1st United States Congress: Wikis

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1st United States Congress
New York City Hall 1789.jpg
Federal Hall, site of the first two sessions of the 1st Congress (1789)

Duration: March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1791

President of the Senate: John Adams
President pro tempore: John Langdon
Speaker of the House: Frederick Muhlenberg
Members: 21–26 (five additions) Senators
59–65(six additions)(with one vacancy) Representatives
0 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Pro-Administration
House Majority: Pro-Administration

Sessions
1st: March 4, 1789 – September 29, 1789
2nd: January 4, 1790 – August 12, 1790
3rd: December 6, 1790 – March 3, 1791
<Congress of the Confederation 2nd>
The "Main Hall" at Federal Hall
Congress Hall in Philadelphia, meeting place of this Congress's third session.

The 1st United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall at 26 Wall Street in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority.

Major events

  • April 1, 1789: House of Representatives first achieved a quorum and elected its officers
  • April 6, 1789: Senate first achieved a quorum and elected its officers
  • April 30, 1789: George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall in New York City
  • January 8, 1790: President Washington gave the first State of the Union Address
  • March 1, 1790: First United States census was authorized
  • April 10, 1790: Patent system was established
  • April 17, 1790: Benjamin Franklin died
  • June 20, 1790: Compromise of 1790: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton come to an agreement: Madison agrees to not be "strenuous" in opposition for the assumption of state debts by the federal government; Hamilton agrees to support the capital site being above the Potomac.

Major legislation

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Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

Constitutional amendments

States admitted and territories organized

Party summary

Federal Hall (2006)
Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall, where he was first inaugurated as President.

There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Pro-Administration Anti-Administration Vacant
Begin 14 7 21 1
July 16, 1789 15 22 0
November 27, 1789 17 24
March 12, 1790 6 23 1
March 31, 1790 18 24 0
June 7, 1790 19 7 26
November 9, 1790 18 8
Final voting share 69.2% 30.8%
Beginning of the next Congress 15 13 28 2

House of Representatives

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Pro-Administration Anti-Administration Vacant
Begin 34 25 59 0
March 19, 1790 26 60
March 24, 1790 27 61
April 6, 1790 28 62
April 19, 1790 35 63
June 16, 1790 36 64
June 1, 1790 27 63 1
August 14, 1790 35 62 2
December 7, 1790 28 63 1
December 12, 1790 36 64
Final voting share 56.25% 43.75%
Beginning of the next Congress 39 29 68 1

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, all Senators were newly elected, and Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1790; Class 2 meant their term ended with the next Congress, requiring reelection in 1792; and Class 3 meant their term lasted through the next two Congresses, requiring reelection in 1794.

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

  • 3. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – November 27, 1789
  • 2. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – November 27, 1789

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

  • 1. Vacant, May 29, 1790 – June 7, 1790
  • 2. Vacant, May 29, 1790 – June 7, 1790

South Carolina

Virginia

President of the Senate John Adams
President pro tempore John Langdon

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by their districts.

Connecticut

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Delaware

Georgia

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New Jersey

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New York

North Carolina

  • 1. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – March 23, 1790
  • 2. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – March 18, 1790
  • 3. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – April 5, 1790
  • 4. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – April 18, 1790
  • 5. Vacant, November 21, 1789 – June 15, 1790

Pennsylvania

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Virginia

Speaker of the House Frederick Muhlenberg

Changes in membership

There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record.[1]

New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, were the last states to ratify the U.S. Constitution, and because of their late ratification, were unable to send full representation at the beginning of this Congress. Five Senators and nine Representatives were subsequently seated from these states during the sessions as noted.

Senate

There was 1 resignation, 1 death, 1 replacement of a temporary appointee, and 5 new seats. The Anti-Administration Senators picked up a 1 seat net gain and the Pro-Administration Senators picked up 4 seats.

State Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
New York (class 3) New seats State legislature failed to pick Senator until after Congress began. Rufus King (P) Elected July 16, 1789
North Carolina (class 3) North Carolina ratified the constitution on November 21, 1789. Benjamin Hawkins (P) Elected November 27, 1789
North Carolina (class 2) Samuel Johnston (P)
Virginia
(class 1)
William Grayson (A) Died March 12, 1790. John Walker (P) Appointed March 31, 1790
Rhode Island (class 1) New seats Rhode Island ratified the constitution on May 29, 1790. Theodore Foster (P) Elected June 7, 1790
Rhode Island (class 2) Joseph Stanton, Jr. (A)
Virginia
(class 1)
John Walker (P) James Monroe was elected to the seat of Senator William Grayson. James Monroe (A) Elected November 9, 1790
New Jersey (class 2) William Paterson (P) Resigned November 13, 1790,
having been elected Governor of New Jersey.
Philemon Dickinson (P) Elected November 23, 1790

House of Representatives

There was 1 resignation, 1 death, and 6 new seats. Anti-Administration members picked up 3 seats and Pro-Administration members picked up 2 seats.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
North Carolina 1st New seats North Carolina ratified the constitution on November 21, 1789. John Baptista Ashe (A) March 24, 1790
North Carolina 2nd Hugh Williamson (A) March 19, 1790
North Carolina 3rd Timothy Bloodworth (A) April 6, 1790
North Carolina 4th John Steele (P) April 19, 1790
North Carolina 5th John Sevier (P) June 16, 1790
Rhode Island At-large New seat Rhode Island ratified the constitution on May 29, 1790. Benjamin Bourne (P) December 17, 1790
Virginia
9th
Theodorick Bland (A) Died June 1, 1790. William B. Giles (A) December 7, 1790
Massachusetts 5th George Partridge (P) Resigned August 14, 1790. Remained vacant until next Congress

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  1. ^ a b Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

United States Statutes at Large, Volume 1 by United States Congress
Public Acts of the First Congress
The First United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1791, during the first two years of the first administration of U.S. President George Washington, first at Federal Hall at 26 Wall Street in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Excerpted from 1st United States Congress on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Contents

1st Session

Public Laws

THE

LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES.


ACTS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS

of the

UNITED STATES,

Passed at the first session, which was begun and held at the City of New York on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and continued to September 29, 1789.

George Washington, President, John Adams, Vice President of the United States, and President of the Senate, Frederick Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Chapter Title Date
Chapter I. An Act to regulate the Time and Manner of administering certain Oaths. June 1, 1789
Chapter II. An Act for laying a Duty on Goods, Wares, and Merchandises imported into the United States. July 4, 1789
Chapter III. An Act imposing Duties on Tonnage. July 20, 1789
Chapter IV. An Act for establishing an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of Foreign Affairs. July 27, 1789
Chapter V. An Act to regulate the Collection of the Duties imposed by law on the tonnage of ships or vessels, and on goods, wares and merchandises imported into the United States. July 31, 1789
Chapter VI. An Act for settling the Accounts between the United States and individual States. Aug. 5, 1789
Chapter VII. An Act to establish an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of War. Aug. 7, 1789
Chapter VIII. An Act to provide for the Government of the Territory North-west of the river Ohio. Aug. 7, 1789
Chapter IX. An Act for the establishment and support of Lighthouses, Beacons, Buoys, and Public Piers. Aug. 7, 1789
Chapter X. An Act providing for the Expenses which may attend Negotiations or Treaties with the Indian Tribes, and the appointment of Commissioners for managing the same. Aug. 20, 1789
Chapter XI. An Act for Registering and Clearing Vessels, Regulating the Coasting Trade, and for other purposes. Sept. 1, 1789
Chapter XII. An Act to establish the Treasury Department. Sept. 2, 1789
Chapter XIII. An Act for establishing the Salaries of the Executive Officers of Government, with their Assistants and Clerks. Sept. 11, 1789
Chapter XIV. An Act to provide for the safe-keeping of the Acts, Records and Seal of the United States, and for other purposes. Sept. 15, 1789
Chapter XV. An Act to suspend part of an Act, intituled “An Act to regulate the collection of the Duties imposed by Law on the Tonnage of Ships or vessels, and on Goods, Wares, and Merchandises, imported into the United States,” and for other purposes. Sept. 16, 1789
Chapter XVI. An Act for the temporary establishment of the Post-Office. Sept. 22, 1789
Chapter XVII. An Act for allowing Compensation to the Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, and to the Officers of both Houses. Sept. 22, 1789
Chapter XVIII. An Act for allowing certain Compensation to the Judges of the Supreme and other Courts, and to the Attorney General of the United States Sept. 23, 1789
Chapter XIX. An Act for allowing a Compensation to the President and Vice President of the United States. Sept. 24, 1789
Chapter XX. An Act to establish the Judicial Courts of the United States. Sept. 24, 1789
Chapter XXI. An Act to regulate Processes in the Courts of the United States. Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXII. An Act to explain and amend an Act, intituled "An Act for registering and clearing Vessels, regulating the Coasting Trade, and for other purposes." Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXIII. An Act making Appropriations for the Service of the present year. Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXIV. An Act providing for the payment of the Invalid Pensioners of the United States. Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXV. An Act to recognize and adapt the Constitution of the United States the establishment of the Troops raised under the Resolves of the United States in Congress assembled, and for other purposes therein mentioned. Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXVI. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. Sept. 29, 1789
Chapter XXVII. An Act to alter the Time for the Next Meeting of Congress. Sept. 29, 1789

Public Resolutions

Resolution Date
Resolution 1. Aug. 26, 1789
Resolution 2. Sept. 23, 1789
Resolution 3. Sept. 23, 1789
Resolution regarding Constitutional Amendments. no date stated

For Resolution No. 4, see Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6.

2nd Session

Public Laws

ACTS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS

of the

UNITED STATES,

Passed at the second session, which was begun and held at the City of New York on Monday, the fourth day of January, 1790, and ended on the twelfth day of August, 1790.

George Washington, President, John Adams, Vice President of the United States, and President of the Senate, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Chapter Title Date
Chapter I. An Act for giving effect to the several acts therein mentioned, in respect to the state of North Carolina, and other purposes. Feb. 8, 1790
Chapter II. An Act providing for the enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States. March 1, 1790
Chapter III. An Act to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization. March 26, 1790
Chapter IV. An Act making appropriations for the support of government for the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety. March 26, 1790
Chapter V. An Act to prevent the exportation of goods not duly inspected according to the laws of the several States. April 2, 1790
Chapter VI. An Act to accept a cession of the claims of the state of North Carolina to a certain district of Western territory. April 2, 1790
Chapter VII. An Act to promote the progress of useful Arts. April 10, 1790
Chapter VIII. An Act further to suspend part of an act intituled “An act to regulate the collection of the duties impose by law on the tonnage of ships or vessels, and on goods, wares and merchandises imported into the United States,” and to amend the said act. April 15, 1790
Chapter IX. An Act for the Punishment of certain Crimes against the United States. April 30, 1790
Chapter X. An Act for regulating the Military Establishment of the United States. April 30, 1790
Chapter XI. An Act to prescribe the mode in which the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings in each State, shall be authenticated so as to take effect in every other State. May 26, 1790
Chapter XII. An Act to provide for mitigating or remitting the forfeitures and penalties accruing under the revenue laws, in certain cases therein mentioned. May 26, 1790
Chapter XIII. An Act to continue in force an act passed at the last session of Congress, entituled “An act to regulate processes in the Courts of the United States.” May 26, 1790
Chapter XIV. An Act for the Government of the Territory of the United States, south of the river 0hio. May 26, 1790
Chapter XV. An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned. May 31, 1790
Chapter XVI. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. June 4, 1790
Chapter XVII. An Act for giving effect to an Act entituled “An Act to establish the Judicial Courts of the United States,” within the State of North Carolina. June 4, 1790
Chapter XVIII. An Act supplemental to the Act for establishing the Salaries of the Executive Officers of Government, with their assistants and Clerks. June 4, 1790
Chapter XIX. An Act for giving effect to the several Acts therein mentioned, in respect to the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. June 14, 1790
Chapter XX. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. June 14, 1790
Chapter XXI. An act for giving effect to an act intituled “An act to establish the Judicial Courts of the United States,” within the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. June 23, 1790
Chapter XXII. An Act providing the means of intercourse between the United States and foreign nations. July 1, 1790
Chapter XXIII. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. July 1, 1790
Chapter XXIV. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. July 1, 1790
Chapter XXV. An Act for giving effect to an act intituled “An act providing for the enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States,” in respect to the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. July 5, 1790
Chapter XXVI. An Act to authorize the purchase of a tract of land for the use of the United States. July 5, 1790
Chapter XXVII. An Act further to provide for the Payment of the Invalid Pensioners of the United States. July 16, 1790
Chapter XXVIII. An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States. July 16, 1790
Chapter XXIX. An Act for the government and regulation of Seamen in the merchants service. July 20, 1790
Chapter XXX. An Act imposing duties on the tonnage of ships or vessels. July 20, 1790
Chapter XXXI. An Act providing for holding a Treaty or Treaties to establish Peace with certain Indian tribes. July 22, 1790
Chapter XXXII. An Act to amend the act for the establishment and support of Lighthouses, beacons, buoys, and public piers. July 22, 1790
Chapter XXXIII. An Act to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes. July 22, 1790
Chapter XXXIV. An Act making provision for the [payment of the] Debt of the United States. Aug. 4, 1790
Chapter XXXV. An Act to provide more effectually for the collection of the duties imposed by law on goods, wares and other merchandise imported into the United States, and on the tonnage of ships or vessels. Aug. 4, 1790
Chapter XXXVI. An Act to continue in force for a limited time, an act intituled “An act for the temporary establishment of the Post-Office.” Aug. 4, 1790
Chapter XXXVII. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. Aug. 4, 1790
Chapter XXXVIII. An Act to provide more effectually for the settlement of the Accounts between the United States and the individual States. Aug. 5, 1790
Chapter XXXIX. An Act making further provision for the payment of the debts of the United States. Aug. 10, 1790
Chapter XL. An Act to enable the Officers and Soldiers of the Virginia Line on continental Establishment, to obtain Titles to certain Lands lying northwest of the River Ohio, between the Little Miami and Sciota. Aug. 10, 1790
Chapter XLI. An Act authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to finish the Lighthouse on Portland Head, in the District of Maine. Aug. 10, 1790
Chapter XLII. An Act to alter the Times for holding the Circuit Courts of the United States in the Districts of South Carolina and Georgia, and providing that the District Court of Pennsylvania shall in future be held at the city of Philadelphia only. Aug. 11, 1790
Chapter XLIII. An Act declaring the assent of Congress to certain acts of the states of Maryland, Georgia, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Aug. 11, 1790
Chapter XLIV. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. Aug. 11, 1790
Chapter XLV. See Private Acts of the First Congress in Volume 6. Aug. 11, 1790
Chapter XLVI. An Act making certain Appropriations therein mentioned. Aug. 12, 1790
Chapter XLVII. An Act making Provision for the Reduction of the Public Debt. Aug. 12, 1790

Public Resolutions

Resolution Date
Resolution 1. June 7, 1790
Resolution 2. June 14, 1790
Resolution 3. Aug. 2, 1790
Resolution 4. Aug. 2, 1790
Resolution 5. Aug. 12, 1790

3rd Session

Public Laws

ACTS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS

of the

UNITED STATES,

Passed at the third session, which was begun and held at the City of Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, on Monday, the sixth day of December, 1790, and ended on the third day of March, 1791.

George Washington, President, John Adams, Vice President of the United States, and President of the Senate, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Chapter Title Date
Chapter I. An Act supplementary to the act intitled “An act making further provision for the payment of the debts of the United States.” Dec. 27, 1790
Chapter II. An Act to provide for the unlading of ships or vessels, in cases of obstruction by Ice. Jan. 7, 1791
Chapter III. An Act to continue an act intituled “An act declaring the assent of Congress to certain acts of the States of Maryland, Georgia, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,” so far as the same respects the States of Georgia and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Jan. 10, 1791
Chapter IV. An Act declaring the consent of Congress, that a new State be formed within the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and admitted into this Union, by the name of the State of Kentucky. Feb. 4, 1791
Chapter V. An Act declaring the consent of Congress to a certain act of the state of Maryland. Feb. 9, 1791

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