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Antoine-Jean Gros, Surrender of Madrid, 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century · 19th century · 20th century
Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s
1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 19th century (1801–1900) was a period in history marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the United States, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration.

After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one third of the land area. It enforced a Pax Britannica, encouraged trade, and battled rampant piracy. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[1] The Industrial Revolution began in Europe.[2] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines.[3]

Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 1800s, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from roughly 200 million to more than 400 million.[4] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population expanded from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe.[5]

Jean-Léon Gérôme, The Slave Market c.1884

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade.[6] Britain abolished slavery in 1834, America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.

The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe.[7]

The 1800s also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world.

Contents

Eras

Events

Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

1800–1809

1810s

1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu kingdom

1820s

The Great Exhibition in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.

1830s

1840s

1850s

1860s

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe.[8]

1870s

Alexander Graham Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone

1880s

1890s

Significant people

Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of The United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865
José Rizal, the National hero of the Philippines

Show business and theatre

Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology
Ellen Terry, c.1880

Athletics

John L Sullivan in his prime, c.1882.

Business

Famous and infamous personalities

Jesse and Frank James, 1872
Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody, Montreal, Quebec, 1885
Geronimo, 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache
Baptiste Deburau c. 1830s, as Pierrot.

Anthropology, archaeology, scholars

Journalists, missionaries, explorers

Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy

Photography

Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c.1875

Visual artists, painters, sculptors

Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th century painters included:

Music

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Niccolo Paganini, (c.1819), charcoal drawing

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the nineteenth century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:

Literature

Mark Twain, 1894
Henry David Thoreau, August 1861.
Emile Zola, c.1900

On the literary front the new century opens with Romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.

French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.

The Goncourts and Emile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.

There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included:

Science

Mme. Marie Curie, c.1898

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell[9]. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. Other important 19th century scientists included:

Philosophy and religion

Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
The last Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, circa 1867
One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

Politics and the Military

See also

External links

References


Millennium: [[2Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: millennium|2Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: millennium]]
Centuries: [[18Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|18Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]Template:· [[19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]Template:· [[20Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|20Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]
Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s
1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Categories: [[:Category:19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century births|Births]] – [[:Category:19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century deaths|Deaths]]
[[:Category:19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century establishments|Establishments]] – [[:Category:19Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century disestablishments|Disestablishments]]
File:Rédition de Madrid
Antoine-Jean Gros, Surrender of Madrid, 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810

The 19th century (1801–1900) was a period in history marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the United States, spurring military conflicts but also advances in science and exploration.

After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one fifth of the total land area. It enforced a Pax Britannica, encouraged trade, and battled rampant piracy. The 19th century was an era of invention and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[1] The Industrial Revolution began in Europe.[2] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines.[3]

Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from roughly 200 million to more than 400 million.[4] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London was transformed into the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population expanded from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe.[5] [[File:|thumb|Jean-Léon Gérôme, The Slave Market c.1884]] Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade.[6] Britain abolished slavery in 1834, America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.

The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe.[7]

The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world.

Contents

Eras

Events

File:British Empire
Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

1800–1809

1810s

[[File:|thumb|1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu kingdom]]

1820s

File:Crystal Palace -
The Great Exhibition in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.

1830s

1840s

1850s

[[File:|thumb|The Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War]]

1860s

[[File:|thumb|The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal]]

File:RobertKoch
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe.[8]

1870s

File:1876 Bell Speaking into
Alexander Graham Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone

1880s

1890s

Significant people

File:Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo
Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of The United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865
File:Jose rizal
José Rizal, the National hero of the Philippines

Show business and theatre

[[File:|thumb|upright|Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology]]

Athletics

File:John L
John L Sullivan in his prime, c.1882.

Business

Famous and infamous personalities

[[File:|thumb|upright|Geronimo, 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache]]

File:Jean-Gaspard
Baptiste Deburau c. 1830s, as Pierrot.

Anthropology, archaeology, scholars

Journalists, missionaries, explorers

File:Thomas Nast -
Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy

Photography

File:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Nié
One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce
File:Mathew Brady 1875
Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c.1875

Visual artists, painters, sculptors

File:Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait, 1880–1881

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th century painters included:

Music

[[File:|thumb|upright|Ludwig van Beethoven]] [[File:|thumb|upright|Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Niccolo Paganini, (c.1819), charcoal drawing]]

File:Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix
Chopin, by Delacroix, 1838.

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:

Literature

[[File:|thumb|upright|Ralph Waldo Emerson]]

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.

French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.

The Goncourts and Emile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.

There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included:

Science

[[File:|thumb|upright|Mme. Marie Curie, c.1898]] The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell[9]. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. Other important 19th century scientists included:

Philosophy and religion

[[File:|thumb|upright|Søren Kierkegaard]] The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

Politics and the Military

See also

External links

Supplementary portrait gallery

References


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
19th century

Plural
-

19th century

  1. The hundred years from 1801 through 1900.
  2. (nonstandard) The hundred years from 1800 through 1899; the 1800's

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century · 19th century · 20th century
Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s
1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

Contents

Overview

Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one third of the land area. It enforced a Pax Britannica, encouraged trade, and battled rampant piracy.

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade. Britain abolished slavery in 1834, America's Emancipation Proclamation during the Civil War would end slavery in 1863, and in Brazil slavery ended in 1888(see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.

Electricity, steel and petroleum fuelled a Second Industrial Revolution which enabled the German Empire, Japan, and the United States to become great powers that raced to create empires of their own. However, Russia and Qing Dynasty China failed to keep pace with the other world powers which led to massive social unrest in both empires.

Events

Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

1800s

1810s

1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu kingdom

1820s

1830s

1840s

1850s

File:CatonWoodvilleLightBrigade.jpeg

1860s

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal

1870s

Alexander Graham Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone
Thomas Edison in 1878

1880s

1890s

Significant people

Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology

Anthropology

Painters

Monet's Impression, which gave the name to Impressionism

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. 19th century painters included:

Music

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the nineteenth century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. Others included:

Literature

Main article: 19th century in literature
File:Twain in Tesla's Lab.jpg
Mark Twain in 1894

On the literary front the new century opens with Romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.

French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.

The Goncourts and Emile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto.

There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekov and Fyodor Dostoevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne and Charles Baudelaire. Some others of note included:

Science

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world light with his invention of the lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis. Other important 19th century scientists included:

Philosophy and religion

Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
The last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform
One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

Politics

See also

Decades and years

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 19th century. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "19th century" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.








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