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1st Infantry Division
US 1st Infantry Division SSI.svg
1st Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
Active May 24, 1917 – present
Country  United States
Branch Regular Army
Type Division
Role Heavy Mechanized
Size 20,000
Part of Forces Command
Garrison/HQ Fort Riley, Kansas
Nickname "The Big Red One"
"The Fighting First"
Motto "No Mission Too Difficult, No Sacrifice Too Great—Duty First"
Colors Red and Green
March "The Big Red One Song"
Mascot Rags (WW I)
Engagements World War I

World War II

Vietnam War

Persian Gulf War

War on Terror

Commanders
Current
commander
Major General Vincent Brooks[1]
Notable
commanders
Major General Charles Pelot Summerall
Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
Major General Clarence R. Huebner
Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
Insignia
Distinctive Unit Insignia 1 Infantry Division DUI.PNG
U.S. Infantry Divisions (1939–present)
Previous Next
2nd Infantry Division

The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army (nicknamed The Big Red One after its shoulder patch[2] and The Fighting First[2]) is the oldest division in the United States Army.[2][3] It has seen continuous service since its organization in 1917.[2]

Contents

World War I

Composition[4]

Assigned

  • 1st Infantry Brigade
  • 2nd Infantry Brigade
  • 1st Field Artillery Brigade
    • 5th Field Artillery (155mm)
    • 6th Field Artillery (75mm)
    • 7th Field Artillery (75mm)
    • 1st Trench Mortar Battery
  • Divisional Troops
    • 1st Machine Gun Battalion
    • 1st Engineers
    • 2nd Field Signal Battalion
    • Headquarters Troop
  • Trains
    • 1st Train Headquarters and Military Police
    • 1st Ammunition Train
    • 1st Supply Train
    • 1st Engineer Train
    • 1st Sanitary Train (Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals 2, 3, 12, 13)

Attached Units

  • en route to France and in 1st (Gondrecourt) Training Area June 9 – September 23, 1917
  1. 5th Regt USMC
  • Ménil-la-Tour Area February 28 – April 3, 1918
  1. 1st Bn 2d Engrs (2d Div)
  • Cantigny Sector, at times from April 27 – July 7, 1918
  1. Fr 228th FA Regiment (75)
  2. Fr 253d FA Regiment(75)
  3. 1st and 2d Bns Fr 258th FA Regiment(75)
  4. 4th Bn Fr 301st Arty Regiment(155)
  5. 1 btry Fr 3d Cl Arty Regiment(155)
  6. 3d and 4th Bns Fr 284th Arty Regiment(220)
  7. 2d Bn Fr 289th Arty Regiment(220)
  8. 1 btry Fr 3d Cl Arty Regiment(220)
  9. 6th Bn Fr 289th Arty Regiment (280)
  10. 2 btrys Fr TM (58)
  11. 1 btry Fr TM (150)
  12. 1 btry Fr TM (240)
  13. Fr 5th Tank Bn (12 tanks)
  • Aisne-Marne Operation, at times from July 18–23, 1918
  1. Fr 42d Aero Sq
  2. Fr 83d Bln Co
  3. Fr 253d FA-Portée (75)
  4. Fr 11th and 12th Groups of Tanks
  • Saizerais Sector, at times from August 8–24, 1918
  1. Fr 258th Aero Sq
  2. 6th and 7th Bln Cos
  3. 3 btrys Fr 247th FA- Portée
  • Preceding and during St-Mihiel Operation, at times from September 8–14, 1918
  1. 8th Obsn Sq
  2. 9th Bln Co
  3. 58th FA Brig and 108th Am Tn (33d Div)
  4. 76th FA (3d Div) (75)
  5. 2 btrys 44th CA (8")
  6. Troops D, F, and H, 2d Cav
  7. 2 platoons Co A 1st Gas Regt (8 mortars)
  8. 2 bns of Inf (42d Div)
  9. 6th Inf Brig (3d Div)
  10. 2 cos 51st Pion Inf
  11. 7th MG Bn (3d Div)
  12. 49 tanks of 1st Tank Brig
  • Meuse-Argonne Operation October 1–2, 1918
  1. 60th FA Brig
  2. 110th Am Tn (35th Div)
  • Meuse-Argonne Operation, at times from October 1–12, 1918
  1. 1st Aero Sq
  2. 2d Bln Co
  3. Fr 219th FA (75)
  4. Fr 247th FA (6 btrys 75)
  5. Fr 5th Bn 282d Arty (220)
  6. Provisional Sq 2d Cav
  7. Co C 1st Gas Regt
  8. Co C 344th Tank Bn, 1st Tank Brig (16 tanks)
  9. Cos B and C 345th Tank Bn, 1st Tank Brig (16 tanks)
  • Meuse-Argonne Operation October 7, 1918
  1. 362d Inf (91st Div)
  • Meuse-Argonne Operation October 8–11, 1918
  1. 181st Inf Brig (91st Div)
  • Coblenz Bridgehead, at times from June 18–30, 1919
  1. 14th Bln Co
  2. MG elements Fr 2d Cav Div
  • Coblenz Bridgehead June 18–29, 1919
  1. 4th MG Bn (2d Div)
  • Coblenz Bridgehead June 20–30, 1919
  1. 7th MG Bn (3d Div)

Detached Service

  • at Le Valdahon August 22 – October 18, 1917; with Scottish 15th Div during AisneMarne Operation July 24, 1918; with 90th Div
  1. 1st FA Brig
  2. 1st Am Tn
  • with Scottish 15th Div during Aisne-Marne Operation July 24, 1918 in Saizerais (Villers-en-Haye) Sector August 24–28, 1918;
    with 42d Div in Meuse-Argonne Operation October 13–31, 1918;
    with 2nd Div in Meuse-Argonne Operation November 1–4, 1918.
  1. 1st Sn Tn
  • with III Corps September 28 – October 2, 1918
  1. 1st Engrs
  • with American Forces in Germany after August 9, 1919.
  1. 2d Bn 6th FA
  2. Co A 1st Engrs
  3. Cos A, B, C, D, 1st Sup Tn
  4. F Hosp 13

Commanders and Chiefs of Staff

Chiefs of Staff

  • 1917
  1. June 8 Col Frank W. Coe
  2. August 23 Capt George C. Marshall, Jr. (Acting)
  3. September 3 Col Hanson E. Ely
  4. November 23 Lt Col Campbell King (Acting)
  • 1918
  1. January 7 Lt Col Campbell King
  2. June 7 Col Campbell King
  3. September 23 Lt Col John N. Greely
  4. October 17 Col John N. Greely
  5. November 7 Col. Stephen O. Fuqua
  • 1919
  1. June 17 Col William F. Harrell (Acting)
  2. June 23 Col Stephen O. Fuqua
  3. July 12 Lt Col Paul E. Peabody (Acting)
  4. July 19 Col Stephen O. Fuqua
  5. August 2 Lt Col Paul E. Peabody (Acting)
  6. August 9 Col Stephen O. Fuqua
  7. August 19 Lt Col William R. Scott (Acting)
  8. August 24 to September 5 Col Stephen O. Fuqua

|valign="top" width="33%"|

  • Commanders 1st Infantry Brigade
  • 1917
  1. June 9 Col Omar Bundy
  2. June 28 Brig Gen Omar Bundy
  3. August 25 Col Ulysses G. McAlexander (ad interim)
  4. August 30 Brig Gen Omar Bundy
  5. September 8 Brig Gen George B. Duncan
  • 1918
  1. January 16 Col John L. Hines (ad interim)
  2. January 21 Brig Gen George B. Duncan
  3. May 5 Brig Gen John L. Hines
  4. August 27 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  5. October 18 Col Hjalmar Erickson (ad interim)
  6. November 21 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  7. December 20 Col Charles A. Hunt (ad interim)

1919

  1. January 5 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  2. January 12 Col Charles A. Hunt (ad interim)
  3. January 17 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  4. January 27 Col William F. Harrell (ad interim)
  5. January 29 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  6. February 16 Col Charles A. Hunt (ad interim)
  7. March 29 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  8. April 1 Col Charles A. Hunt (ad interim)
  9. April 11 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  10. April 25 Col Charles A. Hunt (ad interim)
  11. May 7 Lt Col Edward R. Coppock (ad interim)
  12. May 9 Lt Col William F. Hoey (ad interim)
  13. May 13 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  14. July 8 Col William W. McCammon (ad Interim)
  15. July 18 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  16. July 21 Col William W. McCammon (ad interim)
  17. July 24 to September 3 Brig Gen Frank Parker
  • Commanders 2nd Infantry Brigade
  • 1917
  1. June 7 Col. Robert L. Bullard
  2. June 28 Brig Gen Robert L. Bullard
  3. July 22 Col Charles A. Doyen, USMC (ad interim)
  4. August 9 Brig Gen Robert L. Bullard
  5. August 14 Col Charles A. Doyen, USMC (ad interim)
  6. August 19 Brig Gen Robert L. Bullard
  7. August 26 Col Charles A. Doyen, USMC (ad interim)
  8. August 29 Brig Gen Robert L. Bullard
  9. September 4 Brig Gen Beaumont B. Buck
  10. November 1 Col Ferdinand W. Kobbe (ad interim)
  11. November 10 Brig Gen Beaumont B. Buck
  • 1918
  1. August 27 Brig Gen Frank E. Bamford
  2. October 12 Col George C. Barnhardt (ad interim)
  3. October 17 Brig Gen George C. Barnhardt
  4. October 26 Brig Gen Francis C. Marshall
  • 1919
  1. February 2 Col Fredrik L. Knudson (ad interim)
  2. February 17 Brig Gen Francis C. Marshall
  3. May 29 Col Robert A. Brown (ad interim)
  4. June 6 Brig Gen Frank E. Bamford
  5. July 11 Col. Robert A. Brown (ad interim)
  6. July 16 Brig Gen Frank E. Bamford
  7. July 24 Col Robert A. Brown (ad interim)
  8. August 2 Col Adolphe H. Huguet (ad interim)
  9. August 9 to September 4 Col Robert A. Brown
  • Commanders 1st Field Artillery Brigade
  • 1917
  1. August 16 Brig Gen Peyton C. March
  2. September 3 Maj Gen Peyton C. March
  3. September 7 Maj Gen William S. McNair (ad interim)
  4. September 24 Maj Gen Peyton C. March
  5. October 12 Brig Gen Charles H. McKinstry
  6. December 23 Brig Gen Charles P. Summerall
  • 1918
  1. July 17 Col Lucius R. Holbrook (ad interim)
  2. August 16 Col Henry W. Butner
  3. October 21 Brig Gen Henry W. Butner
  • 1919
  1. March 31 Col William H. Dodds, Jr. (ad interim)
  2. April 21 Col Thomas W. Hollyday (ad interim)
  3. May 4 Col William H. Dodds, Jr. (ad interim)
  4. May 6 Brig Gen Henry W. Butner
  5. May 15 Col Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  6. May 17 Brig Gen Lesley J. McNair
  7. June 23 Brig Gen Augustine McIntyre
  8. July 12 Col Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  9. July 16 Brig Gen Augustine McIntyre
  10. July 21 Col Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  11. July 24 Brig Gen Augustine McIntyre
  12. August 5 Col Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  13. August 12 to September 5 Brig Gen Augustine McIntyre

|}

Narrative

The First Expeditionary Division, later designated the 1st Infantry Division, was constituted on May 24, 1917 in the Regular Army, and was organized on June 8, 1917 at Fort Jay, on Governors Island in New York harbor under the command of Brigadier General William L. Sibert, from Army units then in service on the U.S.-Mexico border and at various Army posts throughout the United States. The original Table of Organization and Equipment included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each, one engineer battalion; one signal battalion; one trench mortar battery; one field artillery brigade of three field artillery regiments; one air squadron; and a full division train. The total authorized strength of this TO&E was 18,919 officers and enlisted men. George S. Patton, who served as the first Headquarters commandant for the American Expeditionary Force oversaw much of the arrangements for the movement of the 1st Division to France, and their organization in-country.

The first units sailed from New York City and Hoboken, New Jersey on June 14, 1917.[5] Throughout the remainder of the year, the rest of the division followed, landing at St. Nazaire, France, and Liverpool, England. After a brief stay in rest camps, the troops in England proceeded to France, landing at Le Havre. The last unit arrived in St. Nazaire December 22. Upon arrival in France, the division, less its artillery, was assembled in the First (Gondrecourt) training area, and the artillery was at Le Valdahon.

On(Independence Day in the United States)July 4,the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry (2/16),[6] paraded through the streets of Paris to bolster the sagging French spirits. At Lafayette's tomb, one of General John J. Pershing's staff uttered the famous words, "Lafayette, we are here!" Two days later, July 6, Headquarters, First Expeditionary Division was redesignated as Headquarters, First Division.

On August 8, 1917, the 1st Division adopted the Square Table of organization and Equipment, which included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each; one engineer regiment; one signal battalion; one machine gun battalion; one field artillery brigade of three field artillery regiments, and a complete division train. The total authorized strength of this new TO&E was 27,120 officers and enlisted men.

On the morning of October 23, the first American shell of the war was sent screaming toward German lines by a First Division artillery unit. Two days later, the 2-16th Infantry suffered the first American casualties of the war.

By April 1918, the Germans had pushed to within 40 miles (64 km) of Paris. In reaction to this thrust, the Big Red One moved into the Picardy Sector to bolster the exhausted French First Army. To the division's front lay the small village of Cantigny, situated on the high ground overlooking a forested countryside. The 28th Infantry Regiment[7] attacked the town, and within 45 minutes captured it along with 250 German soldiers. It was the first American victory of the war. The 28th was thereafter named the "Black Lions of Cantigny".[7]

Soissons was taken by the First Division in July 1918. The Soissons victory was costly—700 men were killed or wounded. (One of them, Private Francis Lupo of Cincinnati, was missing in action for 85 years, until his remains were discovered on the former battlefield in 2003)[8]. The First Infantry helped to clear the St. Mihiel salient by fighting continuously from September 11–13, 1918. The last major World War I battle was fought in the Meuse-Argonne Forest. The division advanced seven kilometers and defeated, in whole or part, eight German divisions. The war was over when the Armistice was signed. The division was at Sedan, the farthest American penetration of the war. The division was the first to cross the Rhine into occupied Germany.

By the end of the war, the division had suffered 22,668 casualties and boasted five Medal of Honor recipients.

The division's famous dog-mascot was a cairn terrier known as Rags. Rags was adopted by the division in 1918 and remained its mascot until his death in 1936.[9] Rags achieved great notoriety and achieved celebrity war dog fame, after saving many lives in the crucial Argonne Campaign by delivering a vital message despite being bombed and gassed.

  • Casualties
  1. 4,411 Killed in Action
  2. 17,201 Wounded in Action
  3. 1,056 Missing or Died of Wounds

Interwar period

The 1st Division returned to the Continental U.S. in September 1919, demobilized its war-time TO&E at Camp Zachary Taylor at Louisville, Kentucky, and then returned to New York, with its headquarters located at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn.

On October 7, 1920, the 1st Division organized under the peacetime TO&E, which included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each, one engineer regiment; one observation squadron; one field artillery brigade of two Field Artillery Regiments; one Medical Regiment; one Division Quartermaster Train; and a Special Troops Command replacing the remainder of the division Train. The total authorized strength of this TO&E was 19,385. 1st Division was one of three Infantry Divisions and one Cavalry Division that was authorized to remain at full peacetime strength, and it was the only Regular Army division assigned to the Second Corps Area, which also included the 27th Infantry Division of the New York National Guard; the 44th Infantry Division of the New Jersey, New York, and Delaware National Guards; the 21st Cavalry Division of the New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and New Jersey National Guards; and the 77th, 78th, and 98th Infantry Divisions and the 61st Cavalry Division of the Organized Reserves. This was the organization that existed in the Second Corps Area for the duration of the peace period.

1st Division adopted a new peacetime TO&E in preparation for war on January 8, 1940, which included three infantry regiments, one military police company, one engineer battalion, one signal company, one Light Field Artillery Regiment of three Field Artillery Battalions and one Medium Field Artillery Regiment of two Field Artillery Battalions, one Medical Battalion, and one Quartermaster Battalion. The authorized strength of this TO&E was 9,057 officers and enlisted men. 1st Infantry Division reorganized again on November 1, 1940 to a new TO&E, which added a Reconnaissance Troop, and organized the two Field Artillery Regiments into a Division Artillery Command, and beefed up the strength to a total Authorized Strength of 15,245 officers and enlisted men.

World War II

The 1st Division started preparing for World War II by moving to Fort Benning, Georgia on November 19, 1939, and ran its personnel through the Infantry School. It then moved to the Sabine Parish, Louisiana area on May 11, 1940 to participate in the Louisiana Maneuvers. They then returned to Fort Hamilton on June 5, 1940 then to Fort Devens, Massachusetts on February 4, 1941. The Division was sent to both Carolina Maneuvres of October and November 1941 then moved to Samarcand, North Carolina. On December 6, 1941, the 1st Division returned to Fort Devens, Massachusetts and was later transferred to Camp Blanding, Florida on February 21, 1942 where it was re-designated 1st Infantry Division on May 15, 1942. The 1/ID moved then to Fort Benning, Georgia on May 22, 1942, and to Indian Town Gap Mil Reservation on Jun 21, 1942. The Division departed New York Port of Embarkation on August 1, 1942, arrived in (Beaminster) Dorset England on August 7, 1942 and assaulted in North Africa on November 2, 1942.

World War II - Casualties

1st Infantry Division – Casualties
Killed in Action : 3616
Wounded in Action : 15208
Died of Wounds : 664

Wartime Commanders

1st Infantry Division – Commanders :
Maj Gen Norman Cota : Mar 1941 - Jun 1942
Maj Gen Donald C. Cubbison : Jun 1942 – Jul 1942
Maj Gen Terry de la Mesa Allen : Jun 1942 – Jul 1943
Maj Gen Clarence R. Huebner : Jul 1943 – Dec 1944
Maj Gen Clift Andrus : Dec 1944 – VE Day

Order of Battle 1944-1945

1st Infantry Division – Order of Battle 1944-1945

HQs & HQs Co 1st Infantry Division
HQs & HQs Battery Division Artillery
Headquarters Special Troops
Military Police Platoon
1st Cav Recon Squadron
1st CIC Detachment
1st Engineer Combat Battalion
1st Medical Battalion
1st Quartermaster Company
1st Signal Corps Company
5th Field Artillery Battalion (155-MM)
7th Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)
16th Infantry Regiment
18th Infantry Regiment
26th Infantry Regiment
32nd Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)
33rd Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)
701st OD Light Maint Company
745th Tank Battalion – at : 06-06-1944 – 08-05-1945
634th Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 01-08-1944 – 02-05-1945
635th Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 07-06-1944 – 30-09-1944
703rd Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 18-12-1944 – 31-12-1944
103rd AAAA-W Battalion – at : 16-06-1944 – 07-02-1945
103rd AAAA-W Battalion – at : 24-02-1945 – 08-05-1945

Deployment to War

A Coast Guard-manned LCVP from the USS Samuel Chase disembarks Company E, 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment assaulting Omaha Beach on the morning of June 6, 1944.
From newly-captured town, members of the 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, cross the Weser River in assault boats to take Furstenberg. April 8, 1945.

Narrative

In World War II, the division landed in Oran, Algeria on November 8, 1942, as part of Operation Torch.[10] Elements then took part in combat at Maktar, Tebourba, Medjez el Bab, Kasserine Pass, Gafsa, El Guettar, Béja, and Mateur, from January 21, 1943 – May 9, 1943, helping secure Tunisia.

In July 1943, it took part in Operation Husky in Sicily under the command of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen. It was assigned to the II Corps. It was in Sicily that the 1st saw heavy action when making amphibious landings on Gela, the most fortified German beach head positions. The 1st then moved up through the center of Sicily, slogging it out through the mountains along with the 45th Infantry Division. In these mountains, the division saw some of the heaviest fighting in the entire Sicilian campaign at Troina; some units losing more than half their strength in assaulting the mountain town. On August 7, 1943, command was assumed by Major General Clarence R. Huebner.

When that campaign was over, the division returned to England to prepare for the Normandy invasion.[2] It was one of the two divisions that stormed Omaha Beach on D-Day[2][11] [12], with some of the division's units suffering 30 percent casualties in the first hour of the assault,[13][14][15] and secured Formigny and Caumont in the beachhead by the end of the day. The division followed up the Saint-Lô break-through with an attack on Marigny, July 27, 1944, and then drove across France in a continuous offensive, reaching the German border at Aachen in September. The division laid siege to Aachen, taking the city after a direct assault on October 21, 1944.[2] The First then attacked east of Aachen through Hurtgen Forest, driving to the Roer, and moved to a rest area December 7, 1944 for its first real rest in 6 months' combat, when the Wacht Am Rhein offensive (commonly called the Battle of the Bulge) suddenly broke loose on December 16, 1944.[2] The division raced to the Ardennes, and fighting continuously from December 17, 1944 to January 28, 1945, helped blunt and turn back the German offensive. Thereupon, the division attacked and again breached the Siegfried Line, fought across the Roer, February 23, 1945, and drove on to the Rhine, crossing at the Remagen bridgehead, March 15–16. The division broke out of the bridgehead, took part in the encirclement of the Ruhr Pocket, captured Paderborn, pushed through the Harz Mountains, and was in Czechoslovakia, fighting at Kinsperk, Sangerberg, and Mnichov when the war in Europe ended. Sixteen members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.

Assignments in the European and North African Theater of Operations

  1. February 1, 1943: II Corps, British First Army, 18th Army Group
  2. July 1943: US II Corps, U.S. Seventh Army, 15th Army Group
  3. November 1, 1943: US First Army.
  4. November 6, 1943: VII Corps.
  5. February 2, 1944: V Corps, First Army, British 21st Army Group
  6. July 14, 1944: US First Army.
  7. July 15, 1944: VII Corps.
  8. August 1, 1944: VII Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  9. December 16, 1944: V Corps.
  10. December 20, 1944: Attached, with the entire First Army, to the British 21st Army Group.
  11. January 26, 1945: XVIII Airborne Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  12. February 12, 1945: III Corps.
  13. March 8, 1945: VII Corps.
  14. April 27, 1945: VIII Corps.
  15. April 30, 1945: V Corps.
  16. May 6, 1945: United States Third Army, 12th Army Group.
  • In these tabulations, the army and higher headquarters to which the division is assigned or attached is not repeated when the division is assigned or attached to a different corps in the same army.
  • On November 6, 1943, for example, the 1st Infantry Division was assigned to the VII Corps which was itself assigned to First Army; on August 1, 1944, the 12th Army Group became operational; and on May 6, 1945, the 1st Infantry Division left First Army for the first time during the operations on the Continent for reassignment to the Third Army.

Cold War

Korean War

During the Korean War, the Big Red One was assigned to occupation duty in Germany, while acting as a strategic deterrent against Soviet designs on Europe. 1st Infantry Division troops secured the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials and later transported seven convicted Nazi war criminals to Spandau Prison in Berlin.

In 1955 the division colors left Germany and were relocated to Fort Riley, Kansas.[2]

1950s–1970s

Following its return from Germany, 1st Infantry Division established headquarters at Ft. Riley, Kansas. Its troops reorganized and trained for war at Ft. Riley and at other posts such as Ft. Irwin, California, Little Creek, Virginia, and Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri. In 1962 and 1963, four 1st Infantry Division Pentomic Battle Groups (2nd Battle Group, 12th Infantry; 1st Battle Group, 13th Infantry; 1st Battle Group, 28th Infantry; & 2nd Battle Group, 26th Infantry) rotated, in turn, to West Berlin, Germany to augment U.S. Berlin Brigade during an international crisis initiated by construction of the Berlin Wall. These "Long Thrust Operations" were the most significant deployments conducted by 1st Infantry Division troops during the Cold War; placing Big Red One troops in confrontation with hostile communist forces.The 3rd Brigade was stationed in the Stuttgart region of Germany consisting of C Troop 1/4th Cavalry,1 Battalion 16th Infantry Reg.,elements of the 26th Infantry Reg.,4/73rd Armor Regiment 1 of the 33rd field artillery contributing to winning the Cold War.

Vietnam

The division fought in the Vietnam War from 1965 to 1970.[2]

Commanders

  1. Maj. Gen. Jonathan O. Seaman (February 1964)[16]
  2. Maj. Gen. William E. DePuy (March 1966)[16]
  3. Maj. Gen. John H. Hay, Jr. (January 1967)[16]
  4. Maj. Gen. Keith L. Ware (February 1968)[16]
  5. Maj. Gen. Orwin C. Talbott (September 1968)[16]
  6. Maj. Gen. Albert E. Milloy (August 1969)[16]

Narrative

Arriving in July 1965, the division began combat operations within two weeks. By the end of 1965 the division had participated in three major operations: Hump, Bushmaster I and Bushmaster II, under the command of MG Jonathan O. Seaman.

In 1966, the division took part in Operation Marauder, Operation Crimp II, and Operation Rolling Stone, all in the early part of the year. In March, MG William E. DePuy took command.[17] In June and July the division took part in the battles of Ap Tau O, Srok Dong and Minh Thanh Road. In November 1966, the division participated in Operation Attleboro.

1967 saw the 1st I.D. in Operation Cedar Falls, Operation Junction City, Operation Manhattan, and Operation Shenandoah II. MG John H. Hay assumed command in February. On October 17, 1967, the 1st I.D suffered heavy casualties at the Battle of Ong Thanh with 58 KIA.

1968 would see the division involved in the Tet Offensive, securing the massive Tan Son Nhut Air Base. In March, MG Keith L. Ware took command. That same month the division took part in Operation Quyet Thang (Resolve to Win), April would see the division participate in the largest operation in the Vietnam conflict, Operation Toan Thang (Certain Victory). On September 13, the division Commander, Maj. Gen. Ware, was killed in action when his command helicopter was shot down by hostile fire.[18] MG Orwin C. Talbott moved up from his position of Assistant Division Commander to assume command of the division.

In the first half of 1969, The Big Red One conducted reconnaissance-in-force and ambush operations, including a multi-divisional operation, Atlas Wedge, and participated in the Battle of An Lộc. The last part of the year saw the division take part in "Dong Tien" (Progress Together) operations. These operations were intended to assist South Vietnamese forces to take a more active role in combat. In August, MG A. E. Milloy took command of the 1st I.D. while the division took part in battles along National Highway 13, known as "Thunder Road" to the end of the year.

In January 1970 it was announced that the division would return to Fort Riley.[2] 11 members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.

  • Casualties
  1. 6,146 Killed in Action
  2. 16,019 Wounded in Action
  3. 20 Prisoner of War

Modern era

First Gulf War

The division, commanded by Major General Thomas G. Rhame, also participated in Operation Desert Storm. The division's two maneuver brigades from Ft. Riley were rounded out by the addition of two tank battalions (2-66 and 3-66 AR), an infantry battalion (1-41 IN), and a field artillery battalion (4-3 FA) from 2nd Armored Division (Forward) in Germany. It was responsible for the initial breach of the Iraqi defenses, consequently rolling over the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division and taking 2,600 prisoners of war. The Big Red One continued with the subsequent 260 kilometer assault on enemy-held territory over 100 hours, engaging eleven Iraqi divisions, destroying 550 enemy tanks, 480 armored personnel carriers and taking 11,400 prisoners. By the early morning of February 28, 1991, the division had taken position along the Highway of Death, preventing any Iraqi retreat. The division's First squadron, fourth cavalry regiment, (1/4 CAV) was then tasked with securing town of Safwan, and the airfield there where the Iraqis were later forced to sign the surrender agreement. Iraq, which was to be the site for the permanent cease-fire negotioations.

There was also the "bulldozer assault", wherein the 1st & 2nd brigades from the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) used anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to bury Iraqi soldiers defending the fortified "Saddam Line." While approximately 2,000 of the troops surrendered, escaping burial, one newspaper story reported that the U.S. commanders estimated thousands of Iraqi soldiers had been buried alive during the two-day assault February 24–25, 1991.[citation needed]

In 1996 the division colors were relocated to the German city of Würzburg.

Bosnia/Kosovo

2nd (Dagger) Brigade Combat Team deployed to Bosnia as part of IFOR2 / SFOR1 from October 1996 to April 1997. 2nd Brigade was replaced by element from 3rd Brigade and the division's aviation brigade.

Units from the 1st (Devil) Brigade Combat Team also deployed to Bosnia as part of SFOR6 (Operation Joint Forge) from August 1999 to April 2000.

Kosovo, 1999-2BDE/1st Div

Elements of the division, to include personnel and units from the 2nd, 3rd and aviation brigades, served in Kosovo. During the Kosovo War three soldiers were captured by Serbian forces but were later released after peace talks.

Units of the 1st Infantry Division served in Kosovo for KFOR 1A and KFOR 1B from June 1999 to June 2000, then again for KFOR 4A and 4B from May 2002 to July 2003.

2003 Invasion of Iraq

One battalion of the 1st (Devil) Brigade, 1-63 Armor, deployed to Kirkuk, Iraq from their base in Rose Barracks, Germany, during the first-ever deployment of the USAREUR (United States Army Europe) Immediate Ready Task Force (IRTF) in March 2003, in support of the 173rd Airborne Brigade. The battalion redeployed to Europe with the 173rd in March 2004.

The 1st (Devil) Brigade, 1st Infantry Division deployed from Fort Riley, Kansas in September 2003 to provide support to the 82nd Airborne Division in the city of Ramadi, Iraq. In February 2004, the Division deployed to Iraq, where it conducted a relief in place of the 4th Infantry Division, primarily in Salah ad-Din and Diyala provinces, with the Division headquarters being located on Forward Operating Base Danger, near Saddam Hussein's hometown of Tikrit. Task Force Danger, as the Division was called during OIF2, also had a light infantry brigade from the 25th Infantry Division, another brigade the 30th Armored Brigade (Enhanced) (Separate) "Old Hickory" of the North Carolina National Guard, and the 264th Engineer Group of the Wisconsin Army National Guard. In September 2004, the 1st Brigade was replaced by elements from the 2nd Infantry Division in Ramadi and redeployed to Ft. Riley. In February 2005, the division was replaced by the 42d Infantry Division, New York National Guard, and elements of the 3rd Infantry Division and returned to its home in Germany.

1st Infantry Division rebasing to CONUS

In July 2006 the division was withdrawn from Germany back to Fort Riley in CONUS, leaving only 2nd (Dagger) Brigade in Schweinfurt, Germany until March 28, 2008 when the 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division reflagged as the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. So now three brigades are based at Fort Riley, Kan., with one brigade based out of Ft Hood, Texas.

Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

The 2nd "Dagger" Brigade Combat Team deployed to Iraq from mid-August 2006 to late November 2007. 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment was the first to embark and was sent to the Adhamiya district of Baghdad to assist in suppressing the widespread sectarian violence. The 1st Battalion, 77th Armor Regiment was deployed to Ramadi and the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment was sent to Forward Operating Base Falcon in the Rasheed district of southwest Baghdad. HQ and HQ Company 2BCT, 1st ID, 9th Engineer BN, 1st Battalion, 7th Field Artillery Regiment, 299th Support Battalion, and 57th Signal Company were all (Dagger) units occupying Camp Liberty, a sprawling encampment of 30,000+ military and DoD civilians located just east of Baghdad International Airport (BIAP).

Elements from Fort Riley's 1st (Devil) Brigade deployed in the fall of 2006 to other area of operations in Iraq. Units include companies from the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry; 1st Battalion, 34th Armor; 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery; 1st Engineer Battalion; and D Troop, 4th Cavalry.

Transition Team training mission

State-side training for the Military Transition Teams (MiTTs) is located at Fort Riley, Kansas. Training began June 1, 2006. Some of the units such as the 18th Infantry Regiment, the 26th Infantry Regiment, and the 16th Infantry Regiment have already gone into Afghanistan along with some reconnaissance units. Those units have been in the Kunar Province since mid 2006. As of fall 2009 the transition team training mission has moved to Fort Polk, and the 1st Brigade has transitioned into a combat ready force with possible plans to deploy in the next few years.

2007 Deployments to Iraq

Soldiers of the 1st Infantry Division's 2nd Brigade Combat Team conduct security operations in Baghdad, Iraq in March 2007

In February 2007, the 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team deployed to southern Baghdad in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. A Battalion, 2/16 Infantry, was dispatched to FOB Rustimayah (East Baghdad). This Battalion was initially placed under operational control of 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division. This Light Infantry Battalion fought the Mahdi Militia as a part of the "Surge" for the New Baghdad Security Plan. Under the command of Multinational Division-Baghdad, the rest of the "Dragon Brigade" operated out of Forward Operating Base Falcon for 15 months before returning to Fort Riley, Kan., in April 2008.

In the fall of 2007, the Combat Aviation Brigade (Demon Brigade), 1st Infantry Division deployed to Iraq and was placed under the command of Multinational Division - North located at COB Spiecher. The majority of the CAB is stationed at COB Spiecher, with the 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment and some supporting elements stationed at FOB Warrior.

Afghanistan 08-09

In June and July 2008, 3rd Brigade deployed to Eastern Afghanistan under the command of CJTF-101, relieving the 173rd Airborne Brigade and taking control of the Kunar, Nuristan, Nangarhar, and Laghman provinces. One of the brigades infantry battalions, 2-2, was tasked out down South in the Kandahar province outside of the brigade command. Main focuses of the brigade and PRT was to protect population centers such as Jalalabad and Asadabad and help develop the local economy through the construction of roads, and provide security while doing so. The brigade returned to Ft. Hood, Texas in July 2008 after a year of combat in which they recorded over 1000 firefights, over 1000 enemy killed, over 500 bombs dropped, 26,000 rounds of artillery fire and over 400 purple hearts awarded, giving them the highest casualty rate of any Army or Marine Corps unit during their year-long tour.

Iraq 08-09

In October 2008, the 2nd Heavy Brigade Combat Team deployed to northwest baghdad in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. During this deployment soldiers of the 1st CAB 18th Infantry Regiment were located on FOB justice, The 1st CAB 63rd Armor was located in Mah-Muh-Diyah, and the 1st Battalion 7th Field Artillery was located on Prosperity. The most notable events which occurred during this time were the Iraqi elections, the SOFA (status of forces agreement) and "Bloody Wednesday" 19 August 2009 coordinated bombing of the finance ministry and the foreign ministry, with rocket attacks in the green zone. The bombings resulted in 101 dead and over 560 wounded.

Insignia

The Shoulder Sleeve Insignia (SSI) worn on a unit member's Army Combat Uniform

.

The insignia of the 1st Infantry Division originated in World War I. There are two theories as to how the idea of the patch came about.

The first theory states that the 1st Division supply trucks were manufactured in England. To make sure the 1st Division's trucks were not confused with other allies, the drivers would paint a huge "1" on the side of each truck. Later, the division engineers would go even farther and put a red number one on their sleeves.[19]

A second theory also exists. In this theory, a general of the division decided the unit should have a shoulder insignia. He decided to cut a red numeral "1" from his flannel underwear. When he showed his prototype to his men, one lieutenant said, "the general's underwear is showing!" Offended, the general challenged the young lieutenant to come up with something better. So, the young officer cut a piece of gray cloth from the uniform of a captured soldier, and placed the red "1" on top.[19]

Current structure

OrBat 1st Infantry Division

1st Infantry Division consists of the following elements:

Honors

Campaign participation credit

  • World War I:
  1. Montdidier-Noyon
  2. Aisne-Marne
  3. St. Mihiel
  4. Meuse-Argonne
  5. Lorraine 1917
  6. Lorraine 1918
  7. Picardy 1918
  • World War II:
  1. Algeria-French Morocco (with arrowhead)
  2. Tunisia
  3. Sicily (with arrowhead)
  4. Normandy (with arrowhead)
  5. Northern France
  6. Rhineland
  7. Ardennes-Alsace
  8. Central Europe
  • Vietnam:
  1. Defense
  2. Counteroffensive
  3. Counteroffensive, Phase II
  4. Counteroffensive, Phase III
  5. Tet Counteroffensive
  6. Counteroffensive, Phase IV
  7. Counteroffensive, Phase V
  8. Counteroffensive, Phase VI
  9. Tet 69/Counteroffensive
  10. Summer-Fall 1969
  11. Winter-Spring 1970
  • Southwest Asia:
  1. Defense of Saudi Arabia
  2. Liberation and Defense of Kuwait
  3. Cease-Fire
  • Global War on Terrorism
  1. Operation Iraqi Freedom II
  2. Operation Iraqi Freedom VI-VIII
  3. Operation Iraqi Freedom VIII-IX
  4. Operation Enduring Freedom 08-09

Decorations

  1. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for VIETNAM 1968
  2. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for SOUTHWEST ASIA
  3. Army Superior Unit Award for 1997
  4. French Croix de guerre with Palm, World War II for KASSERINE
  5. French Croix de guerre with Palm, World War II for NORMANDY
  6. French Croix de guerre, World War II, Fourragere
  7. Belgian Fourragere 1940
  8. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action at MONS
  9. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action at EUPEN-MALMEDY
  10. Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1965–1968
  11. Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1965–1970

Commanding Generals

  • MG William L. Sibert June–December 1917
  • MG Robert L. Bullard December 1917 – July 1918
  • MG Charles P. Summerall July–October 1918
  • BG Frank Parker October–November 1918
  • MG Edward F. McGlachlin November 1918 – September 1919
  • MG Charles P. Summerall October 1919 – June 1921
  • MG David C. Shanks July–November 1921
  • MG Charles T. Menoher November 1921 – January 1922
  • MG Harry C. Hale February–December 1922
  • BG William S. Graves December 1922 – July 1925
  • BG Preston Brown July 1925 – January 1926
  • BG Frank Parker January–May 1926
  • BG Hugh A. Drum May 1926 – May 1927
  • MG Fox Conner May–September 1927
  • BG Hugh A. Drum September 1927 – January 1930
  • BG William P. Jackson January–March 1930
  • MG Briant H. Wells March–September 1930
  • BG Lucius R. Holbrook October 1930 – November 1935
  • BG Charles D. Roberts November 1935 – February 1936
  • MG Frank Parker February–March 1936
  • MG Stanley H. Ford March–October 1936
  • BG Perry L. Miles October 1936 – October 1937
  • COL William P. Ennis November–December 1937
  • BG Laurence Halstead December 1937 – January 1938
  • MG Walter C. Short October 1938 – September 1940
  • MG Karl Truesdell October–December 1940
  • MG Donald Cubbison January 1941 – May 1942
  • MG Terry Allen May 1942 – August 1943
  • MG Clarence R. Huebner August 1943 – December 1944
  • MG Clift Andrus December 1944 – May 1946
  • MG Frank W. Milburn June 1946 – May 1949
  • BG Ralph J. Canine May–September 1949
  • MG John E. Dahlquist September 1949 – July 1951
  • MG Thomas S. Timberman July 1951 – December 1952
  • MG Charles T. Lanham January 1953 – June 1954
  • MG Guy S. Meloy, Jr. June 1954 – December 1955
  • MG Willis S. Matthews January 1956 – April 1957
  • MG David H. Buchanan April 1957 – October 1958
  • BG Forrest Caraway October 1958 – December 1958
  • MG Harvey H. Fischer December 1958 – January 1960
  • BG John A. Seitz January 1960 – February 1960
  • MG Theodore W. Parker February 1960 – May 1961
  • BG John A. Berry, Jr. May 1961 – June 1961
  • BG William B. Kunzig July 1961 – August 1961
  • MG John F. Ruggles August 1961 – January 1963
  • MG Arthur W. Oberbeck January 1963 – January 1964
  • MG Jonathan O. Seaman February 1964 – March 1966
  • MG William E. DePuy March 1966 – December 1966
  • MG John H. Hay, Jr. January 1967 – February 1968
  • MG Keith L. Ware February–September 1968
  • MG Orwin C. Talbott September 1968 – August 1969
  • MG Albert E. Milloy August 1969 – February 1970
  • BG John Q. Henion March 1970 – April 1970
  • MG Robert R. Linvill April 1970 – January 1971
  • MG Edward M. Flanagan, Jr. January 1971 – December 1972
  • MG G. J. Duquemin January 1973 – August 1974
  • MG Marvin D. Fuller August 1974 – May 1976
  • MG Calvert P. Benedict May 1976 – May 1978
  • MG Phillip Kaplan May 1978 – July 1980
  • MG Edward A. Partain July 1980 – December 1982
  • MG Neal Creighton December 1982 – June 1984
  • MG Ronald L. Watts June 1984 – April 1986
  • MG Leonard P. Wishart III April 1986 – July 1988
  • MG Gordon R. Sullivan July 1988 – July 1989
  • MG Thomas Rhame July 1989 – August 1991
  • MG William W. Hartzog August 1991 – July 1993
  • MG Josue Robles, Jr. July 1993 – June 1994
  • MG Randolph W. House June 1994 – February 1996
  • MG Montgomery Meigs March 1996 – July 1997
  • MG David L. Grange August 1997 – August 1999
  • MG John P. Abizaid August 1999 – September 2000
  • MG Bantz J. Craddock September 2000 – August 2002
  • MG John R.S. Batiste August 2002 – June 2005
  • MG Kenneth W. Hunzeker June 2005 – August 2006
  • MG Carter F. Ham August 2006 – August 2007
  • MG Robert E. Durbin July 2007 – July 2008
  • BG Perry L. Wiggins July 2008 – April 2009
  • MG Vincent K. Brooks April 2009 – Present

See also

  • The Big Red One (1980), a movie about the division's experiences in World War II written by Samuel Fuller who served in the division during World War II.
  • Call of Duty: Finest Hour (2004), a video game that involves a squad of the 1st Infantry Division in several missions.
  • Call of Duty 2: Big Red One (2005), a video game focusing on the division in World War II was released on November 1, 2005
  • Cantigny, the former estate of Col. Robert R. McCormick, is where the 1st Infantry Division Museum is located. The museum showcases the history of the 1st Infantry Division, from their involvement in World War I to the present, along with several tanks situated outside the museum dating from World War I to the present.
  • First Division Monument
  • Iraq Assistance Group, a former joint command coordinating the coalition military transition team mission in Iraq which was formed from the 1st Infantry Division.

References

  1. ^ "Brooks takes command of 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley during ceremony", http://www.fox4kc.com/news/sns-ap-ks--1stinfantry-command,0,3817388.story The Associated Press. April 15, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "1st Infantry Division - History". United States Army. http://www.1id.army.mil/bigredone/history.aspx. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  3. ^ "1st Infantry Division". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/1id.htm. Retrieved August 12, 2008. 
  4. ^ Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War, American Expeditionary Forces: Divisions, Volume 2
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ 2nd Battalion 16th Infantry on Ft. Riley's web site
  7. ^ a b "1st Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment "Black Lions"". GlobalSecurity.org. July 17, 2006. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/1-28in.htm. Retrieved February 9, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Army News Service: "1st Division Soldier identified, laid to rest"". http://www.army.mil/-news/2006/10/25/433-1st-division-soldier-identified-laid-to-rest/. Retrieved August 10, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Rags (1916–1936) - Find A Grave Memorial". Find A Grave. January 1, 2001. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1828. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  10. ^ "US Army history of the operation". http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/algeria/algeria.htm. Retrieved August 10, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Omaha Beachhead". Historical Division, War Department. September 20, 1945. pp. 30. http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/100-11/ch2.htm. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Omaha Beachhead". Historical Division, War Department. September 20, 1945. pp. 30–33. http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/100-11/ch2.htm. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  13. ^ "Omaha Beachhead". Historical Division, War Department. September 20, 1945. pp. 38–39. http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/100-11/ch3.htm. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Omaha Beachhead". Historical Division, War Department. September 20, 1945. pp. 40. http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/100-11/ch3.htm. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  15. ^ "Omaha Beachhead". Historical Division, War Department. September 20, 1945. pp. 48–49. http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/100-11/ch3.htm. Retrieved June 10, 2007. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Commanders of 1st Infantry Division". http://www.army.mil/CMH/matrix/1ID/1ID-Cdrs.htm. 
  17. ^ "South Dakota State University bio". http://www3.sdstate.edu/Academics/CollegeOfArtsAndScience/MilitaryScience/Alumni/DistinguishedAlumni/DePuy/. Retrieved July 10, 2007. 
  18. ^ TIME Magazine obituary.
  19. ^ a b "The Big Red One Patch". Society of the First Infantry Division. http://www.1stid.org/history/patch.cfm. Retrieved October 19, 2008. 

Further reading

  • Rags, The Dog Who Went to War, Jack Rohan, Diggory Press, ISBN 978-1846853647
  • Bonded by Blood, Clayton Walk

External links


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