1 Esdras: Wikis

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The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.

1 Esdras (Greek Έσδράς Αˊ), Greek Ezra, is an ancient Greek version of the Biblical book of Ezra in use among ancient Jewry, the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity and a high historical usefulness.

In all, 1 Esdras includes 99 more verses than Masoretic Ezra. These lie almost entirely in one section and serve a literary purpose; one other, short passage is in a different position. Modern texts continue with the last two short chapters of the preceding Biblical work, 2 Chronicles. Thus like Ezra, it is used as evidence for a once larger Chronicles-Ezra that has since been split canonically.

The historical importance of the version of Ezra is that ancients such as the Jewish Josephus and the Christian Church Fathers quoted 1 Esdras extensively as "Scripture"[citation needed]. Moreover, it was grouped with the canon of the Old Testament; for example, it is found in Origen's Hexapla. A part of the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, it is regarded as canonical in the churches of the East, but regarded with a less lofty view among Jews, and the churches of the West.[1]

Contents

Contents

First Esdras contains the whole of Ezra with additions of about four chapters of Ezra. Moreover, just as Ezra begins with the last two verses of 2 Chronicles, 1 Esdras begins with the last two chapters; and it concludes with fourteen verses parallel to part of Nehemiah.

1 Esdras 2:15-30a flashes forward to Artaxerxes's reign, when the book ends. Following this prolepsis is the core of 1 Esdras, arranged in a beautiful literary chiasm around the celebration in Jerusalem at the exiles’ return. This arrangement is possible only with the material not found in Ezra (1 Esd. 2:30b — 5:1-6). These verses are the core of the chiasm, critical to the book's purpose and structure. Not only are these verses the core of the chiasm, but they fit the events in history, in the reigns of Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes. Because of their importance, the two books Ezra and Nehemiah may once have formed separate books, rather than a single Ezra-Nehemiah. Indeed some scholars, such as W. F. Albright and Edwin M. Yamauchi, believe that Nehemiah came back to Jerusalem before Ezra.[2][3]

EZRA AND I ESDRAS COMPARED
Masoretic Text Septuagint Summary
Continuation of Paralipomenon
(i.e., "Things Set Off" from Esdras)
(II Chr. 35) (I Esd. 1:1-33)
(II Chr. 36) (I Esd. 1:34-58)
Begin Ezra
Ezr. 1 I Esd. 2:1-14 Cyrus's edict to rebuild the Temple
Ezr. 4:7-14 I Esd. 2:15-30a Flash forward to Artaxerxes’ reign (parenthesis)
Chiasm of Celebration
I Esd. 2:30b     Inclusio:   Work hindered until second year of Darius’s reign
I Esd. 3         A Feast in the court of Darius
I Esd. 4             B Darius vows to repatriate the exiles
I Esd. 5:1-6                 X The feast of those who returned to Jerusalem
Ezr. 2 I Esd. 5:7-46             B' List of former exiles who returned
Ezr. 3 I Esd. 5:47-65         A' Feast of Tabernacles
Ezr. 4:1-5[4] I Esd. 5:66-73     Inclusio:   Work hindered until second year of Darius’s reign
End of Chiasm
Ezr. 5 I Esd. 6:1-22 In the second year of Darius's reign
Ezr. 6 I Esd. 6:23 — 7 The temple is finished
Ezr. 7 I Esd. 8:1-27 Back to Artaxerxes’ reign
Ezr. 8 I Esd. 8:28-67 List of latter exiles who returned
Ezr. 9 I Esd. 8:68-90 Repentance from miscegenation
Ezr. 10 I Esd. 8:91-9:36      Putting away of foreign wives and children
Conclusion
Neh. 7:73-8:12 I Esd. 9:37-55 Ezra reads the Law

Author and criticism

The purpose of the book seems to be the presentation of the dispute among the courtiers, to which details from the other books are added to complete the story. Since there are various discrepancies in the account, most scholars hold that the work was written by more than one author. However, some scholars believe that this work may have been the original, or at least the more authoritative; the variances that are contained in this work are so striking that more research is being conducted. Furthermore, there is disagreement as to what the original language of the work was, Greek, Aramaic, or Hebrew.[5] Because of similarities to the vocabulary in the Book of Daniel, it is presumed by some that the authors came from Lower Egypt and some or all may have even had a hand in the translation of Daniel. Assuming this theory is correct, many scholars consider the possibility that one "chronicler" wrote this book.

Josephus makes use of the book and some scholars believe that the composition is likely to have taken place in the first century BC or the first century AD. Many Protestant and Catholic scholars assign no historical value to the "original" sections of the book. The citations of the other books of the Bible, however, provide a pre-Septuagint translation of those texts, which increases its value to scholars.

In the current Greek texts, the book breaks off in the middle of a sentence; that particular verse thus had to be reconstructed from an early Latin translation. However, it is generally presumed that the original work extended to the Feast of Tabernacles, as described in Nehemiah 8:13-18. An additional difficulty with the text is the apparent ignorance of its author regarding the historical sequence of events. Artaxerxes is mentioned before Darius, who is mentioned before Cyrus. (Such jumbling of the order of events, however, is also suspected by some authors to exist in the canonical Ezra and Nehemiah.) This error or double naming is corrected by Josephus in The Antiquities of the Jews Book 11 chapter 2 where we find that the name of the above mentioned Artaxerxes is called Cambyses.

Use in the Christian canon

The book was widely quoted by early Christian authors and it found a place in Origen's Hexapla. It was not included in early canons of the Western Church, and Clement VIII relegated it to an appendix following the New Testament in the Vulgate "lest [it] perish entirely" [1]. However, the use of the book continued in the Eastern Church, and it remains a part of the Eastern Orthodox canon.

Nomenclature

The book normally called 1 Esdras is numbered differently among various versions of the Bible. In most editions of the Septuagint, the book is titled in Greek:  Έσδράς Αˊ and is placed before the single book of Ezra-Nehemiah, which is titled in Greek:  Έσδράς Βˊ.

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Summary

  • Septuagint and its derivative translations:  Έσδράς Αˊ = 1 Esdras
  • King James Version and many[6] successive English translations:  1 Esdras
  • Vulgate and its derivative translations:  3 Esdras
  • Slavonic bible:  2 Esdras
  • Ethiopic bible:  Ezra Kali[7]

References

  1. ^ For example, it is listed among the Apocrypha in Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England. Read Article VI at episcopalian.org
  2. ^ W. F. Albright, "The Date and Personality of the Chronicler", JBL 40 (1921), p. 121.
  3. ^ Edwin Yamauchi, "The Reverse Order of Ezra/Nehemiah Reconsidered," Themelios 5.3 (1980): 7-13. PDF online
  4. ^ Ezra 4:6, which introduces a difficult "King Ahasuerus," is not found in I Esdras.
  5. ^ http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/1esdras.html
  6. ^ Including RSV, NRSV, NEB, REB, and GNB
  7. ^ Ethiopian Ezra Kali means "2 Ezra".

See also

External links

Preceded by
1-2 Chronicles
Greek
Books of the Bible
See Deuterocanon
Succeeded by
2 Esdras

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to Esdras article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png Esdras on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
Wikisource-newberg-de.png Wikisource has an article on “Esdras”. Wikisource
Wiktionary has an Appendix listing books of the Bible

Contents

English

Etymology

Greek from Hebrew Ezra

Proper noun

Singular
Esdras

Plural
-

Esdras

  1. (Biblical) any of four books of the Old Testament and Apocrypha of the Bible. Sometimes abbreviated as Esd..

Usage notes

Depending upon which Bible is being examined there two or four Books of Esdras, with different names and numbering systems. Wikipedia has an article Esdras with a table explaining this.

Translations


Simple English


1 Esdras (Greek Έσδράς Αˊ), Greek Ezra, is an ancient Greek version of the Biblical book of Ezra in use among ancient Jewry, the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity and a high historical usefulness.


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