1st millennium: Wikis

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Jesus Christ Roman Empire Gunpowder Chess Attila the Hun Mount Vesuvius Early Middle Ages Aztec Empire
From left, clockwise: Depiction of Jesus Christ, one of the most influential men in history and one of the deities in Christianity; The Colosseum, a landmark of the once Roman Empire; Gunpowder is invented during the later of the millennium, in China; Chess, a new board game, takes on popularity across the globe; The Roman Empire falls, ushering in the Early Middle Ages; The skeletal remains of a young woman, known as the "ring lady", killed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79; Attila the Hun, leader of the Hunnic Empire, which takes most of western Europe. (Background: Reproduction of ancient mural from Teotihuacan located in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City.)
Millennia: 1st millennium BC · 1st millennium AD · 2nd millennium AD
Centuries: 1st century · 2nd century · 3rd century · 4th century · 5th century · 6th century · 7th century · 8th century · 9th century · 10th century

The first millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 1 AD, and ended on December 31, 1000, of the Julian calendar. This millennium is the beginning of the Anno Domini/Common Era for this calendar.

In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era (200–900 AD). Teotihuacan grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world.

In North America, the Mississippian culture rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built by the people, who accumulated agricultural surpluses with the cultivation of maize. Cahokia, the largest, was based in present-day Illinois, and may have had 30,000 residents at its peak about 1250 AD. It was a regional chiefdom, a political and religious center, with a trading network and influence reaching from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The people built a series of platform and other shaped earthwork mounds that constituted the largest earthworks north of Mexico. The circumference of the 10-story high Monks Mound at Cahokia was larger than that of the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan or the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

In Eastern Asia, the first millennium was also a time of great cultural advances. In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established. The adoption of Buddhism and Confucianism contributed significantly to Japan's artists, social and political transformations.

In Western Asia, the first millennium saw a time of great advancement known as the Islamic Golden Age (700–1200 AD).

In Europe, the first millennium was a time of great transition. The Fall of Rome in 476 AD brought an end to Classical antiquity and ushered in the Early Middle Ages. This was a period of great migrations, including the Viking expansion.

World population, which had tripled over the preceding millennium, grew more slowly during the first millennium and may have diminished. One optimistic estimate is that the world's population rose from approximately 170 to 300 million[citation needed], but other estimates vary; one estimate suggests that the world population actually declined from 400 million people to 250 million people[citation needed].

Contents

Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties

The civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Kingdoms and civilizations of the 1st millennium AD
Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
 

Events

The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Events and trends of the 1st millennium AD
  Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
1st century 70 Kandake Amanikhatashan sends Kushite cavalry to aid Roman Emperor in Jerusalem revolt[1]
100 rise of the Aksum
100 Khoekhoe reach southern coast of Africa[2]
1 Cahuachi established[3]
50 Pyramid of the Sun began[3]
33 Christianity begins
70 Jewish diaspora
9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany[4]
47 London founded
58 Alpes Cottiae becomes a Roman province[4]
79 Pompeii destroyed
1 Caroline Islands colonized[5]
2nd Century 150 Rhapta, hint of pre-Swahili, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
200 Bantu reach east Africa[6]
200 Nok culture ends
150 Cahuachi becomes dominant ceremonial site in southern Peru[3] 184 Yellow Turban Rebellion 106 Dacia becomes a Roman province[4]
166 Siege of Aquileia[4]
180 End of the Macromannic Wars[4]
 
3rd Century 212 Egyptians granted Roman citizenship[6]
230 Aksum wars with Himyar and Saba alliance
300 Aksum prints own coins
250 Rise of Laguna de los Cerros
292 Stela 29 inscribed[3]
300 Tikàl conquers El Mirador[3]
  212 Roman citizenship extended to all free people in the empire[4]
214 Hispania divided into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania[4]
286 Diocletian divides the empire East and West[4]
300 Eastern Polynesian culture develops[7]
4th Century 333 Aksum converts to Christianity
350 Meroe comes to an end [6]
350 King of Anwar, Kaja Maja
  393 Last Olympic Games

313 Edict of Milan[4]
370 Huns invade Eastern Europe[4]
396 Alaric and the Visigoths invade Greece[4]

 
5th Century 429 Vandal invasion[6]
401 c. camel main transport for trans-Sahara
500 Nubia split into Nobadia, Makuria, Alodia
    407 Vandals enter Iberia[8]
421 Romans defeat Persians[8]
476 Fall of Roman Empire[8]
500 Settlement of Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, Tuamotus and Mangareva[7]
6th Century 520 Kaleb attacks Yemen
533 Belisarius invades Africa[6] 540 Nubia converts to monophysite Christianity
600 Wari' conquer Peru[9]
600 Construction of Palenque[3]
538 Buddhism introduced in Japan 507 Battle of Vouillé[8]
535 Byzantine army invades Italy[8]
585 Visigoths conquer Suevi kingdom[8]
 
7th Century 641 Muslims invade Africa[10]
690 Za Dynasty founded
697 Carthage destroyed[10]
650 Settlement of Xochitecatl and Cacaxtla[9]
700 Teotihuacan destroyed[9]
632 Rise of Islam
651 Islamic conquest of Persia
c.680 Bulgarian Empire was founded; 700 Settlement of the Cook Islands[7]
8th Century 702 Aksum attacks Arabia[10]
706 Arabic in Egypt[10]
789 Independent Morocco[10]
750 Sacred Cenote built at Chichén Itzá[9]
780 Murals at Bonampak abandoned[9]
  717 Siege of Constantinople
718 Islamic conquest of Spain
 
9th Century   801 circa Kanem Empire founded
801circa Aksum declines, capital moved to interior
900circa Igbo-Ukwu founded[11]
  896 Hungarians invade Carpathia 872 Norway unites 900 Settlement of New Zealand[7]
10th Century 905 Tulunids ejected[10]
909 Fatimid established[10]
969 Fustat captured[10]
950 Great Serpent Mound constructed[9]
990 Toltecs conquer Chichén Itzá
  958 Denmark unites
985 Erik the Red founds colony in Greenland
1000 Polynesians build stone temples[7]

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Significant people of the 1st millennium AD
  Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
1st Century Natakamani
Zoskales
Amanikhatashan
  Jesus of Nazareth[12]
Paul of Tarsus[13]
Caesar Augustus[14]
Pliny the Elder
 
2nd Century Gadarat
Septimius Severus[6]
Gärmat
Yax Moch Xoc[3] Cai Lun[15]
Zhang Heng
Plutarch
Ptolemy
Commodus
 
3rd Century Macrinus[6]
King Aphilas of Aksum[6]
Endubis
Curl Snout[3] Mani[16] Diocletian[6]  
4th Century Ezana
King Kaja Maja
Ousanas
  Empress Jingū
Chandragupta II
Constantine I[17]  
5th Century Augustine of Hippo[18]
Nezool
Ouazebas
K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'[3] Attila the Hun
Aryabhata
Geiseric[6] Hawaiiloa
6th Century Saifu
Gelimer[6]
Saint Frumentius[6]
  Khosrau I Clovis I
Theodoric the Great
Justinian I[19]
 
7th Century Gregory the Patrician[10]
Armah
Za Alieman
K'inich Janaab' Pakal[9]
Waxaklahùn Ubàh K'awìl[9]
Emperor Wen of Sui[20]
Muhammad[21]
Umar[22]
Saint Isidore of Seville
Kubrat
Asparukh
 
8th Century Mai Sef of Saif
Ghana Majan Dyabe Cisse
Merkurios of Makuria
  Abi Ishaq
Li Bai
Saint Bede
Charles Martel
Tervel
 
9th Century Mai Fune
Bilikisu Sungbo
Georgios I
  Geber
Al-Khwārizmī
Charlemagne[23]
Alfred the Great
Krum
 
10th Century Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah
Georgios II
Rafael
Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl Al Battani Simeon I
Otto the Great
Bjarni Herjólfsson
Erik the Red[9]
'Aho'eitu

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication Math and Science Agriculture Transportation Warfare
  1. Woodblock printing
  2. Paper[24]
  1. Algebra
  2. Ptolemaic system
  3. Steel
  1. Coffee
  2. Hops
  1. Horseshoe
  2. Stirrup
  3. Magnetic compass
  1. Greek fire
  2. Chess
  3. Gunpowder[24]

Centuries and decades

1st century 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s
2nd century 100s 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 160s 170s 180s 190s
3rd century 200s 210s 220s 230s 240s 250s 260s 270s 280s 290s
4th century 300s 310s 320s 330s 340s 350s 360s 370s 380s 390s
5th century 400s 410s 420s 430s 440s 450s 460s 470s 480s 490s
6th century 500s 510s 520s 530s 540s 550s 560s 570s 580s 590s
7th century 600s 610s 620s 630s 640s 650s 660s 670s 680s 690s
8th century 700s 710s 720s 730s 740s 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s
9th century 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
10th century 900s 910s 920s 930s 940s 950s 960s 970s 980s 990s

References

  1. ^ Jr Ph D Grant Bishop Williams(2009). Abraham's Other Sons. AuthorHouse: pp. 50,51. ISBN 1438997094, 9781438997094
  2. ^ Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 177, ISBN 0-8139-2085-x.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas 200 BC - AD 600". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5gka7Jehx. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Timeline of Europe 200 BC-AD 400 Roman". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5gka6w6Op. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  5. ^ "World Timeline of the Oceania 1500 BC-AD 1". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5gka6WdlD. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "World Timeline of Africa 332 BC-AD 400". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5gka68709. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "World Timeline of Oceania AD 1-1100". The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/oceania/AD1-1100. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/europe/AD400-800. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas AD 600-1000". The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/americas/AD600-1000. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of Africa AD 600-1500". The British Museum. 2005. http://www.worldtimelines.org.uk/world/africa/AD600-1500. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  11. ^ Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. The History of African Cities South of the Sahara. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005, p. 45, ISBN 1-55876-303-1
  12. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Jesus is ranked Number 3
  13. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  St. Paul is ranked Number 6
  14. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Augustus Caesar is ranked Number 18
  15. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Ts'ai Lun is ranked Number 7
  16. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Mani is ranked Number 83
  17. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Constantine is ranked Number 21
  18. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  St. Augustine is ranked Number 54
  19. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Justinian I is ranked Number 99
  20. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Zu Wen Ti is ranked Number 85
  21. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Muhammed is ranked Number 1
  22. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Umar ibn al-Khattab is ranked Number 52
  23. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel. ISBN 0806513500.  Charlemagne is ranked Number 97
  24. ^ a b "Who Built it First". Ancient Discoveries. A&E Television Networks. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5gka7inaW. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
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Simple English

The 1st millennium is a period of time from January 1, 1 A.D. to December 31, 1000 A.D. on the Julian calendar.


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