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Different orders of magnitude of energy for solar, wind and global consumption

This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.

Scientific E notation index: -32 | -24 | -21 | -18 | -15 | -12 | -9 | -6 | -3 | 0 | 3 | 6 | 9 | 12 | 15 | 18 | 24

Contents

Less than 10-24

10-24

SI prefix: yocto- (yJ)

  • 1.5×10-23 J, the average kinetic energy of a molecule in the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest place known outside of a laboratory, at a temperature of 1 kelvin

10-21

SI prefix: zepto- (zJ)

10-18

SI prefix: atto- (aJ)

10-15

SI prefix: femto- (fJ)

10-12

SI prefix: pico- (pJ)

10-9

SI prefix: nano- (nJ)

10-6

SI prefix: micro- (µJ)

  • 2×10-5 J, the energy to pronounce an average syllable of a word[2]
  • 3×10-5 J, the energy of one second of moonlight on the human face[2]
  • 1.8×10-4 J, the expected collision energy of lead nuclei in the CERN Large Hadron Collider [8]
  • 9×10-4 J, the energy of a cricket's chirp[2]

10-3

SI prefix: milli- (mJ)

10-2

SI prefix: centi- (cJ)

10-1

SI prefix: deci- (dJ)

100

1 J in everyday life is approximately:

the energy required to lift a small apple (100 grams) one meter against Earth's gravity
the amount of energy that a quiet person produces as heat, every hundredth of a second
the energy required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1 degree Celsius

101

SI prefix: deca- (daJ)

102

SI prefix: hecto- (hJ)

  • 6×102 J, the use of a 10-watt flashlight for one minute[2]
  • 7.457×102 J, a power of one horsepower applied for one second
  • 9×102 J, the energy of a lethal dose of X-rays[2]

103

SI prefix: kilo- (kJ)

106

SI prefix: mega- (MJ)

  • 1×106 J, the kinetic energy of a one tonne vehicle at 45 metres per second (100 miles per hour)
  • 1×106 J, approximately the food energy of a snack such as a Mars bar
  • 3.6×106 J, = 1 kilowatt-hour (electricity consumption)
  • 6.3×106 J, the recommended food energy intake per day for a woman not doing heavy labour
  • 8.4×106 J, the recommended food energy intake per day for a man
  • 1×107 J, the energy of a day's worth of heavy labour[2]
  • 1×108 J, the kinetic energy of a 55 tonne aircraft at typical landing speed (115 knots or 59 m/s)
  • 1.05×108 J ≈ 1 therm, depending on the temperature
  • 7.25×108 J ≈ energy from burning 16 kilograms of oil (using 135 kg per barrel of light crude)

109

SI prefix: giga- (GJ)

1012

SI prefix: tera- (TJ)

1015

SI prefix: peta- (PJ)

  • 2.07×1015 J, the yearly electricity production in Togo, Africa as of 2005[6]
  • 4.184×1015 J, the amount of energy in 1 megaton of TNT
  • 1.0×1016 J, the estimated impact energy released in forming Meteor Crater
  • 4.42×1016 J, the yearly electricity consumption in Zimbabwe as of 2005[6]
  • 8.988×1016 J, the amount of energy in 1 kilogram of antimatter
  • 1.1×1017 J, the surface energy of the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake
  • 1.74×1017 J, the total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second[7]
  • 2.1×1017 J, the yield of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever tested
  • 4.10×1017 J, the yearly electricity consumption of Norway as of 2005[6]
  • 4.184×1017 J, 100 megatons, a potential nuclear weapon yield[2]
  • 8.4×1017 J, the estimated energy released by the eruption of the Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, in 1883[8]

1018

SI prefix: exa- (EJ)

  • 1.37×1019 J, the yearly electricity consumption in the U.S. as of 2005[6]
  • 1.46×1019J, the yearly electricity production in the U.S. as of 2005[9]
  • 5.2×1019 J, the daily energy released by an average hurricane producing rain (400 times greater than the wind energy).[10]
  • 5.67×1019 J, the yearly electricity consumption of the world as of 2005[6]
  • 6.25×1019 J, the yearly electricity generation of the world as of 2005[11]
  • 4.37x1020 J, Total World Annual Energy consumption (15TW years)
  • 8.01×1020 J, estimated global uranium resources for generating electricity 2005.[12][13][14][15]

1021

SI prefix: zetta- (ZJ)

  • 6.5×1021 J, the estimated energy contained in the world's natural gas reserves as of 2006[16]
  • 7.4×1021 J, the estimated energy contained in the world's petroleum reserves as of 2003
  • 1.5×1022J, the total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day[7]
  • 2.1×1022 J, the estimated energy contained in the world's coal reserves as of 2005[17]
  • 2.9×1022 J, identified global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology.[12]
  • 3.9×1022 J, the estimated energy contained in the world's fossil fuel reserves as of 2003
  • 4×1022 J, the estimated total energy released by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, equivalent to approximately 9.5 Teratons of TNT
  • 2.2×1023 J, total global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology.[12]
  • 5.0×1023 J, the approximate energy released in the formation of the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula[18]

1024 and above

SI prefix: yotta- (YJ)

  • 5.5×1024 J, the total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year[7]
  • 1.25×1026 J, conservative estimate of the energy released by the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury
  • 3.86×1026 J, the total energy output of the Sun each second[19]
  • 2.58×1029 J, rotational energy of the Earth
  • 3.34×1031 J, the total energy output of the Sun each day[19]
  • 2.24×1032 J, the gravitational binding energy of the Earth[20]
  • 2.7×1033 J, the Earth's kinetic energy in its orbit[21]
  • 1.22×1034 J, the total energy output of the Sun each year[19]
  • 5.37×1041 J, the theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth
  • 6.87×1041 J, the gravitational binding energy of the Sun[20]
  • 1.2×1044 J, the estimated energy released in a supernova[22]
  • 1×1046 J, the estimated energy released in a hypernova
  • 1×1047 J, the energy released in an intense gamma ray burst
  • 1.8×1047 J, the theoretical total mass-energy of the Sun
  • 4×1058 J, the visible mass-energy in our galaxy, the Milky Way
  • 1×1059 J, the total mass-energy of the galaxy, including dark matter and dark energy
  • 4×1069 J, the estimated total mass-energy of the observable universe.[23]
Scientific E notation index: -32 | -24 | -21 | -18 | -15 | -12 | -9 | -6 | -3 | 0 | 3 | 6 | 9 | 12 | 15 | 18 | 24

SI multiples

SI multiples for joule (J)
Submultiples Multiples
Value Symbol Name Value Symbol Name
10–1 J dJ decijoule 101 J daJ decajoule
10–2 J cJ centijoule 102 J hJ hectojoule
10–3 J mJ millijoule 103 J kJ kilojoule
10–6 J µJ microjoule 106 J MJ megajoule
10–9 J nJ nanojoule 109 J GJ gigajoule
10–12 J pJ picojoule 1012 J TJ terajoule
10–15 J fJ femtojoule 1015 J PJ petajoule
10–18 J aJ attojoule 1018 J EJ exajoule
10–21 J zJ zeptojoule 1021 J ZJ zettajoule
10–24 J yJ yoctojoule 1024 J YJ yottajoule
This SI unit is named after James Prescott Joule. As with every SI unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (J). When an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (joule), except where any word would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. Note that "degree Celsius" conforms to this rule because the "d" is lowercase.
Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.
Orders of magnitude
area angular velocity charge currency data density energy
force frequency length magnetic field mass numbers power
pressure specific energy density specific heat capacity speed temperature time volume
Conversion of units
physical unit SI SI base unit SI derived unit SI prefix Planck units

See also

Notes

  1. ^ CERN - Glossary
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wallechinsky, David; Wallace, Irving; Wallace, Amy (1977 (1st Bantam ed., February 1978)). The Book of Lists. Bantam Books. pp. 268–271. ISBN 0553111507.  
  3. ^ a b KE = \tfrac{1}{2}mv^2
  4. ^ E_p = \sqrt{\frac{\hbar c^5}{G}}
  5. ^ a b Energy Units, by Arthur Smith, 21 January 2005
  6. ^ a b c d e http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table62.xls from the Energy Information Administration [1]
  7. ^ a b c The Earth has a cross section of 1.274×1014 square meters and the solar constant is 1366 watts per square meter.
  8. ^ Krakatoa#Legacy of the 1883 eruption
  9. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls from the Energy Information Administration [2]
  10. ^ FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES noaa.gov
  11. ^ [3]U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
  12. ^ a b c Global Uranium Resource
  13. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
  14. ^ U.S. EIA International Energy Outlook 2007.
  15. ^ Final number is computed. Energy Outlook 2007 shows 15.9% of world energy is nuclear. IAEA estimates conventional uranium stock, at today's prices is sufficient for 85 years. Convert billion kilowatt hours to joules then: 6.25×1019×0.159×85 = 8.01×1020.
  16. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.xls from the Energy Information Administration [4]
  17. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iea2003/table82.xls from the Energy Information Administration [5]
  18. ^ [6]
  19. ^ a b c The Sun at http://www.nineplanets.org
  20. ^ a b U = \frac{(3/5)GM^2}{r}
    Chandrasekhar, S. 1939, An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (Chicago: U. of Chicago; reprinted in New York: Dover), section 9, eqs. 90-92, p. 51 (Dover edition)
    Lang, K. R. 1980, Astrophysical Formulae (Berlin: Springer Verlag), p. 272
  21. ^ [7]
  22. ^ Khokhlov, A.; Mueller, E.; Hoeflich, P. (1993). "Light curves of Type IA supernova models with different explosion mechanisms". Astronomy and Astrophysics 270 (1-2): 223–248. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/bib_query?1993A%26A...270..223K. Retrieved 2007-07-10.  
  23. ^ http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211b.html
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