and equip an East Timorese police force.
  • Great Britain hands sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997.
  • In May 1999, Pakistan sends troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month later the Kargil War with India results in a political fiasco for Nawaz Sharif, followed by a military withdrawal to the Line of Control. The incident leads to a military coup in October in which the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf.

In Africa

Significant events

Other significant events

The Flame of Liberty, which sits above the entrance to the Paris tunnel in which Princess Diana died in 1997, as global mourning accompanied the event.

People

Template:Cleanup-list

World leaders

Former 1990s US presidents Bill Clinton and George H.W. Bush in January 2005.

Entertainers

Mariah Carey performing in December 1998. Since her career began in 1990, she went on to become one of the biggest-selling female recording artists in pop music history.

Films

See also: 1990s in film



Books and literature

See also: 1990s books

Sports figures

See also: 1990s in sports

American Football 
Troy Aikman
Jerome Bettis
Randall Cunningham
Terrell Davis
John Elway
Brett Favre
Doug Flutie
Michael Irvin
Jim Kelly
Dan Marino
Joe Montana
Scott Norwood
Junior Seau
Jerry Rice
Bruce Smith
Emmitt Smith
Barry Sanders
Deion Sanders
Derrick Thomas
Reggie White
Steve Young
Athletics (Track & Field)
Sergey Bubka
Linford Christie
Haile Gebrselassie
Hicham El Guerrouj
Michael Johnson
Australian Rules Football 
Tony Lockett
Baseball 
Rick Aguilera
Roberto Alomar
Jeff Bagwell
Barry Bonds
Joe Carter
Will Clark
David Cone
Steve Finley
John Franco
Roger Clemens
Andres Galarraga
Tom Glavine
Rickey Henderson
Tom Henke
Trevor Hoffman
Derek Jeter
Randy Johnson
Chipper Jones
Wally Joyner
Barry Larkin
Kenny Lofton
Greg Maddux
Mark McGwire
Tony Gwynn
Paul O'Neill
John Olerud
Rafael Palmeiro
Mike Piazza
Cal Ripken
Mariano Rivera
Sammy Sosa
Randy Johnson
Ken Griffey, Jr.
Robin Ventura
Omar Vizquel
Larry Walker
John Wetteland
Bernie Williams
Pedro Martinez
Nomar Garciaparra
Basketball 
Reggie Miller
Charles Barkley
Larry Bird
Kobe Bryant
Tim Duncan
Patrick Ewing
Kevin Garnett
Allen Iverson
Stephon Marbury
Magic Johnson
Michael Jordan
Hakeem Olajuwon
Karl Malone
Shaquille O'Neal
Clyde Drexler
Allan Houston
Scottie Pippen
David Robinson
Dennis Rodman
John Stockton
Boxing 
Tito Trinidad
Julio César Chávez
George Foreman
Evander Holyfield
Mike Tyson
Roy Jones Jr.
Lennox Lewis
James Toney
Pernell Whitaker
Cricket 
Curtly Ambrose
Allan Donald
Ian Healy
Brian Lara
Glenn McGrath
Muttiah Muralitharan
Sachin Tendulkar
Courtney Walsh
Alec Stewart
Shane Warne
Steve Waugh
Wasim Akram
Waqar Younis
Cycling 
Marco Pantani
Lance Armstrong
Miguel Indurain
Football (soccer)
Gabriel Batistuta
Roberto Baggio
Franco Baresi
David Beckham
Dennis Bergkamp
Didier Deschamps
Marcel Desailly
Jorge Campos
Eric Cantona
Luís Figo
Robbie Fowler
Paul Gascoigne
Ryan Giggs
Gheorghe Hagi
Fernando Hierro
Oliver Kahn
Roy Keane
Jürgen Klinsmann
Jari Litmanen
Paolo Maldini
Steve McManaman
Roger Milla
Rivaldo
Ronaldo
Romario
Manuel Rui Costa
David Seaman
Peter Schmeichel
Alan Shearer
Hristo Stoichkov
Davor Suker
Taffarel
George Weah
Zinedine Zidane
Golf 
Tiger Woods
Nick Faldo
Payne Stewart
Ice Hockey 
Wayne Gretzky
Mario Lemieux
Pavel Bure
Dominik Hasek
Teemu Selänne
Pat Lafontaine
Eric Lindros
Sergei Fedorov
Jaromir Jagr
Patrick Roy
Mark Messier
Jeremy Roenick
Doug Gilmour
Chris Chelios
Motor Sport 
Dale Earnhardt
Jeff Gordon
Tommi Mäkinen
Colin McRae
Michael Schumacher
Ayrton Senna
Jacques Villeneuve
Mika Häkkinen
Peter Brock
Larry Perkins
Professional Wrestling 
Shawn Michaels
Stone Cold Steve Austin
Ultimate Warrior
Sting
Triple H
British Bulldog
Mick Foley
Bill Goldberg
The Rock
Kevin Nash
Scott Hall
Ric Flair
Bret Hart
Hulk Hogan
The Undertaker
DX
New World Order
Rowing
Steve Redgrave
Matthew Pinsent
Rugby Union 
Jonah Lomu
Will Carling
Jeremy Guscott
John Eales
Francois Pienaar
Ben Tune
Michael Lynagh
Christian Cullen
Waisale Serevi
Abdelatif Benazzi
Lawrence Dallaglio
Rob Andrew
Martin Johnson
Neil Jenkins
Gavin Hastings
Matt Burke
Tim Horan
Jason Little
Toutai Kefu
Martin Johnson
Jason Leonard
Neil Back
Diego Dominguez
Bryan Redpath
Rob Howley
Philippe Sella
David Campese
Andrew Mehrtens
Scott Quinnell
Keith Wood
Pat Lam
Brian Lima
Jeff Wilson
Serge Betsen
Bobby Skinstad
Fabien Galthie
Fabien Pelous
Olivier Magne
Joel Stransky
Josh Kronfeld
Zinzan Brooke
Os Du Randt
Dan Lyle
Patricio Noriega
Joe Roff
Rugby League 
Laurie Daley
Andrew Johns
Brad Fittler
Andrew Farrell
Ellery Hanley
Allan Langer
Darren Lockyer
Gorden Tallis
Shane Webcke
Skating 
Michelle Kwan
Nancy Kerrigan
Oksana Baiul
Alpine Skiing 
Alberto Tomba
Picabo Street
Nordic Skiing 
Bjørn Dæhlie
Swimming
Summer Sanders
Jenny Thompson
Tennis 
Andre Agassi
Pete Sampras
Yevgeny Kafelnikov
Tim Henman
Jennifer Capriati
Steffi Graf
Gabriela Sabatini
Martina Hingis
Anna Kournikova
Monica Seleš
Serena Williams
Venus Williams

See also

External links

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 1990s. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about 1990sRDF feed
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This article uses material from the "1990s" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century20th century21st century
Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s1990s – 2000s 2010s 2020s
Years: 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Categories: BirthsDeathsArchitecture
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 1990s was the decade that started on January 1, 1990 and ended on December 31, 1999. It was the last full decade of both the 20th century and the 2nd millennium.

Events

People

Other websites

Source for some items:








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