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2003 invasion of Iraq
Part of the Iraq War
101st Airborne Division helos during Operation Iraqi Freedom.jpg
U.S. Army Black Hawk Helicopters from the 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) move into Iraq during the opening stages of the 2003 Invasion.
Date March 20, 2003 – May 1, 2003
Location Iraq
Result
  • Decisive Coalition victory
  • Saddam Hussein's Baath Party government toppled
  • Establishment of new government
  • Occupation of Iraq
  • Continuation of violence in the form of an insurgency and sectarian conflicts
Belligerents
Coalition: Iraq:
Commanders
United States Tommy Franks
Iraq Saddam Hussein
Strength
United States US: 248,000
 UK: 45,000
 Australia: 2,000
 Denmark: 500
 Poland: 194
Iraqi Kurdistan Peshmerga: 70,000[6]
Iraq INC: 620
 Iraq: 375,000
Casualties and losses
172 killed (139 US, 33 UK)[7]
[8]+ may be more
Unknown Kurdish and INC casualties
Estimated Iraqi combatant fatalities:
.30,000 (figure attributed to General Tommy Franks), John Keegan Estimates: several thousand combatant deaths.^ Previous estimates gave a range between 390,000 and 940,000, the most prominent of which -- collected by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and reported in the Lancet in October 2006 -- suggested 654,965 deaths.
  • Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million | CommonDreams.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The numbers of course fluctuate day-to-day and don't appear to take in non-combat injuries (given the 6,000 plus figure mentioned as treated above) or are understated.
  • Asia Times - 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The participants of the project include Harvard University, John Hopkins University, the RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Corporation along with several military figures from the U.S. Naval War College.
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
7,600–10,800 (4,895–6,370 observed and reported) (Project on Defense Alternatives study)[10][11]
13,500–45,000 (extrapolated from fatality rates in units serving around Baghdad)[12]
Estimated Iraqi civilian fatalities:
7,269 (Iraq Body Count)[13]
3,200–4,300 (Project on Defense Alternatives study)[10]
.The 2003 invasion of Iraq (from March 20 to May 1, 2003) was led by the United States, alongside the United Kingdom and smaller contingents from Australia, Denmark and Poland.^ March 20, 2003 .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraq "threatens the United States of America."

^ Casualties in the U.S.-led invasion and occupation of Iraq The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 19 , 2003 , when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four countries participated with troops during the initial invasion phase, which lasted from March 20 to May 1. These were the United States (248,000), United Kingdom (45,000), Australia (2,000), and Poland (194).^ Tony Blair's TV address on British troop involvement in Iraq March 20: 'Britain has never been a nation to hide at the back'.
  • Iraq: key speeches and documents | Iraq | guardian.co.uk 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ March 23: Battle at Nasiriya • March 22: Halfway to Baghdad • March 21: U.S.: Iraq in 'disarray' • March 20: Troops push into Iraq • March 19: 'Decapitation attack' .
  • CNN.com Specials 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.36 other countries were involved in its aftermath.^ Unlike most other foreign wars in which the United States became involved, the invasion of Iraq was not preceded by an attack on this country or on one of its allies.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The invasion marked the beginning of the current Iraq War.^ The 2003 Iraq invasion marked the beginning of what is commonly referred to as the Iraq War.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In scope of preparation and potential consequences, the new war in Iraq by far overshadows the earlier invasion of Afghanistan.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For information on the greater conflict see the Iraq War, Post Invasion Iraq election of a new government.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In preparation for the invasion, 100,000 US troops were assembled in Kuwait by February 18.[14] The United States supplied the vast majority of the invading forces, but also received support from Kurdish irregulars in Iraqi Kurdistan.^ The United States, the United Kingdom and Poland supplied the vast majority of the invading forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coalition forces also supported Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 50,000.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kuwait went to the United States for assistance.
  • Invasion Of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.etpv.org [Source type: Original source]

According to then President of the United States, George W. Bush and then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, the reasons for the invasion were "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), to end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people."[15] According to Blair, the trigger was Iraq's failure to take a "final opportunity" to disarm itself of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that US and British officials called an immediate and intolerable threat to world peace.[16] .Although some remnants of pre-1991 production were found after the end of the war, US government spokespeople confirmed that these were not the weapons for which the US went to war.^ That's only a guess, of course, but it's exactly what happened the last time Saddam was in trouble, at the end of the Persian Gulf war in 1991.
  • The Day After - The New York Times 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The CIA report, authored by Charles Duelfer, who advises the director of central intelligence on Iraqi weapons, said Iraq's WMD program had essentially destroyed in 1991 and Saddam ended Iraq's nuclear program after the 1991 Gulf War.
  • CNN.com - Report fuels Iraq WMD debate - Oct 7, 2004 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ In fact, some of the most impressive spin maneuvers and disinformation campaigns occurred during the Gulf War in 1991, the lessons of which are particularly pertinent as the US again gears up.
  • Asia Times 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18] .In 2005, the Central Intelligence Agency released a report saying that no weapons of mass destruction had been found in Iraq.^ Butler report July 14 2004: Review of intelligence on weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraq: key speeches and documents | Iraq | guardian.co.uk 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ No weapons of mass destruction were found by the Iraq Survey Group , headed by inspector David Kay .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.In a January 2003 CBS poll 64% of US nationals had approved of military action against Iraq, however 63% wanted President Bush to find a diplomatic solution rather than go to war, and 62% believed the threat of terrorism directed against the US would increase due to war.^ The stated intent of President Bush in going to war in Iraq had several dimensions.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: When did the President decide to go to war?
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ That thing we didn’t go to war in Iraq for?
  • CORPORATE INVASION OF IRAQ, and oil leasing 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

[20] .The invasion of Iraq was strongly opposed by some traditional US allies, including the governments of France, Germany, New Zealand, and Canada.^ Has the US invasion of Iraq helped Israel?
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The US invasion of Iraq, however, is not one of them.
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US invasion of Iraq and its aftermath.
  • US - Iraq War - ProCon.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC usiraq.procon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][22][23] .Their leaders argued that there was no evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and that invading the country was not justified in the context of UNMOVIC's February 12, 2003 report.^ There were no reported casualties.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ There isn’t one because the war on Iraq has nothing to do with weapons of mass destruction.
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 15, 2003, a month before the invasion, there were worldwide protests against the Iraq war, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally.^ This rally was 5 1/2 months before we went to war in Iraq.
  • Obama's 'big' 2002 anti-war speech wasn't big then: The Swamp 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The 2003 Iraq invasion marked the beginning of what is commonly referred to as the Iraq War.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I opposed the Iraq war, though regrettably I did hedge in the month before the invasion.
  • Reason Magazine - Iraq Progress Report 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .According to the French academic Dominique Reynié, between January 3 and April 12, 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against the Iraq war.^ Is it war against the Iraqi people?

^ What prompted the U.S. attack on Iraq, a country under sanctions for 12 years (1991-2003), struggling to obtain clean water and basic medicines?
  • The Invasion of Iraq: Dollar vs Euro Re-denominating Iraqi oil in U. S. dollars, instead of the euro 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Toma family is among the growing refugee population to have fled Iraq since the war began in March 2003.
  • Iraq refugees chased from home, struggle to cope - CNN.com 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[25]
.The invasion was preceded by an air strike on the Iraqi Presidential Palace on 19 March 2003. The following day coalition forces launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point near the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border.^ BEGAN: March 19, 2003 -Coalition bombing of Iraq began .
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each day more coalition forces flow into the country.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush launched the war with an invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While commandos launched an amphibious assault from the Persian Gulf to secure Basra and the surrounding petroleum fields, the main invasion army moved into southern Iraq, occupying the region and engaging in the Battle of Nasiriyah on 23 March.^ On the first full day of the war, March 20, U.S. and British ground forces advanced into southern Iraq, entering the port city of Umm Qasr, near the major Iraqi city of Basra, while a second wave of air attacks hit Baghdad.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNEP Conflict and the Environment in West Asia - series of reports assessing the environmental effects and repercussions of conflict and war in Iraq, Kuwait, and the surrounding region.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Massive air strikes across the country and against Iraqi command and control threw the defending army into chaos and prevented an effective resistance.^ In northern Iraq, approximately 1,000 paratroopers of the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted onto an airfield in an effort to open a northern front against Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British air and ground attacks begin to take control of Iraq's Faw Peninsula while U.S. Marines begin to "pepper" the Iraqi port of Umm Qasr.

^ John Paul has insisted that war is a "defeat for humanity" and that a preventive strike against Iraq is neither legally nor morally justified.
  • FOXNews.com - Vatican Strongly Opposes Iraq War - U.S. & World 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

.On 26 March the 173rd Airborne Brigade was airdropped near the northern city of Kirkuk where they joined forces with Kurdish rebels and fought several actions against the Iraqi army to secure the northern part of the country.^ In March 2003, reports emerged of Iraqi forces laying mines around the northern city of Kirkuk.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They co-operated with Kurdish forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 10: Kurdish fighters seize the northern city of Kirkuk from the Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main body of coalition forces continued their drive into the heart of Iraq and met with little resistance.^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feb 12, 2003, 11:36 PM i read that special forces were in iraq last week..the washington post is a little slow on the draw.
  • Gulf War 2 has begun [Archive] - Mac Forums 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: General]

^ The main battle tanks (MBT) of the Coalition forces, the U.S. M1 Abrams and British Challenger 2, proved their worth in the rapid advance across the country.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the Iraqi military was quickly defeated and Baghdad was occupied on 9 April.^ The Iraqi military was defeated, and Baghdad fell on April 9, 2003 .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USMC Baghdad combat April 8-10: 25-50 estimated Iraqi combatant fatalities (PDA corrected estimate).
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi troops raided a complex in eastern Baghdad occupied by Palestinian refugees after receiving information that a car bomb was inside the compound.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Other operations occurred against pockets of the Iraqi army including the capture and occupation of Kirkuk on April 10, and the attack and capture of Tikrit on 15 April.^ British military police also evacuated 60 journalists from the southern Iraqi town of Safwan today after a warning that 10 to 15 armed fighters loyal to Saddam Hussein were planning an imminent attack on the media.
  • Iraqi TV shows US dead and POWs - War on Iraq - smh.com.au 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: News]

^ In northern Iraq, approximately 1,000 paratroopers of the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted onto an airfield in an effort to open a northern front against Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the war in Iraq spawned aggressive insurgent activity against American troops, the alarms have grown especially shrill when the captured immigrants are Iraqis.
  • Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.mysanantonio.com [Source type: News]

.Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the central leadership went into hiding as the coalition forces completed the occupation of the country.^ U.S. forces advance into central Baghdad.

^ Each day more coalition forces flow into the country.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The planes can be equipped advanced missiles and bombs, and would give Iraq a more potent air force than it had under Saddam Hussein, when the Iraqi air force mainly consisted of Russian and French fighters.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.On 1 May an end of major combat operations was declared, ending the invasion period and beginning the military occupation period.^ "End of major combat operations" (May 2003) .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 1 May 2003 George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln , in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 1, 2003 George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln , in a Lockheed S-3 Viking , where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Prelude to the invasion

.The Gulf War ended on April 11, 1999 with a cease-fire negotiated between the US, its allies and Iraq.^ This war ended with a cease fire instead of a permanent peace treaty.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US - Iraq War - ProCon.org .
  • US - Iraq War - ProCon.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC usiraq.procon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hostilities in Iraq in March and April 2003 were the largest engagement of ground forces since the Gulf War in 1991.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .The U.S. and its allies maintained a policy of “containment” towards Iraq.^ Therefore the US should conduct an immediate policy review toward Iraq including military, energy, economic and political/ .
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an open letter to Clinton, the group warns that the policy of containing Iraq is "dangerously inadequate."
  • frontline: the war behind closed doors: chronology - the evolution of the bush doctrine | PBS 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But none of these proved truly lasting, so that by the time of the Clinton administration, U.S. policy had become one of “dual containment” of both Iran and Iraq.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.This policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council, US and UK enforcement of Iraqi no-fly zones declared by the US and the UK to protect Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan and Shias in the south, and ongoing inspections to prevent Iraqi development of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons.^ UN Security Council approves arms inspections .

^ Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, in promoting Resolution 1441, had given assurances that it provided no "automaticity," no "hidden triggers," no step to invasion without consultation of the Security Council.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to an editorial in The New Statesman this was "Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias, it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected."
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi military helicopters and planes regularly contested the no-fly zones.^ The no-fly zone was contested however by Iraqi military helicopters and planes on numerous occasions.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By October, with the UN vote still two weeks away, RAF aircraft were dropping 64% of bombs falling on the southern no-fly zone.
  • RAF bombing raids tried to goad Saddam into war - Times Online 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Casualties of the invading forces were not limited to the Iraqi military; civilian men, women and children residing within the combat zones were also casualties but numbers are unknown, probably in the thousands.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28]
In October 1998, removing the Hussein regime became official US foreign policy with enactment of the "Iraq Liberation Act." Enacted following the expulsion of UN weapons inspectors the preceding August after some had been caught spying for the US, the act provided $97 million for Iraqi "democratic opposition organizations" to "establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq."[29] This legislation contrasted with the terms set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, which focused on weapons and weapons programs and made no mention of regime change.[30] .One month after the passage of the “Iraq Liberation Act,” the US and UK launched a bombardment campaign of Iraq called Operation Desert Fox.^ The US invasion of Iraq, however, is not one of them.
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Weapons inspectors had been used to gather information on Iraq's WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) program and to enforce the terms of the 1991 cease fire, which forbade Iraq from developing WMD. The information was used in targeting decisions during Operation Desert Fox, a US and UK bombardment of Iraq in December 1998 which was precipitated by lack of cooperation between Iraq and the UN weapon inspections team.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1998, under Iraqi pressure, the UN weapons inspectors left Iraq, prompting the United States to launch a severe three-day bombing campaign called "Operation Desert Fox."
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The campaign’s express rationale was to hamper the Hussein government’s ability to produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, but US intelligence personnel also hoped it would help weaken Hussein’s grip on power.^ Iraqi officials have insisted that they destroyed all of the chemical and biological weapons they made after the 1991 Persian Gulf War -- a claim U.N. weapons inspectors have questioned.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Bush administration had encouraged Iraqis to rebel in the hope that Hussein would be overthrown, but removing him from power was not an explicit objective of the allies.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of the cease-fire arrangements after the Persian Gulf War, the United Nations (UN) Security Council ordered Iraq to eliminate its programs to develop biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.With the election of George W. Bush as US President in 2000, the US moved towards a more aggressive policy toward Iraq.^ The start of hostilities came after the expiration of a 48-hour deadline which was set by U.S. President George W. Bush , demanding that Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq , ending the diplomatic Iraq disarmament crisis ; see .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. casualties have been rising since President Bush ordered nearly 30,000 more troops to Iraq in a major push to pacify Baghdad and surrounding areas.
  • Nation & World | U.S. blames Sunni fighters for Iraq's deadliest quarter | Seattle Times Newspaper 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ In a speech in January last year setting out his foreign policy agenda, US President George W. Bush described North Korea, Iraq and Iran as an "axis of evil" for their alleged programs to develop and sell weapons of mass destruction.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Republican Party's campaign platform in the US presidential election, 2000 called for "full implementation" of the Iraq Liberation Act and removal of Hussein, and key Bush advisors, including Vice President Dick Cheney, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and Rumsfeld’s Deputy Paul Wolfowitz, had long desired to invade Iraq.^ Kucinich is running for the office of President of the United States in the 2004 election.
  • DONHODGES.COM - The Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC donhodges.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, the most prominent backers of the US invasion of Iraq - Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Vice President Dick Cheney - are neither Jewish nor prone to put the perceived interests of Israel ahead of those of the United States.
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The report was commissioned by U.S. vice-president Dick Cheney.
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .After leaving the George W. Bush administration, former US Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill said that an attack on Iraq had been planned since Bush's inauguration, and that the first United States National Security Council meeting involved discussion of an invasion.^ It has been through the National Security Council process.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States national government and politics.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to former treasury secretary Paul O'Neill , the attack was planned since the inauguration, and the first security council meeting discussed plans on invasion of the country.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.O'Neill later backtracked, saying that these discussions were part of a continuation of foreign policy first put into place by the Clinton administration.^ O'Neill later clarified that these discussions were part of a continuation of foreign policy first put into place by the Clinton Administration.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The paper came out of discussions among foreign policy experts, including Richard Perle, Douglas Feith, Robert Loewenberg, David Wurmser, and Meyrav Wurmser, many of whom later occupied important positions in the Bush administration.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official investigation into both of these cases was continuing through the end of 1990.
  • 1990 Global Terrorism: State-Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.Despite the Bush administration's stated interest in liberating Iraq, little formal movement towards an invasion occurred until the September 11, 2001 attacks.^ Subsequent disclosures by former high-level officials within the Bush administration, however, revealed that Bush had been preparing for the use of military force against Iraq almost as soon as he took office in January 2001.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Below are excerpts of statements about the proposed war in Iraq: Despite the administration's push there are many voices of dissent and protests nationwide (and internationally).
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, by September 2002, the Bush administration had outlined a new foreign policy strategy, known as the Bush Doctrine, which called for preemptive war to prevent terrorists or state sponsors of terrorism from obtaining weapons of mass destruction.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the administration prepared Operation Desert Badger to respond aggressively if any US Air Force pilot was shot down while flying over Iraq, but this didn't happen.^ Subsequent disclosures by former high-level officials within the Bush administration, however, revealed that Bush had been preparing for the use of military force against Iraq almost as soon as he took office in January 2001.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps most notable among these is Brent Scowcroft, the retired Air Force general who served as national security adviser in the George H. W. Bush Administration and who shaped that administration’s policy during and after the first Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This letter was more explicit in calling for the use of military force, including a call for a “systematic air campaign” to destroy Iraq’s Republican Guard divisions.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to aides who were with Rumsfeld in the National Military Command Center on September 11, Rumsfeld asked for: "best info fast.^ Notes from aides who were with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld in the National Military Command Center one year later, on the day of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack, reflect that he wanted, "best info fast.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All this was presumably known to the Israelis, who monitored UN disarmament efforts in Iraq and had the best military intelligence capabilities in the region.
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One year later, on the day of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack , Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld is reported to have written in his notes, "best info fast.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Judge whether good enough hit Saddam Hussein at same time.^ Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Judge whether good enough hit Saddam Hussein at same time.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The timing and quality of the dossier raised many questions, but those aside, Straw failed to provide an explanation for his very recent conversion to skepticism about Saddam Hussein's good character and behavior.
  • Noam Chomsky: Iraq War and Contempt for Democracy 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Not only Osama bin Laden."[34] The rationale for invading Iraq as a response to 9/11 has been widely questioned, as there was no cooperation between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda.[35]
.Shortly after September 11, 2001 (on September 20), President Bush addressed a joint session of the US Congress (which was simulcast live to the world), and announced his new "War on Terrorism". This announcement was accompanied by the doctrine of 'pre-emptive' military action, later termed the Bush Doctrine.^ Shortly thereafter, the George W. Bush administration announced a War on Terrorism , accompanied by the doctrine of preemptive military action dubbed the Bush doctrine .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But these countries are adamantly opposed to US pre-emptive action.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly thereafter, the George W. Bush administration announced a War on Terrorism, accompanied by the doctrine of 'pre-emptive' military action, termed the Bush doctrine.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Bush advisers favored an immediate invasion of Iraq, while others advocated building an international coalition and obtaining United Nations authorization.^ Other member nations of the coalition that suffered casualties included the United Kingdom , Italy , Ukraine , Poland , Bulgaria , Spain , Slovakia , El Salvador , the Netherlands , Thailand , Denmark , Estonia , Hungary , Kazakhstan , Latvia , and Australia .
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to invasion, the United States and other coalition forces involved in the 1991 Gulf War had been engaged in a low-level conflict with Iraq, enforcing the Iraqi no-fly zones where Iraqi air-defense installations were engaged on a fairly regular basis.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report did say, however, that Iraq worked hard to cheat on United Nations-imposed sanctions and retain the capability to resume production of weapons of mass destruction at some time in the future.
  • CNN.com - Report fuels Iraq WMD debate - Oct 7, 2004 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Bush eventually decided to seek UN authorization, while still reserving the option of invading without it.[36]

Preparations for war

While there had been some earlier talk of action against Iraq, the Bush administration waited until September 2002 to call for action, with White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card saying, "From a marketing point of view, you don't introduce new products in August."[37] Bush began formally making his case to the international community for an invasion of Iraq in his September 12, 2002 address to the UN Security Council.[38] .Key US allies in NATO, such as the United Kingdom, agreed with the US actions, while France and Germany were critical of plans to invade Iraq, arguing instead for continued diplomacy and weapons inspections.^ To argue that support for Israel and/or pressure by supporters of Israel was a crucial variable in prompting the US invasion and occupation of Iraq assumes that the US invasion and occupation of Iraq has been good for Israel.
  • Asia Times Online :: Middle East News, Iraq, Iran current affairs 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finding such weapons would be a huge boost for Bush, since much of the international criticism of the U.S.-led war has focused on the fact that United Nations inspectors had not found any banned weapons in Iraq.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ France, Germany, and Russia do not agree with the resolution for war and request a more intense inspection process to avert a war with Iraq.

.After considerable debate, the UN Security Council adopted a compromise resolution, UN Security Council Resolution 1441, which authorized the resumption of weapons inspections and promised "serious consequences" for noncompliance.^ UN security council resolution 687 (pdf) .
  • Iraq: key speeches and documents | Iraq | guardian.co.uk 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ UN Security Council approves arms inspections .

^ UN security council resolution 1441 (pdf) .
  • Iraq: key speeches and documents | Iraq | guardian.co.uk 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Security Council members France and Russia made clear that they did not consider these consequences to include the use of force to overthrow the Iraqi government.^ They consider all Iraqis the same.
  • Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.mysanantonio.com [Source type: News]

^ Intercepted tactical communications indicate, however, that Saddam's designated successor, Qusay, 36, is still directing the Iraqi security forces and the Republican Guard.
  • AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes WIN 14-03 dtd 9 April 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.afio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using the potential threat of Saddam-supplied Weapons of Mass Destruction in the hands of terrorists, the U.S. government increasingly insisted on total Iraqi disarmament.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Both the US ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock publicly confirmed this reading of the resolution, assuring that Resolution 1441 provided no "automaticity" or "hidden triggers" for an invasion without further consultation of the Security Council.^ Such consultation was forestalled by the US and UK's abandonment of the Security Council procedure and their invasion of Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, in promoting Resolution 1441, had given assurances that it provided no "automaticity," no "hidden triggers," no step to invasion without consultation of the Security Council.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resolution 1441 , drafted and accepted unanimously the year before the invasion, threatened "serious consequences" to Iraq in case Iraq did not comply with all conditions.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.Resolution 1441 gave Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" and set up inspections by the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).^ UNSCOM -- The United Nations Special Commission, the organization that conducts the weapons inspections in Iraq.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attacks were intensified from May, six months before the United Nations resolution that Tony Blair and Lord Goldsmith, the attorney-general, argued gave the coalition the legal basis for war.
  • RAF bombing raids tried to goad Saddam into war - Times Online 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It was not until November 8 that the UN security council passed resolution 1441, which threatened Iraq with “serious consequences” for failing to co-operate with the weapons inspectors.
  • RAF bombing raids tried to goad Saddam into war - Times Online 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Hussein accepted the resolution on November 13 and inspectors returned to Iraq under the direction of UNMOVIC chairman Hans Blix and IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei.^ It was not until November 8 that the UN security council passed resolution 1441, which threatened Iraq with “serious consequences” for failing to co-operate with the weapons inspectors.
  • RAF bombing raids tried to goad Saddam into war - Times Online 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Resolution 1441 , drafted and accepted unanimously the year before the invasion, threatened "serious consequences" to Iraq in case Iraq did not comply with all conditions.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA reported a level of compliance by Iraq with the disarmament requirements (UN Security Council Resolution 1441; IAEA) Hans Blix went on to state the Iraqi government may have been hoping to restart production once sanctions were lifted and inspectors left the country, as speculated by senior Iraqi officials and a prominent defector, Gen.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of February 2003, the IAEA "found no evidence or plausible indication of the revival of a nuclear weapons programme in Iraq"; the IAEA concluded that certain items which could have been used in nuclear enrichment centrifuges, such as aluminum tubes, were in fact intended for other uses.^ In fact, Iraq could not buy the tubes on the open market.

^ With such weak evidence, the administration clings to the aluminum tubes.

^ This conclusion was echoed in ElBaradei's report which traced the history of Iraq's attempts to build rockets from aluminum tubes from prior to 1987 until today.

[41] .UNMOVIC "did not find evidence of the continuation or resumption of programmes of weapons of mass destruction" or significant quantities of proscribed items.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UNMOVIC did supervise the destruction of a small number of empty chemical rocket warheads, 50 liters of mustard gas that had been declared by Iraq and sealed by UNSCOM in 1998, and laboratory quantities of a mustard gas precursor, along with about 50 Al-Samoud missiles of a design that Iraq claimed did not exceed the permitted 150 km range, but which had travelled up to 183 km in tests.^ Given the number of procurements and the time to test a new centrifuge design and build a plant, Iraq would have to assume its program would be discovered before it was able to produce significant quantities of highly enriched uranium.

^ The man once regarded as the world's most powerful banker has bluntly declared that the Iraq war was 'largely' about oil.
  • Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million | CommonDreams.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Extended-range MLRS rockets can reach out to more than 45 kilometers, however, and Army Tactical Missiles (ATACMS) have ranges of 150 km to more than 300 km, depending on the model of ATACMS used.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shortly before the invasion, UNMOVIC stated that it would take "months" to verify Iraqi compliance with resolution 1441.[42][43][44]
.In October 2002 the US Congress passed a "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq". The resolution authorized the President to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, Americans polled in January 2003 widely favored further diplomacy over an invasion.^ In October 2002, with the "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq", the United States Congress granted President Bush the authority to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, based on repeated Bush Administration statements to Congress and the public, which turned out to be incorrect, that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq was worded so as to encourage, but not require, UN Security Council approval for military action.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 2002, the United States Congress granted President Bush the authority to wage war against Iraq.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later that year, however, Americans began to agree with Bush's plan.^ However, with very few exceptions those reports have emphasized either that these are contingency plans that have not been operationalized or the target date has been postponed until next year.
  • Fran Schor: Invasion of Iraq, Coming Soon 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Bush administration stepped up its war planning, the State Department began preparations for post-invasion Iraq.
  • CORPORATE INVASION OF IRAQ, and oil leasing 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

^ French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin criticized Bush administration plans to give reconstruction contracts in Iraq to American firms.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.The US government engaged in an elaborate domestic public relations campaign to market the war to its citizens.^ This resulted in most regular Iraqi military units emerging from the war fully intact and without ever having been engaged by US forces, especially in southern Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Gulf War the US government encouraged rebellions by the Shiites but did not intervene when Hussein crushed the rebels.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reuters Raw Video - un-narrarated war-related video footage and live news conferences, government briefings, and other events.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Americans overwhelmingly believed Hussein did have weapons of mass destruction: 85% said so, even though the inspectors had not uncovered those weapons.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of those who thought Iraq had weapons sequestered somewhere, about half responded that said weapons would not be found in combat.^ In 1995, Saddam's son-in-law, who is head of Iraq's WMD program, defects and tells inspectors about Iraq's arsenal.
  • frontline: the war behind closed doors: chronology - the evolution of the bush doctrine | PBS 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraq denied inspectors access to some sites within the country, and much of the information Iraq provided about its weapons programs was viewed as incomplete, inaccurate, or misleading.
  • U.S.-Iraq War - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its editorials in the past two weeks have been about domestic affairs, but it did publish a militant anti-war message: "The UN inspectors have so far not found any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
  • Their master's voice | Media | The Guardian 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.By February 2003, 74% of Americans supported taking military action to remove Hussein from power.^ Even though major combat ended, as declared by President Bush on May 1, 2003, the escalating guerrilla war damages American public support for the war.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2000, in the Rebuilding America's Defenses report , the conservative Project for the New American Century think tank advocated that the United States take a stronger military position against the regime of Saddam Hussein.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout 2002, the U.S. administration made it clear that removing Saddam Hussein from power was a major goal, although it offered to accept major changes in Iraqi military and foreign policy in lieu of this.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.The Central Intelligence Agency's Special Activities Division (SAD) teams were the first US forces to enter Iraq, in July 2002, before the main invasion.^ US invasion of Iraq and its aftermath.
  • US - Iraq War - ProCon.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC usiraq.procon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resolution 1441 , drafted and accepted unanimously the year before the invasion, threatened "serious consequences" to Iraq in case Iraq did not comply with all conditions.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Army’s Third Infantry Division fired upon targets inside Iraq, followed shortly thereafter by artillery from the U.S. Marine Corps’ First Marine Division.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once on the ground, they prepared for the subsequent arrival of US Army Special Forces to organize the Kurdish Peshmerga.^ They co-operated with Kurdish forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They opted on August 5 for a “hybrid plan” in which a continuous air offensive and special forces operations would begin while the main ground force built up in Kuwait ready for a full-scale invasion.
  • RAF bombing raids tried to goad Saddam into war - Times Online 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In the north, ground forces and special forces are securing Kirkuk and Mosul and are degrading regime forces in and near Tikrit.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.This joint team (called the Northern Iraq Liaison Element (NILE))[45] combined to defeat Ansar al-Islam, a group with ties to al Qaeda, in Iraqi Kurdistan.^ But Powell tells the president that an international coalition would only come together for an attack on Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan, not an invasion of Iraq.
  • frontline: the war behind closed doors: chronology - the evolution of the bush doctrine | PBS 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Air power is becomingly increasingly important in Iraq, where the amount of ordnance dropped by U.S. planes has jumped in recent months as U.S. and Iraqi forces press to eradicate the remnants of al-Qaeda in Iraq and other militant groups.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In northern Iraq, approximately 1,000 paratroopers of the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted onto an airfield in an effort to open a northern front against Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This battle was for control of the territory that was occupied by Ansar al-Islam and took place before the invasion.^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Within days, Kurdish Peshmerga troops of the PUK, along with U.S. special forces units, assaulted the stronghold of the Ansar al-Islam group along the Iranian border.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Secretary of State also outlined that the Islamic terrorist group Ansar al-Islam, which he linked to Hussein, were operating a chemical and poisons factory in north-eastern Iraq.
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was carried out by Paramilitary Operations Officers from SAD and the Army's 10th Special Forces Group.^ When paramilitary forces in cities like Nasiriya and Najaf attacked convoys and slowed the advance toward Baghdad, Special Operations units were called in for classic covert force protection work.
  • AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes WIN 14-03 dtd 9 April 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.afio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the North, the 10th Special Forces Group (10th SFG) had the mission of aiding the Kurdish parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party, de facto rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 5th Special Forces Group, United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) conducted reconnaissance in the cities of Basra , Karbala and various other locations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This battle resulted in the defeat of Ansar and the capture of a chemical weapons facility at Sargat.^ The article states that one soldier was lightly wounded when a booby-trapped explosive was triggered as he was "clearing the sheet metal-lined chemical weapons production facility."
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ American special operations forces found documents in western Iraq that also could lead to chemical or biological weapons facilities, said Gen.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

[45] .Sargat was the only facility of its type discovered in the Iraq war.^ The National Museum of Iraq was only one of many museums and sites of cultural significance that were affected by the war.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 43 days after announcing the start of the war in Iraq, Bush announces to the nation on live television that major combat operations in Iraq have ended.

^ Post speech: I remain apprehensive and unconvinced not only because I am philosophically a pacifist and anti-war but also because the reasons advanced for war on Iraq are not compelling.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

[46][47]
SAD teams also conducted missions behind enemy lines to identify leadership targets. .These missions led to the initial air strikes against Hussein and his generals.^ By removing the Hussein regime, therefore, the United States would strike a deadly blow against international terrorism.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ATACMS provides U.S. Joint Force with the ability to execute deep strike missions against enemy forces with precision and responsiveness.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ The first air strike pin-points Saddam Hussein and other top officials in Baghdad.

.Although the strike against Hussein was unsuccessful in killing him, it effectively ended his ability to command and control his forces.^ Why would Hussein want to give weapons of mass destruction to terrorist groups that would use them against him?
  • Propaganda Matrix.com - Exposing the New World Order and Government Sponsored Terrorism 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.propagandamatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Tommy Franks assumed control of Iraq as the supreme commander of occupation forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Strikes against Iraq's generals were more successful and significantly degraded the Iraqi command's ability to react to, and maneuver against the US-led invasion force.^ US invasion of Iraq and its aftermath.
  • US - Iraq War - ProCon.org 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC usiraq.procon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy U.S. air strikes, accompanied by both manned and unmanned aircraft, continue a brutal punishment in Iraq with more than 1,500 sorties flown.

^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

[45][48] .SAD operations officers were also successful in convincing key Iraqi Army officers into surrendering their units once the fighting started.^ Iraqis fight Mahdi army 28 Mar 2008: Iraqi security forces have been battling Shia militias this week in Basra .
  • Their master's voice | Media | The Guardian 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Jerusalem Post report also states that immediately following coalition entry into the camp, at least 30 Iraqi soldiers and their commanding officer fully obeyed instructions given by U.S. soldiers by lying down and surrendering.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Iraq's 8,000-man unit of the 51st Army Division surrenders to coalition forces at the Southern Iraq border.

[46]
.NATO member Turkey refused to allow the US army across its territory into northern Iraq.^ In northern Iraq, approximately 1,000 paratroopers of the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted onto an airfield in an effort to open a northern front against Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Commander in Iraq General David Petraeus has requested another Army brigade in addition to five en route.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Ahead of the anniversary of the US invasion of Iraq, there have been anti-war protests across the US, Europe, Canada and Australia.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Therefore, joint SAD and Army Special forces teams and the Pershmerga were the entire Northern force against the Iraqi army.^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

^ In northern Iraq, approximately 1,000 paratroopers of the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted onto an airfield in an effort to open a northern front against Iraqi forces.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqis fight Mahdi army 28 Mar 2008: Iraqi security forces have been battling Shia militias this week in Basra .
  • Their master's voice | Media | The Guardian 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.They managed to keep the northern divisions in place rather than allowing them to aid their colleagues against the US led coalition force coming from the south.^ There has been widespread concern over the scale of Iraqi deaths after the invasion by the US-led coalition in March, 2003.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Bush administration attempted to get a U.N. Security Council resolution authorising military force, but withdrew it before it could come to a vote after France, Russia , and later the China all signalled that they would use their Security Council veto power against any resolution that would include an ultimatum allowing the use of force against Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second thing I would say is they have been allowing people to go into that country, and people who were intending to oppose coalition forces.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[49] Four of these CIA officers were awarded the Intelligence Star for their actions.[46][47]
.In February 2003, US Secretary of State Colin Powell addressed the United Nations General Assembly, continuing US efforts to gain UN authorization for an invasion.^ Secretary Powell presented a presentation to the United Nations and the world.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ United States national government and politics.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Kofi Annan , current Secretary-General of the United Nations, and former Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali , as well as several nations, say that the attack violated international law as a war of aggression since it lacked the validity of a U.N. Security Council resolution to authorize military force, and so violated the UN charter.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Powell presented evidence alleging that Iraq was actively producing chemical and biological weapons and had ties to al-Qaeda As a follow-up to Powell’s presentation, the United States, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Australia, Denmark, Japan, and Spain proposed a resolution authorizing the use of force in Iraq, but NATO members like Canada, France, and Germany, together with Russia, strongly urged continued diplomacy.^ Many alleged that little evidence was presented linking Iraq and al Qaeda.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attempt of the United Kingdom and the United States to obtain a further Resolution authorizing force failed when France made it known they would veto further Resolutions on Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ground forces from Australia and Poland and naval forces from Denmark and Spain also played a supporting role.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Facing a losing vote as well as a likely veto from France and Russia, the US, UK, Spain, Poland, Denmark, Italy, Japan, and Australia eventually withdrew their resolution.^ France, Germany, and Russia do not agree with the resolution for war and request a more intense inspection process to avert a war with Iraq.

^ Lives lived in the shadows, dodging cops and guards both by night and by day wherever they have been - Pakistan, Iran, Russia, Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden.
  • Beyond the wasteland and the minefield: What Afghanistan has to teach 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.sacw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with Poland and Australia , the invasion was supported by the governments of several European nations, including the Czech Republic , Denmark , Portugal , Italy , Hungary , and Spain .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50][51]
US President George W. Bush meets with his top advisors on March 19, 2003 just before the invasion
.With the failure of its resolution, the US and their supporters abandoned the Security Council procedures and decided to pursue the invasion without UN authorization, a decision of questionable legality under international law.^ Such consultation was forestalled by the US and UK's abandonment of the Security Council procedure and their invasion of Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, in promoting Resolution 1441, had given assurances that it provided no "automaticity," no "hidden triggers," no step to invasion without consultation of the Security Council.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P ick almost any date on the calendar and it'll turn out that the US either started a war, ended a war, perpetrated a massacre or sent its UN Ambassador into the Security Council to declare to issue an ultimatum.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

[52] .This decision was widely unpopular worldwide, and opposition to the invasion coalesced on February 15 in a worldwide anti-war protest that attracted between six and ten million people in more than 800 cities, the largest such protest in human history according to the Guinness Book of World Records.^ "More people are against the war rather than for it.
  • Obama's 'big' 2002 anti-war speech wasn't big then: The Swamp 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The cemetery, which covers more than four square miles and contains more than 2 million graves, is the largest in the Muslim world and it is the preferred burial place for Shiites everywhere, due to its association with the tomb of Ali bin Abi Talib, Mohammed's son-in-law, who gave birth to Shiism.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although such death rates might be common in times of war, the combination of a long duration and tens of millions of people affected has made this the deadliest international conflict of the 21st century, and should be of grave concern to everyone.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

[53]
.In March 2003, the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Australia, Poland, Denmark, and Italy began preparing for the invasion of Iraq, with a host of public relations, and military moves.^ The United States also began preparations for an invasion of Iraq, with a host of diplomatic, public relations, and military preparations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BEGAN: March 19, 2003 -Coalition bombing of Iraq began .
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States also began preparations for an invasion of Iraq , with a host of diplomatic, public relations and military preparations.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his March 17, 2003 address to the nation, Bush demanded that Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay surrender and leave Iraq, giving them a 48-hour deadline.^ In his March 17, 2003 , address to the nation, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq, giving them a 48-hour deadline.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suddam's sons, Uday and Qusay Hussein, are killed in a gun battle.

^ The start of hostilities came after the expiration of a 48-hour deadline which was set by U.S. President George W. Bush , demanding that Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq , ending the diplomatic Iraq disarmament crisis ; see .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .But then the US began the bombing of Iraq on March 18, the day before the deadline expired.^ BEGAN: March 19, 2003 -Coalition bombing of Iraq began .
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, Britain "created facts" before Iraq war: Blix Bin Laden Deputy Warns of More Attacks on the U.S. (just in time for elections?
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Kurdish officials say at least 150 people had been killed by US bombing at the weekend in northern Iraq - while others say around 60 have died.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.On March 18, 2003, the bombing of Iraq by the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Poland, Australia, and Denmark began.^ BEGAN: March 19, 2003 -Coalition bombing of Iraq began .
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 20, 2003 , the invasion of Iraq began.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 19, 2003, at 5:34 AM in Iraq, (6:34 PM on the U.S. West Coast), U.S. Stealth bombers and Tomahawk Cruise Missiles struck "leadership targets" in and around the Iraqi capital of Baghdad to begin the second major war between a United States-led Coalition and Saddam Hussein's Iraq.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike the first Gulf War or the war in Afghanistan (2001–present), this war had no explicit UN authorisation.^ UNSCOM discovered that, even before the Gulf War, commanders in charge of chemical and biological weapons were authorised to use them if Baghdad was hit.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The First Persian Gulf War lasted from 1980 to 1988 and pitted Iraq against Iran.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UK Parliament held a debate on going to war on 18-Mar-2003 where the government motion was approved 412 to 149.[55] The vote was a key moment in the history of the Blair administration, as the number government MPs that rebelled against the vote was the greatest since the repeal of the Corn Laws.^ The hostilities in Iraq in March and April 2003 were the largest engagement of ground forces since the Gulf War in 1991.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the aftermath of the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, the Bush Administration has been criticized for having rejected the possibility of a negotiated settlement in favor of going to war.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the war in Iraq spawned aggressive insurgent activity against American troops, the alarms have grown especially shrill when the captured immigrants are Iraqis.
  • Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.mysanantonio.com [Source type: News]

.Only three government ministers resigned in protest at the war- John Denham, Lord Hunt of Kings Heath and, crucially, the then Leader of the House of Commons Robin Cook.^ The Council on Foreign Relations is like the Trilateral Commission, only much larger; it is composed of approximately 4,000 prominent leaders in business, government, and education, etc.
  • Jun 23 2003 Invasion of the Mind Snatchers Nelson Hultberg 321gold 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC 321gold.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William A. Cook Ministers of War: Criminals of the Cloth .
  • Noam Chomsky: Iraq War and Contempt for Democracy 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Order CounterPunch By Email for Only $35 a Year and Receive a Free Copy of "Imperial Crusades: a Diary of Three Wars" by Cockburn and St. Clair .
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

Speaking in the House of Commons after his resignation he made a passionate speech. .He said: "What has come to trouble me is the suspicion that if the 'hanging chads' of Florida had gone the other way and Al Gore had been elected, we would not now be about to commit British troops to action in Iraq."^ The lessons our real enemies learn from this will come back to haunt us; that's why some guy way back in the 1900s said something about speaking softly and carrying a big stick.
  • Reason Magazine - Iraq Progress Report 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others in the interrogation operation "agreed there was pressure to produce intelligence, but did not recall pressure to identify links between Iraq and al-Qaida," the report said.
  • Bush officials reportedly pushed interrogators to link Saddam, al-Qaida - Sacramento Politics - California Politics | Sacramento Bee 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

^ What we're talking about this week isn't just about whether to use force now, but whether America now and in the future is going to use force by itself or as part of collective action.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the debate it was stated that the Attorney General had advised that the war was legal under previous UN Resolutions.^ Significantly, the Resolution stated that the UN Security Council shall "remain seized of the matter" (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441).
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 2003 Iraq War, comments all along the political spectrum ignited vigorous debate in both the traditional and non-traditional media.
  • Introduction: War in Cyberspace 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This pretext would also provide a cover under the "war against terrorism" to circumvent the necessary Congressional debate and declaration of war.
  • Fran Schor: Invasion of Iraq, Coming Soon 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Attempts to avoid war

In December 2002, a representative of the head of Iraqi Intelligence, General Tahir Jalil Habbush al-Tikriti, contacted former Central Intelligence Agency Counterterrorism Department head Vincent Cannistraro stating that Hussein "knew there was a campaign to link him to September 11 and prove he had weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)." Cannistraro further added that "the Iraqis were prepared to satisfy these concerns. .I reported the conversation to senior levels of the state department and I was told to stand aside and they would handle it."^ Q: Department of State would promote.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush spent last week meeting with officials at the Pentagon and State Department, telling reporters he would not be rushed into a decision.
  • Poll: Approval for Iraq handling drops to new low  - CNN.com 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ (As an aside small countries generally do not matter in the equations; they simply do as they are told, with a little political arm-twisting and economic coercion.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cannistraro stated that the offers made were all "killed" by the George W. Bush administration because they allowed Hussein to remain in power – an outcome viewed as unacceptable.^ Iraqi officials have insisted that they destroyed all of the chemical and biological weapons they made after the 1991 Persian Gulf War -- a claim U.N. weapons inspectors have questioned.
  • FOXNews.com - 'Huge' Suspected Chemical Weapons Plant Found in Iraq - U.S. & World 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ As a result, the companies and the Bush administration are holding U.S. troops hostage in Iraq until they get what they want.
  • CORPORATE INVASION OF IRAQ, and oil leasing 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

^ The Bush administration attempted to get a U.N. Security Council resolution authorising military force, but withdrew it before it could come to a vote after France, Russia , and later the China all signalled that they would use their Security Council veto power against any resolution that would include an ultimatum allowing the use of force against Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has been suggested that Saddam Hussein was prepared to go into exile if allowed to keep $1 billion USD.[56]
.Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak's national security advisor, Osama El-Baz, sent a message to the US State Department that the Iraqis wanted to discuss the accusations that the country had weapons of mass destruction and ties with al-Qaeda.^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The US forces (have) used such weapons of mass destruction .
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.Iraq also attempted to reach the US through the Syrian, French, German, and Russian intelligence services.^ Kay told the Senate Armed Services Committee during his oral report the following though: "Based on the intelligence that existed, I think it was reasonable to reach the conclusion that Iraq posed an imminent threat.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our intelligence sources tell us that he has attempted to purchase high-strength aluminum tubes suitable for nuclear weapons production.” .
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result is the US blitzkrieg in Iraq that is more like the one against a feudalistic Poland fielding 19th-century cavalry at German tanks and Stukas, than the one against the better-equipped French.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

Nothing came of the attempts.
.In January 2003, Lebanese-American Imad Hage met with Michael Maloof of the US Department of Defense's Office of Special Plans.^ Disputes within the US Defense Department led to delays in the post-invasion assessment and protection of Iraqi nuclear facilities.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About the author : Thomas Donnelly is a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) in Washington, D.C., specializing in defense and national security.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript .
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Hage, a resident of Beirut, had been recruited by the department to assist in the "War on Terrorism". He reported that Mohammed Nassif, a close aide to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, had expressed frustrations about the difficulties of Syria contacting the United States, and had attempted to use him as an intermediary.^ Iraqi Perspectives Report , Joint Center for Operational Analysis at United States Department of Defense, March 2006 * "Bush Jr.'s War on Iraq" HIR * "Frontline: The Dark Side" PBS documentary on Vice President Dick Cheney's remaking of the Executive and infighting leading up to the war in Iraq * * Video .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the President and Vice President of the United States, and the Secretary of State lie about something repeatedly, and the mainstream media echos the lies without question, of course most Americans are going to believe it and not pay attention to those speaking the truth.
  • Obama's 'big' 2002 anti-war speech wasn't big then: The Swamp 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the end of the Gulf War of 1991, relations between the United States and Iraq remained poor.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Maloof arranged for Hage to meet with civilian Richard Perle, then head of the Defense Policy Board.^ Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, argued in November 2003, that the invasion was against international law, but still justified.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][58]
.In January 2003, Hage met with the chief of Iraqi intelligence's foreign operations, Hassan al-Obeidi.^ Others in the interrogation operation "agreed there was pressure to produce intelligence, but did not recall pressure to identify links between Iraq and al-Qaida," the report said.
  • Bush officials reportedly pushed interrogators to link Saddam, al-Qaida - Sacramento Politics - California Politics | Sacramento Bee 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

^ On May 1, 2003 , President Bush declared the end of major combat operations, terminating the Baath Party's rule and removing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein from office.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert Collier, "Scale of Iraqi strength is a mystery; No clear sign of military preparations," San Francisco Chronicle, 20 January 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Obeidi told Hage that Baghdad didn't understand why they were being targeted, and that they had no WMDs; he then made the offer for Washington to send in 2000 FBI agents to confirm this.^ The ICRC has been on TV today saying that hospitals are being looted, not regime targets you're speaking of, and that they can't even get there to resupply these essential hospitals.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ "They made out links where they didn't exist."
  • Bush officials reportedly pushed interrogators to link Saddam, al-Qaida - Sacramento Politics - California Politics | Sacramento Bee 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.sacbee.com [Source type: News]

^ They fled their homeland because Muslim extremists had made two things clear: They didn't like the family's Christian faith, for one.
  • Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.mysanantonio.com [Source type: News]

.He additionally offered petroleum concessions, but stopped short of having Hussein give up power, instead suggesting that elections could be held in two years.^ The face injuries were so severe that villagers had to mop up the blood with shirts before they could identify the victims: two brothers, Zanalabedeen Abdullah, 8, and Qutaybah Abdullah, 7.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Later, Obeidi suggested that Hage travel to Baghdad for talks; he accepted.^ If accepted uncritically, official coalition estimates of Iraqi combatant fatalities in the battle for Baghdad suggest a death toll of in excess of 7,000 soldiers and militia.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[57]
.Later that month, Hage met with General Habbush and Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz.^ "We are trying to build a new system of government in the heart of the Islamic Middle East," Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Barham Saleh told CNN. .
  • Peace, high turnout reported at Iraq polls - CNN.com 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.He was offered top priority to US firms in oil and mining rights, UN-supervised elections, US inspections (with up to 5,000 inspectors), to have al-Qaeda agent Abdul Rahman Yasin (in Iraqi custody since 1994) handed over as a sign of good faith, and to give "full support for any US plan" in the Arab-Israeli peace process.^ US is actually now following up and implementing its right of pre-emption against another one of the powers that was designated as a part of the axis of evil," he said.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republican Party's campaign platform in the U.S. presidential election, 2000 called for "full implementation" of the act and removal of Saddam Hussein with a focus on rebuilding a coalition, tougher sanctions, reinstating inspections, and support for the pro-democracy, opposition exile group, Iraqi National Congress .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muhy-al-Din Qadr, “Over 1,000 Mines Removed from Just Three Liberated Areas,” Brayati (Iraqi Kurdistan Democratic Party), April 26, 2003, republished as “Over 1,000 Mines Removed in April—Kurdish Paper,” BBC, April 28, 2003.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also wished to meet with high-ranking US officials.^ That followed a battle on Tuesday near Najaf in which Pentagon officials said 150 to 300 Iraqis were believed killed when they attacked the US 7th Cavalry.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

On February 19, Hage faxed Maloof his report of the trip. Maloof reports having brought the proposal to Jamie Duran. The Pentagon denies that either Wolfowitz or Rumsfeld, Duran's bosses, were aware of the plan.[57]
On February 21, Maloof informed Duran in an email that Richard Perle wished to meet with Hage and the Iraqis if the Pentagon would clear it. Duran responded "Mike, working this. Keep this close hold." On March 7, Perle met with Hage in Knightsbridge, and stated that he wanted to pursue the matter further with people in Washington (both have acknowledged the meeting). .A few days later, he informed Hage that Washington refused to let him meet with Habbush to discuss the offer (Hage stated that Perle's response was "that the consensus in Washington was it was a no-go").^ President Bush then receives a letter the same day, which is signed by 130 members of the House of Representatives — encouraging him to "let the inspectors work."

^ Washington was confident no Kurdish state would emerge and Turkish Kurd "terrorists" would not flourish.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They came around one day to let him know he'd better convert.
  • Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.mysanantonio.com [Source type: News]

Perle told The Times, "The message was 'Tell them that we will see them in Baghdad."

Casus belli and rationale

.George Bush, speaking in October 2002, said that “The stated policy of the United States is regime change… However, if Hussein were to meet all the conditions of the United Nations, the conditions that I have described very clearly in terms that everybody can understand, that in itself will signal the regime has changed”.^ United States national government and politics.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 2002, with the "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq", the United States Congress granted President Bush the authority to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, based on repeated Bush Administration statements to Congress and the public, which turned out to be incorrect, that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another factor, however, is oil – the United States is becoming dangerously dependent on imported petroleum to meet its daily energy requirements and Iraq possesses the world's largest reserves of untapped petroleum after Saudi Arabia.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] .Based on claims from certain intelligence sources, Bush stated on March 6, 2003 that he believed that Hussein was not complying with UN Resolution 1441.^ Resolution 1441 , drafted and accepted unanimously the year before the invasion, threatened "serious consequences" to Iraq in case Iraq did not comply with all conditions.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his March 17, 2003 , address to the nation, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq, giving them a 48-hour deadline.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.In September 2002, Tony Blair stated, in an answer to a parliamentary question, that “Regime change in Iraq would be a wonderful thing.^ Times Online: Iraq - ongoing coverage of the war in Iraq, including analysis of Prime Minister Tony Blair's decision to support the war.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nelson Mandela, The Guardian, September 13, 2002 "Neither Bush nor Tony Blair has provided any evidence that such weapons exist.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1998 the United States Congress passed the Iraq Liberation Act which stated "It should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq."
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is not the purpose of our action; our purpose is to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction…”[61] In November of that year, Blair further stated that “So far as our objective, it is disarmament, not régime change - that is our objective.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction.
  • GuyanaJournal | Invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC guyanajournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Now I happen to believe the regime of Saddam is a very brutal and repressive regime, I think it does enormous damage to the Iraqi people...^ It was really very difficult to believe this was happening.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, Ellen Sauerbrey, Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees and Migration, and the President’s point person on Iraqi refugee issues, stated, “[t]he problem is one caused by [Saddam Hussein’s] repressive regime.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what does seem uncertain at the moment are the mood of the Iraqi people and whether or not, despite whatever dislike they have for Saddam Hussein, whether they will welcome American and British forces as liberators.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

so I have got no doubt Saddam is very bad for Iraq, but on the other hand I have got no doubt either that the purpose of our challenge from the United Nations is disarmament of weapons of mass destruction, it is not regime change.”[62]
.At a press conference on January 31, 2003, Bush again reiterated that the single trigger for the invasion would be Iraq’s failure to disarm: “Saddam Hussein must understand that if he does not disarm, for the sake of peace, we, along with others, will go disarm Saddam Hussein.”[63] As late as February 25, 2003, it was still the official line that the only cause of invasion would be a failure to disarm.^ Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it's going to end with Saddam Hussein losing.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. invasion of Iraq does not meet this standard.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Blair made clear in a statement to the House of Commons: “I detest his regime.^ These networks and regimes have, by their repeated attacks, made it abundantly clear that they will not be deterred from anything short of force.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russia , People's Republic of China , and France made clear in a joint statement that this did not authorize the use of force but a further resolution was needed.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But even now he can save it by complying with the UN's demand.^ Chief UN Weapons Inspector Hans Blix states, "Iraq appears not to have come to a genuine acceptance, not even today, of the disarmament that was demanded of it."

Even now, we are prepared to go the extra step to achieve disarmament peacefully.”[64]
.Additional justifications used at various times included Iraqi violation of UN resolutions, the Iraqi government's repression of its citizens and Iraqi violations of the 1991 cease-fire.^ Using the potential threat of Saddam-supplied Weapons of Mass Destruction in the hands of terrorists, the U.S. government increasingly insisted on total Iraqi disarmament.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Vice President Adel Abdul-Mahdi unveiled a reform package to a UN conference, including sharing oil revenues among the regions.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The Bush administration thinks that the UN Security Council Resolutions authorizing the 1991 invasion , in addition to Resolution 1441 , gave legal authority to use "…all necessary means…", which is diplomatic code for going to war.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.The main allegations were that Hussein possessed, or was attempting to produce, weapons of mass destruction particularly considering two previous attacks on Baghdad nuclear weapons production facilities by both Iran and Israel which was alleged to have postponed weapons development progress; and that he had ties to terrorists, specifically al-Qaeda.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worse, the Iraqi Army had incompetent leadership - reports state that Qusay Hussein, charged with the defense of Baghdad , dramatically shifted the positions of the two main divisions protecting Baghdad several times in the days before the arrival of U.S. forces, and as a result the units within were both confused and further demoralized when U.S. Marine and British forces attacked.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While it never made an explicit connection between Iraq and the September 11 attacks, the George W. Bush administration repeatedly insinuated a link, thereby creating a false impression for the US public.^ Prior to September 11, George W. Bush followed this traditional policy.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Grand jury testimony from the 1993 World Trade Center attack trials cited numerous direct linkages from the bombers to Baghdad and Department 13 of the Iraqi Intelligence Service in that initial attack marking the second anniversary to vindicate the surrender of Iraqi armed forces in Operation Desert Storm.^ Each day more Iraqi forces surrender.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. Third Division moved westward and then northward through the desert toward Baghdad, while the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force and a UK expeditionary force moved northward through marshland.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the first Gulf War, in an initiative dubbed Operation Pacific Haven, the American military – in a matter of only a few months – airlifted 6,600 Iraqi Kurds and Arabs from Turkey to Anderson Air Force Base in Guam.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, The Washington Post has noted that
.While not explicitly declaring Iraqi culpability in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, administration officials did, at various times, imply a link.^ Second, following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush's rhetoric implied an (as yet unproven) Iraqi connection with al-Qaida.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 29, 2002 Attack on the United States DoD News: Assistant Secretary Clarke Interview with WBZ Boston September 11 News.com - Mysteries - Early Signs & Predictions of the 9-11-2001 Attack on America.
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Unit Personnel Attrition: Evidence from the field How did Iraqi field units fare under air attack in terms of casualties?
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late 2001, Cheney said it was "pretty well confirmed" that attack mastermind Mohamed Atta had met with a senior Iraqi intelligence official.^ Iraqi officials put total deaths at 83 but this could not be independently confirmed."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As late as 8 June, Iraqi health officials were still negotiating for access to between 50 and 100 bodies buried at the International Airport.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One airstrike, on April 5, hit a house that was believed to be used by top Iraqi intelligence agency officials.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Later, Cheney called Iraq the "geographic base of the terrorists who had us under assault now for many years, but most especially on 9/11."[65]
.Steven Kull, director of the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) at the University of Maryland, observed in March 2003 that "The administration has succeeded in creating a sense that there is some connection [between Sept.^ Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, argued in November 2003, that the invasion was against international law, but still justified.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Iraq: Investigate civilian deaths," Amnesty International Press Release , 26 March 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ And this means that there would be some overlap between the "observed fatalities" estimated in the previous section and our calculated estimate of artillery's fatal effects.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.11 and Saddam Hussein]". This was following a New York Times/CBS poll that showed 45% of Americans believing Saddam Hussein was "personally involved" in the September 11 atrocities.^ John Kifner and Ian Fisher, "US Marines leave Baghdad," New York Times, 20 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dexter Filkins and Michael Wilson, "Battle for a city turns into abrutal street fight," New York Times , 25 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "John F. Burns, "Capital has look of a battlefield," New York Times, 8 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.As the Christian Science Monitor observed at the time, while "Sources knowledgeable about US intelligence say there is no evidence that Hussein played a role in the Sept.^ There's no question about that.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States , also known as the 9/11 Commission, concluded that there was no credible evidence that Saddam Hussein had assisted al-Qaeda in preparing for or carrying out the 9/11 attacks.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "US officers estimated Iraqi losses there at about 500 soldiers, many of them killed by air attacks.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.11 attacks, nor that he has been or is currently aiding Al Qaeda...^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ In 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States , also known as the 9/11 Commission, concluded that there was no credible evidence that Saddam Hussein had assisted al-Qaeda in preparing for or carrying out the 9/11 attacks.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No convincing evidence of Iraqi aid to al-Qaeda was ever produced, and the staff of the 9/11 Commission that investigated the September 11 attacks on the United States concluded in June 2004 that there does not appear to have been a “collaborative relationship” between Saddam Hussein and the terrorist organization.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

the .White House appears to be encouraging this false impression, as it seeks to maintain American support for a possible war against Iraq and demonstrate seriousness of purpose to Hussein's regime."^ This article demonstrates that the use of military force by the Bush Administration against the regime of Saddam Hussein does not meet the ethical criteria for "preemptive war" set forth in the classical Just War tradition.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ It considers ethical questions raised by the U.S.-led attack against Iraq as part of the war against global terrorism and argues that the doctrine of preemptive war as applied in the case of Iraq ...
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ UNEP Conflict and the Environment in West Asia - series of reports assessing the environmental effects and repercussions of conflict and war in Iraq, Kuwait, and the surrounding region.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The CSM went on to report that, while polling data collected "right after Sept. .11, 2001" showed that only 3 percent mentioned Iraq or Saddam Hussein, by January 2003 attitudes "had been transformed" with a Knight Ridder poll showing that 44% of Americans believed "most" or "some" of the September 11 hijackers were Iraqi citizens.^ The most important elements in Iraq are the political will of the American and Iraqi peoples.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The planes can be equipped advanced missiles and bombs, and would give Iraq a more potent air force than it had under Saddam Hussein, when the Iraqi air force mainly consisted of Russian and French fighters.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ There is evidence that some of the resistance was organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
The BBC has also noted that while President Bush "never directly accused the former Iraqi leader of having a hand in the attacks on New York and Washington", he "repeatedly associated the two in keynote addresses delivered since September 11", adding that "Senior members of his administration have similarly conflated the two." For instance, the BBC report quotes Colin Powell in February 2003, stating that "We've learned that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members in bomb-making and poisons and deadly gases. .And we know that after September 11, Saddam Hussein's regime gleefully celebrated the terrorist attacks on America."^ No convincing evidence of Iraqi aid to al-Qaeda was ever produced, and the staff of the 9/11 Commission that investigated the September 11 attacks on the United States concluded in June 2004 that there does not appear to have been a “collaborative relationship” between Saddam Hussein and the terrorist organization.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States , also known as the 9/11 Commission, concluded that there was no credible evidence that Saddam Hussein had assisted al-Qaeda in preparing for or carrying out the 9/11 attacks.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1998 the United States Congress passed the Iraq Liberation Act which stated "It should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq."
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same BBC report, from September 2003, also noted the results of a recent opinion poll, which suggested that "70% of Americans believe the Iraqi leader was personally involved in the attacks."^ Military leaders shut off the BBC connection to the HMS Ark Royal after grumbling among sailors that it was biased in favor of Iraqi reports.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 2003, reports emerged of Iraqi forces laying mines around the northern city of Kirkuk.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many observers believe that the invasion of Iraq reverses decades of U.S. strategy in this region, and that the basic American approach was still valid after the September 11 attacks.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

[67]
.Also in September 2003, the Boston Globe reported that "Vice President Dick Cheney, anxious to defend the White House foreign policy amid ongoing violence in Iraq, stunned intelligence analysts and even members of his own administration this week by failing to dismiss a widely discredited claim: that Saddam Hussein might have played a role in the Sept.^ Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq - Features personal and professional background.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Perspectives Report , Joint Center for Operational Analysis at United States Department of Defense, March 2006 * "Bush Jr.'s War on Iraq" HIR * "Frontline: The Dark Side" PBS documentary on Vice President Dick Cheney's remaking of the Executive and infighting leading up to the war in Iraq * * Video .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The start of hostilities came after the expiration of a 48-hour deadline which was set by U.S. President George W. Bush , demanding that Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq , ending the diplomatic Iraq disarmament crisis ; see .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

11 attacks."[68] A year later, presidential candidate John Kerry alleged that Cheney was continuing "to intentionally mislead the American public by drawing a link between Saddam Hussein and 9/11 in an attempt to make the invasion of Iraq part of the global war on terror."[69]
.Throughout 2002, the Bush administration insisted that removing Hussein from power to restore international peace and security was a major goal.^ Throughout 2002, the U.S. administration made it clear that removing Saddam Hussein from power was a major goal, although it offered to accept major changes in Iraqi military and foreign policy in lieu of this.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is probably what the Bush administration means when it says it is only making the world more peaceful and less violent by eliminating regimes that stand up to the United States.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By removing the Hussein regime, therefore, the United States would strike a deadly blow against international terrorism.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The principal stated justifications for this policy of "regime change" were that Iraq's continuing production of weapons of mass destruction and known ties to terrorist organizations, as well as Iraq's continued violations of UN Security Council resolutions, amounted to a threat to the US and the world community.^ The UN Security Council and the Iraq war) Several countries protested.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The US forces (have) used such weapons of mass destruction .
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The stated justification for the invasion included Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction , links with terrorist organizations and human rights violations in Iraq under the Saddam Hussein government.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving presentation to the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003 (still photograph captured from video clip, The White House/CNN)
The Bush administration's overall rationale for the invasion of Iraq was presented in detail by US Secretary of State Colin Powell to the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003; in summary, he stated:
.We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass destruction; he's determined to make more.^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi officials submit a 12,000-page declaration on Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear activities, declaring it has no "weapons of mass destruction" (WMD).

^ Using the potential threat of Saddam-supplied Weapons of Mass Destruction in the hands of terrorists, the U.S. government increasingly insisted on total Iraqi disarmament.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Given Saddam Hussein's history of aggression... given what we know of his terrorist associations and given his determination to exact revenge on those who oppose him, should we take the risk that he will not some day use these weapons at a time and the place and in the manner of his choosing at a time when the world is in a much weaker position to respond? .The United States will not and cannot run that risk to the American people.^ DOD 101: United States Military Operations -- Fascinating website run by the Federation of American Scientists.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biographical files on individuals who impact American politics, culture, business, education and other arenas of life in the United States.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States has come a long way in acknowledging the Iraqi refugee crisis, passing laws that allow us to help significant numbers of people at risk, and establishing a functioning system to resettle Iraqis in the United States.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leaving Saddam Hussein in possession of weapons of mass destruction for a few more months or years is not an option, not in a post-September 11 world.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Appeasement is not an option when it comes to dealing with Hussein...Failure to disarm Hussein would make the world a much more dangerous place."
  • Their master's voice | Media | The Guardian 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[70]
.Since the invasion, the US and British government claims concerning Iraqi weapons programs and links to terrorist organizations have been discredited.^ Using the potential threat of Saddam-supplied Weapons of Mass Destruction in the hands of terrorists, the U.S. government increasingly insisted on total Iraqi disarmament.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specifically, the stated justification for the invasion included Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction, alleged links with terrorist organizations, and human rights violations in Iraq under the Saddam Hussein government.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stated justification for the invasion included Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction , links with terrorist organizations and human rights violations in Iraq under the Saddam Hussein government.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the debate of whether Iraq intended to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons in the future remains open, no WMDs have been found in Iraq since the invasion despite comprehensive inspections lasting more than 18 months.^ It's been that way for more than a month.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Heavy U.S. air strikes, accompanied by both manned and unmanned aircraft, continue a brutal punishment in Iraq with more than 1,500 sorties flown.

^ Iraqi officials submit a 12,000-page declaration on Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear activities, declaring it has no "weapons of mass destruction" (WMD).

[71] .In Cairo, on February 24, 2001, Colin Powell had predicted as much, saying "He [Hussein] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction.^ Q: Well, the finding weapons of mass destruction.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ He had the capability of making weapons of mass destruction.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi officials submit a 12,000-page declaration on Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear activities, declaring it has no "weapons of mass destruction" (WMD).

He is unable to project conventional power against his neighbours."[72] .Similarly, assertions of significant operational links[citation needed] between the Iraqi regime and al Qaeda have largely been discredited by the intelligence community, and Secretary Powell himself eventually admitted he had no incontrovertible proof.^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Scowcroft also misunderstood the political significance of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden; their hatred of the United States and Israel was only an element of a larger view of the region.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: And what was interesting about it was that they did a scrub of their past operations and reached the conclusion that covert, CIA operations will not bring down the Iraqi regime.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.In September 2002, the Bush administration said attempts by Iraq to acquire thousands of high-strength aluminium tubes pointed to a clandestine program to make enriched uranium for nuclear bombs.^ Despite the small turnout, the rally marked the first high-profile public disapproval in Chicago of the Bush administration's war against terrorism.
  • Obama's 'big' 2002 anti-war speech wasn't big then: The Swamp 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ As a result, the companies and the Bush administration are holding U.S. troops hostage in Iraq until they get what they want.
  • CORPORATE INVASION OF IRAQ, and oil leasing 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

^ This is probably what the Bush administration means when it says it is only making the world more peaceful and less violent by eliminating regimes that stand up to the United States.
  • The Lessons of History for the Invaders, by Paul Wolf, 4/4/03 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Original source]

.Powell, in his address to the UN Security Council just before the war, referred to the aluminium tubes.^ The UN Security Council and the Iraq war) Several countries protested.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P ick almost any date on the calendar and it'll turn out that the US either started a war, ended a war, perpetrated a massacre or sent its UN Ambassador into the Security Council to declare to issue an ultimatum.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A report released by the Institute for Science and International Security in 2002, however, reported that it was highly unlikely that the tubes could be used to enrich uranium.^ This is highly unlikely given the lack of credible media reports outside Baghdad.
  • The Polls--Review: Methodological Review of "Mortality After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey" -- Marker, 10.1093/poq/nfn009 -- Public Opinion Quarterly 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC poq.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Institute for Science and International Security looks at "Iran's Centrifuges: How well are they working?"
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Families could have reported deaths that did not occur, although this seems unlikely, since most reported deaths could be corroborated with a certificate.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Powell later admitted he had presented an inaccurate case to the United Nations on Iraqi weapons, based on sourcing that was wrong and in some cases "deliberately misleading."^ Secretary Powell presented a presentation to the United Nations and the world.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations were allowed to send weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and also to search for prohibited weapons believed to be in hiding.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2008, the United States announced it admitted 13,823 Iraqi refugees in fiscal year 2008, exceeding its target of 12,000.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74][75][76]
.The Bush administration asserted that the Hussein government had sought to purchase yellowcake uranium from Niger.^ The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bush also states that "the toppling of Saddam Hussein's government was one victory in a war on terror that began on September 11th, 2001, and still goes on."

^ The Bush administration used the military invasion of Iraq to oust its leader, replace its government, implement new economic and political laws, and write a new constitution.
  • CORPORATE INVASION OF IRAQ, and oil leasing 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

[77] .On March 7, 2003, the US submitted intelligence documents as evidence to the International Atomic Energy Agency.^ "Iraq: Investigate civilian deaths," Amnesty International Press Release , 26 March 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ There has been widespread concern over the scale of Iraqi deaths after the invasion by the US-led coalition in March, 2003.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lachlan Carmichael, "US forces in first serious contact with Republican Guard," Agence France Presse, 31 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

These documents were dismissed by the IAEA as forgeries, with the concurrence in that judgment of outside experts. At the time, a US official claimed that the evidence was submitted to the IAEA without knowledge of its provenance, and characterized any mistakes as "more likely due to incompetence not malice".

Unmanned Iraqi drones

.In October 2002, a few days before the US Senate vote on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution, about 75 senators were told in closed session that the Iraqi government had the means of delivering biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) drones that could be launched from ships off the US' Atlantic coast to attack US eastern seaboard cities.^ Secret weapon in US war against Iraq: the CIA .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Senate approves Iraq war resolution .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regan T. New questions about US military's aggression in Iraq.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Colin Powell suggested in his presentation to the United Nations that UAVs were transported out of Iraq and could be launched against the US. In fact, Iraq had no offensive UAV fleet or any capability of putting UAVs on ships.^ Secretary Powell presented a presentation to the United Nations and the world.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Recall that the self-appointed rulers of the world -- Bush, Powell, and the rest -- had declared forthrightly that they intended to carry out their war whether or not the United Nations (UN) or anyone else "catches up" and "becomes relevant."
  • Noam Chomsky: Iraq War and Contempt for Democracy 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a fleet of U.S.-made fighters, Iraq would be able to better match up against neighbors like Iran, which relies on Russian and Iranian-made fighters and aging American jets.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

[78] .Iraq's UAV fleet consisted of less than a handful of outdated Czech training drones.^ Wider shots of the square showed the crowd was sparse, with less than two hundred individuals, and the area had been ringed off by US troops, suggesting the crowd consisted of hand-picked people.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the decade following the Gulf War Iraq's per capita income averaged less than 30 percent of its 1989 level.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remainder of the force -- fully 80 percent of the units or more -- would have suffered rates of less than one percent, which would be consistent with the Time survey.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .At the time, there was a vigorous dispute within the intelligence community whether the CIA's conclusions about Iraq's UAV fleet were accurate.^ Intelligence probe under fire (ooops) Bush Iraq Intelligence Panel Criticized (big deal & so what) Lawmakers question whether Pentagon manipulated Iraq intelligence (question?!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ There is a controversy about the question whether the US intervention broke international law.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He laid out intelligence community estimates from the Central Intelligence Agency, and there is not a doubt but that we will, over a period of time, find people who can tell us where to go look for those things.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The US Air Force agency denied outright that Iraq possessed any offensive UAV capability.^ This resulted in most regular Iraqi military units emerging from the war fully intact and without ever having been engaged by US forces, especially in southern Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 30003 reference refers to the Naval Air Systems Command, the procurement agency responsible for furnishing the US Navy's air force with its weaponry."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Southwest of Iraq's capital, U.S.-led coalition forces target ground and air attacks on Saddam International Airport.

[80]

Human rights

.As evidence supporting U.S. and British claims about Iraqi WMDs and links to terrorism weakened, some claim supporters of the invasion have increasingly shifted their justification to the human rights violations of the Hussein government.^ Specifically, the stated justification for the invasion included Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction, alleged links with terrorist organizations, and human rights violations in Iraq under the Saddam Hussein government.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stated justification for the invasion included Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction , links with terrorist organizations and human rights violations in Iraq under the Saddam Hussein government.
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with Poland and Australia , the invasion was supported by the governments of several European nations, including the Czech Republic , Denmark , Portugal , Italy , Hungary , and Spain .
  • Bambooweb: 2003 invasion of Iraq 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] Leading human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch have argued, however, that they believe human rights concerns were never a central justification for the invasion, nor do they believe that military intervention was justifiable on humanitarian grounds, most significantly because "the killing in Iraq at the time was not of the exceptional nature that would justify such intervention."[82] Many supporters of the war, however, claim from the start human rights concerns were among the reasons given for the invasion, and that the threat of weapons of mass destruction was emphasized at the United Nations, since this dealt with Iraq flouting UN resolutions. .They further claim human rights groups that oppose the war have no objective standard regarding when to invade a country.^ The US and other countries are considering further sanctions, and Mugabe says he will expel Western diplomats who support the opposition, and said they can "go hang".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Human Rights Watch believes that the use of antipersonnel landmines is prohibited by customary international law because they are inherently indiscriminate weapons.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On International Human Rights Day, while chanting such themes as, "Let the inspectors work," demonstrators in more than 150 U.S. cities oppose a war with Iraq.

Legality of invasion

.The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 was passed by congress with Democrats voting 58% in favor in the Senate, and 39% in favor in the House.^ Senate approves Iraq war resolution .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article demonstrates that the use of military force by the Bush Administration against the regime of Saddam Hussein does not meet the ethical criteria for "preemptive war" set forth in the classical Just War tradition.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ These votes are representative of those that have a direct correlation to issues affecting policy and funding of troops abroad, often in the context of the War Powers Resolution, continued presence or withdrawal, or use of force.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

Republicans supported the joint resolution 98% and 97% in the Senate and House respectively.[83][84] .The resolution asserts the authorization by the Constitution of the United States and the Congress for the President to fight anti-United States terrorism.^ In October 2002, with the "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq", the United States Congress granted President Bush the authority to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, based on repeated Bush Administration statements to Congress and the public, which turned out to be incorrect, that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 11, 2002 , the United States Congress passed the "Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002", giving U.S. President George W. Bush the authority, under US law, to attack Iraq if Saddam Hussein did not give up his weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and abide by previous UN resolutions on human rights, POW's, and terrorism.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus the decision to go to war in Iraq was part of the legitimate authority of President Bush, who operated with the approval of and in accordance with a resolution of the U.S. Congress.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Citing the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, the resolution reiterated that it should be the policy of the United States to remove the Saddam Hussein regime and promote a democratic replacement.^ An example is the Seattle-based contractor whose .jpgs of flag-draped coffins in a cargo hold provoked immediate outrage by United States government officials, as a result of which she was removed from Iraq for breach of a confidentiality agreement.
  • Introduction: War in Cyberspace 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC jcmc.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in April of 2003 John Kerry, the Democratic candidate in the presidential election, said at a campaign rally: "What we need now is not just a regime change in Saddam Hussein and Iraq, but we need a regime change in the United States."
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States Republican Party's campaign platform in the U.S. presidential election, 2000 called for "full implementation" of the Iraq Liberation Act and removal of Saddam Hussein with a focus on rebuilding a coalition, tougher sanctions, reinstating inspections, and support for the pro-democracy, opposition exile group, Iraqi National Congress then headed by Ahmed Chalabi.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The resolution "supported" and "encouraged" diplomatic efforts by President George W. Bush to "strictly enforce through the U.N. Security Council all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq" and "obtain prompt and decisive action by the Security Council to ensure that Iraq abandons its strategy of delay, evasion, and noncompliance and promptly and strictly complies with all relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq." The resolution authorized President Bush to use the Armed Forces of the United States "as he determines to be necessary and appropriate" to "defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq; and enforce all relevant United Nations Security Council Resolutions regarding Iraq."
.The legality of the invasion of Iraq has been challenged since its inception on a number of fronts, and several prominent supporters of the invasion in all the invading nations have publicly and privately cast doubt on its legality.^ DefenseLINK News: Saddam's Days Numbered, Rumsfeld Says - news article where Secretary Donald Rumsfeld names the invasion of Iraq.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, given the fact that the guerrilla war in Iraq has continued since the invasion in March 2003, is it even possible to assess these questions?
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lancet 368:1421–28) described a household survey of Iraq that attempted to estimate the number of excess casualties since the invasion of that country in 2003.
  • The Polls--Review: Methodological Review of "Mortality After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey" -- Marker, 10.1093/poq/nfn009 -- Public Opinion Quarterly 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC poq.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is claimed that the invasion was fully legal because authorization was implied by the United Nations Security Council.^ It has been through the National Security Council process.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many critics and indeed many governments believed that, absent another specific United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution authorizing a U.S.-led attack on Iraq and Saddam Hussein’s regime, that the invasion did not meet this test.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

[85][86] .International legal experts, including the International Commission of Jurists, a group of 31 leading Canadian law professors, and the U.S.-based Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy have denounced both of these rationales.^ Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, argued in November 2003, that the invasion was against international law, but still justified.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the US House and Senate Homeland Security Committees held hearings related to proliferation of nuclear materials.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ From 1995 to 1999, Donnelly was policy group director and a professional staff member for the Committee on National Security (now named the Committee on Armed Services) in the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

[87][88][89]
.On Thursday November 20, 2003, an article published in the Guardian alleged that Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, conceded that the invasion was illegal but still justified.^ Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, argued in November 2003, that the invasion was against international law, but still justified.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William Branigin, "3 Key Battles Turned Tide of Invasion," Washington Post, 20 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Richard Norton-Taylor and Rory McCarthy, "War in the Gulf: British plan to take Basra by force," Guardian, 26 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[90][91]
.The United Nations Security Council has passed nearly 60 resolutions on Iraq and Kuwait since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The most relevant to this issue is Resolution 678, passed on November 29, 1990. It authorizes "member states co-operating with the Government of Kuwait...^ It has been through the National Security Council process.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, in promoting Resolution 1441, had given assurances that it provided no "automaticity," no "hidden triggers," no step to invasion without consultation of the Security Council.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA reported a level of compliance by Iraq with the disarmament requirements (UN Security Council Resolution 1441; IAEA) Hans Blix went on to state the Iraqi government may have been hoping to restart production once sanctions were lifted and inspectors left the country, as speculated by senior Iraqi officials and a prominent defector, Gen.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to use all necessary means" to (1) implement Security Council Resolution 660 and other resolutions calling for the end of Iraq's occupation of Kuwait and withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwaiti territory and (2) "restore international peace and security in the area." Resolution 678 has not been rescinded or nullified by succeeding resolutions and Iraq was not alleged after 1991 to invade Kuwait or to threaten do so.
.Resolution 1441 was most prominent during the run up to the war and formed the main backdrop for Secretary of State Colin Powell's address to the Security Council one month before the invasion.^ Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, in promoting Resolution 1441, had given assurances that it provided no "automaticity," no "hidden triggers," no step to invasion without consultation of the Security Council.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With initial backing by the UN Security Council, the United States encircled Iraq with growing military forces, leading Iraq to permit UN weapons inspectors back into the country.
  • The History Guy: The Third Persian Gulf War/The Iraq War (2003-Present) 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.historyguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA reported a level of compliance by Iraq with the disarmament requirements (UN Security Council Resolution 1441; IAEA) Hans Blix went on to state the Iraqi government may have been hoping to restart production once sanctions were lifted and inspectors left the country, as speculated by senior Iraqi officials and a prominent defector, Gen.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .According to an independent commission of inquiry set up by the government of the Netherlands, UN resolution 1441 "cannot reasonably be interpreted (as the Dutch government did) as authorising individual member states to use military force to compel Iraq to comply with the Security Council's resolutions."^ According to most members of the Security Council, it is up to the council itself, and not individual members, to determine how the body's resolutions are to be enforced.
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^ Resolution 1441 is unanimously approved by the UN Security Council.

^ Under Resolution 1441, the U.S., the U.K., and Spain submit a proposed resolution to the UN Security Council stating that Iraq has not cooperated sufficiently with inspectors, and military force is now required.

.Accordingly, the Dutch commission concluded that the 2003 invasion violated international law.^ Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, argued in November 2003, that the invasion was against international law, but still justified.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such military use of civilian hospitals violates international humanitarian law.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi forces committed a number of violations of international humanitarian law, which may have led to significant civilian casualties.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93]
.At the same time, Bush Administration officials advanced a parallel legal argument using the earlier resolutions, which authorized force in response to Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.^ This article demonstrates that the use of military force by the Bush Administration against the regime of Saddam Hussein does not meet the ethical criteria for "preemptive war" set forth in the classical Just War tradition.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ In the aftermath of the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, the Bush Administration has been criticized for having rejected the possibility of a negotiated settlement in favor of going to war.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

.Under this reasoning, by failing to disarm and submit to weapons inspections, Iraq was in violation of U.N. Security Council Resolutions 660 and 678, and the U.S. could legally compel Iraq's compliance through military means.^ It has been through the National Security Council process.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 9, 2002 , at the urging of the United States government, the UN Security Council passed United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, offering Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284), notably to provide "an accurate full, final, and complete disclosure, as required by Resolution 687 (1991), of all aspects of its programmes to develop weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles".
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the invasion, the United States' official position was that Iraq illegally possessed weapons of mass destruction in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441 and had to be disarmed by force.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critics and proponents of the legal rationale based on the U.N. resolutions argue that the legal right to determine how to enforce its resolutions lies with the Security Council alone, not with individual nations.^ According to most members of the Security Council, it is up to the council itself, and not individual members, to determine how the body's resolutions are to be enforced.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Significantly, the Resolution stated that the UN Security Council shall "remain seized of the matter" (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441).
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proponents of the war claim that the invasion had implicit approval of the Security Council and was therefore not in violation of the UN Charter.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February 2006, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, the lead prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, reported that he had received 240 separate communications regarding the legality of the war, many of which concerned British participation in the invasion.^ Many fled not during the invasion, but later, because of the sectarian violence that erupted across the country after the bombing of the Al-Askari mosque in Samarra in February 2006, 2 leading to the Middle East’s gravest humanitarian crisis since the Palestinian diaspora of 1948.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Amnesty International report denounces US treatment of war prisoners Yahoo!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Before the invasion, many observers had expected a lengthy campaign of aerial bombing in advance of any ground action, taking as examples the Persian Gulf War or the invasion of Afghanistan.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] In a letter addressed to the complainants, Mr. Moreno-Ocampo explained that he could only consider issues related to conduct during the war and not to its underlying legality as a possible crime of aggression because no provision had yet been adopted which "defines the crime and sets out the conditions under which the Court may exercise jurisdiction with respect to it." .In a March 2007 interview with the Sunday Telegraph, Moreno-Ocampo encouraged Iraq to sign up with the court so that it could bring cases related to alleged war crimes.^ It considers ethical questions raised by the U.S.-led attack against Iraq as part of the war against global terrorism and argues that the doctrine of preemptive war as applied in the case of Iraq ...
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the end of the Gulf War of 1991, Iraq's relations with the UN, the US, and the UK remained poor.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This being the case, it is very difficult to portray the U.S. invasion of Iraq as a victory in the war on terror.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

[95]
.United States Ohio Congressman Dennis Kucinich held a press conference on the evening of April 24, 2007, revealing US House Resolution 333 and the three articles of impeachment against Vice President Dick Cheney.^ In October 2002, with the "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq", the United States Congress granted President Bush the authority to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, based on repeated Bush Administration statements to Congress and the public, which turned out to be incorrect, that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Perspectives Report , Joint Center for Operational Analysis at United States Department of Defense, March 2006 * "Bush Jr.'s War on Iraq" HIR * "Frontline: The Dark Side" PBS documentary on Vice President Dick Cheney's remaking of the Executive and infighting leading up to the war in Iraq * * Video .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tini Tran, "In British-held city, hospital becomes a locus of resentment," Associated Press , 9 April 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.He charges Cheney with manipulating the evidence of Iraq's weapons program, deceiving the nation about Iraq's connection to al-Qaeda, and threatening aggression against Iran in violation of the United Nations Charter.^ With a fleet of U.S.-made fighters, Iraq would be able to better match up against neighbors like Iran, which relies on Russian and Iranian-made fighters and aging American jets.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Were it true that Hussein was assisting al-Qaeda in its terror campaign against the United States, and had there been a genuine threat of WMD passing from one to the other, an invasion of Iraq could conceivably be considered a legitimate act of self-defense.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

Military aspects

.United States military operations were conducted under the codename Operation Iraqi Liberation (OIL).^ It was originally coined "Operation Iraqi Liberation" .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States military operations were conducted under the codename Operation Iraqi Freedom .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unit Personnel Attrition: Evidence from the field How did Iraqi field units fare under air attack in terms of casualties?
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .The codename was later changed to Operation Iraqi Freedom, due to the unfortunate acronym.^ Operation Iraqi Freedom continues.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The embedded reporter program in Operation Iraqi Freedom was a huge undertaking, requiring extensive planning and coordination to organize and implement.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Although Operation Iraqi Freedom was supposed to exemplify the new warfare, it provides no unambiguous support for the hypothesis regarding civilian casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Kingdom military operation was named Operation Telic.^ The United Kingdom military operation was named Operation Telic ..
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military's official name for the invasion, "Operation Iraqi Freedom," is rarely used outside the United States.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States military operations were conducted under the codename Operation Iraqi Freedom .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multilateral support

In November 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush, visiting Europe for a NATO summit, declared that "should Iraqi President Saddam Hussein choose not to disarm, the United States will lead a coalition of the willing to disarm him."[97]
.Thereafter, the Bush administration briefly used the term Coalition of the Willing to refer to the countries who supported, militarily or verbally, the military action in Iraq and subsequent military presence in post-invasion Iraq since 2003.^ The 2003 Iraq invasion marked the beginning of what is commonly referred to as the Iraq War.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hostilities in Iraq in March and April 2003 were the largest engagement of ground forces since the Gulf War in 1991.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

The original list prepared in March 2003 included 49 members.[98] .Of those 49, only six besides the U.S. contributed troops to the invasion force (the United Kingdom, Spain, Australia, Poland, Portugal and Denmark), 33 provided some number of troops to support the occupation after the invasion was complete.^ Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom Australia South Korea Poland Romania Spain Portugal Italy Estonia Latvia Lithuania Ukraine Georgia |combatant2= Iraq |commander1=Tommy Franks |commander2=Saddam Hussein |strength1= 263,000 |strength2= 375,000 |casualties1= |casualties2= }} The 2003 invasion of Iraq , termed "Operation Iraqi Freedom" by the US administration, began on March 20.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and Great Britain's intense lobbying efforts among UN Security Council (UNSC) members yields support only from Spain and Bulgaria.

^ Entire units disbanded into the crowds upon the approach of Coalition troops, or actually sought Coalition forces out in order to surrender.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Six members have no military.

Invasion force

.Approximately 248,000 soldiers from the United States, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers, 1,300 Spanish soldiers, 500 Danish soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers from Special Forces unit GROM were sent to Kuwait for the invasion.^ The 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 5th Special Forces Group, United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) conducted reconnaissance in the cities of Basra , Karbala and various other locations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 100,000 soldiers and marines from the United States, and 26,000 from British , as well as smaller forces from other nations, collectively called the "Coalition of the Willing," were deployed prior to the invasion primarily to several staging areas in Kuwait .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military's official name for the invasion, "Operation Iraqi Freedom," is rarely used outside the United States.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] .The invasion force was also supported by Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 70,000.[6] In the latter stages of the invasion 620 troops of the Iraqi National Congress opposition group were deployed to southern Iraq.^ Forces also supported Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 50,000.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air power is becomingly increasingly important in Iraq, where the amount of ordnance dropped by U.S. planes has jumped in recent months as U.S. and Iraqi forces press to eradicate the remnants of al-Qaeda in Iraq and other militant groups.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ In the North, the 10th Special Forces Group (10th SFG) had the mission of aiding the Kurdish parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party, de facto rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.A U.S. Central Command, Combined Forces Air Component Commander report, indicated that as of April 30, 2003, there were a total of 466,985 U.S. personnel deployed for Operation Iraqi Freedom.^ Operation Iraqi Freedom continues.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total Iraqi fatalities in the 2003 war .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total Iraqi fatalities in the 2003 war 6.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This included USAF, 54,955; USAF Reserve, 2,084; Air National Guard, 7,207; USMC, 74,405; USMC Reserve, 9,501; USN, 61,296 (681 are members of the U.S. Coast Guard); USN Reserve, 2,056; and US Army, 233,342; US Army Reserve, 10,683; and Army National Guard, 8,866.[100]
.Plans for opening a second front in the north were severely hampered when Turkey refused the use of its territory for such purposes.^ Plans for opening a second front in the north were abandoned when Turkey officially refused the use of its territory for such purposes.
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^ Following Turkey 's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the US-led Coalition was forced to abandon a planned simultaneous attack from north and south, so the primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations.
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^ Despite the refusal of Turkey, the Coalition conducted parachute operations in the north and dropped the 173rd Airborne Brigade, thereby removing the necessity of any approval from Turkey.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] .In response to Turkey's decision, the United States dropped several thousand paratroopers from the 173rd Airborne Brigade into northern Iraq, a number significantly less than the 15,000 strong 4th Mechanized Infantry Division that the U.S. originally planned to use for opening the northern front.^ U.S. paratroopers from the U.S. Army 's 173rd Airborne Brigade take control of an airfield in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.

^ U.S. Army’s Third Infantry Division fired upon targets inside Iraq, followed shortly thereafter by artillery from the U.S. Marine Corps’ First Marine Division.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paul Watson and John Daniszewski, "US Opens Northern Front in Iraq; Paratroopers secure an airfield in Kurdish enclave; Baghdad blames the U.S. for a missile strike that it says killed 15 civilians," Los Angeles Times, 27 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[102]

Preparation

.CIA Special Activities Division (SAD) Paramilitary teams entered Iraq in July 2002 before the 2003 invasion.^ Even before the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, the prospect of a U.S. invasion was controversial, with millions of people around the world taking part in street demonstrations in protest.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, given the fact that the guerrilla war in Iraq has continued since the invasion in March 2003, is it even possible to assess these questions?
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The belief that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction was the main alleged reason for the March 2003 invasion of Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once on the ground they prepared for the subsequent arrival of US military forces.^ Some of these would have been hastily buried near where they died by local citizens or by the US military -- sometimes in "mass" graves.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The assertion that US forces did not guard the museum because they were guarding the Ministry of Oil and Ministry of Interior is apparently true.
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^ As portions of the country are liberated, we'll have people on the ground, embedded with our forces who will have a chance to see what happens and see how they feel about it.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.SAD teams then combined with US Army Special Forces to organize the Kurdish Peshmerga.^ US special forces to hunt al-Qa'eda on doorstep of Russia Telegraph .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ As many as 150 Iraqi soldiers killed in encounter with Kurdish guerillas and US special forces, according to special forces officer.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Mark McDonald, "Kurdish guerrillas, US Special Forces fight together in Sheikhan," Knight Ridder news service, 7 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.This joint team combined to defeat Ansar al-Islam, an ally of Al Qaida, in a battle in the northeast corner of Iraq.^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The mission was to destroy the bases of the Kurdish islamist group Ansar al-Islam, believed to be linked to Al Qaida.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not counted above is the 22 March bombardment of Ansar al-Islam camp in Kurdish-held territory, which supposedly killed between 60 and 100 militants.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US side was carried out by Paramilitary Officers from SAD and the Army's 10th Special Forces Group.^ In the North, the 10th Special Forces Group (10th SFG) had the mission of aiding the Kurdish parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party, de facto rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 5th Special Forces Group, United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) conducted reconnaissance in the cities of Basra , Karbala and various other locations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US special forces to hunt al-Qa'eda on doorstep of Russia Telegraph .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

[45][46][47]
SAD teams also conducted high risk special reconnaissance missions behind Iraqi lines to identify senior leadership targets. .These missions led to the initial strikes against Saddam Hussein and his key generals.^ By removing the Hussein regime, therefore, the United States would strike a deadly blow against international terrorism.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We're seeing some Muslim leaders issuing fatwahs against the Saddam Hussein regime.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ATACMS provides U.S. Joint Force with the ability to execute deep strike missions against enemy forces with precision and responsiveness.
  • PERSIAN GULF WAR - Storming Media 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.stormingmedia.us [Source type: Academic]

.Although the initial strike against Hussein was unsuccessful in killing the dictator, it was successful in effectively ending his ability to command and control his forces.^ General Tommy Franks assumed control of Iraq as the supreme commander of occupation forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By removing the Hussein regime, therefore, the United States would strike a deadly blow against international terrorism.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other strikes against key generals were successful and significantly degraded the command's ability to react to and maneuver against the US-led invasion force coming from the south.^ There has been widespread concern over the scale of Iraqi deaths after the invasion by the US-led coalition in March, 2003.
  • Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC fairuse.100webcustomers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Following Turkey 's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the US-led Coalition was forced to abandon a planned simultaneous attack from north and south, so the primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Success in this effort turns significantly on issues of legitimacy and responsible action, especially with regard to the use of force.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][47]
.SAD operations officers were also successful in convincing key Iraqi Army officers to surrender their units once the fighting started and/or not to oppose the invasion force.^ Each day more Iraqi forces surrender.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the invasion, U.S. military forces have faced a counterinsurgency that has killed thousands of Americans and Iraqis.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second assesses the impact of aerial bombardment, drawing principally on operational data and casualty reports made by Iraqi officers and enlisted personnel.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .NATO member Turkey refused to allow its territory to be used for the invasion.^ Plans for opening a second front in the north were abandoned when Turkey officially refused the use of its territory for such purposes.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Turkey 's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the US-led Coalition was forced to abandon a planned simultaneous attack from north and south, so the primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Turkey did allow the use of its air space and so the rest of the 10th flew in.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, the SAD/SOG and US Army Special Forces joint teams and the Kurdish Peshmerga were the entire northern force against government forces during the invasion.^ Indeed, a major criticism of the campaign was that too little force was applied, that the invasion force was too small; that it did not move quickly enough to suppress post-war looting, to “de-Baathify” the government, and to disband Saddam’s army.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ US special forces to hunt al-Qa'eda on doorstep of Russia Telegraph .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ These units represent a large majority of the US Army artillery assets in the field during the period covered by this report.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their efforts kept the 5th Corps of the Iraqi army in place to defend against the Kurds rather than their moving to contest the coalition force.^ In less than a week, despite high wind gusts and sandstorms that can turn day into night, coalition forces have moved across more than 200 miles of Iraqi territory and are now just some 50 miles south of Baghdad.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fedayeen Saddam are paramilitary forces that have strong political loyalty to Saddam Hussein and, before the war, reported directly to the presidential palace rather than through the regular army’s command.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three weeks into the war, coalition forces are now moving at will within and around Baghdad; however, pockets of Saddam's regime linger on.

.According to General Tommy Franks, April Fool, an American officer working undercover as a diplomat, was approached by an Iraqi intelligence agent.^ U.S. General Tommy Franks publicly announces that Iraq is now an "ex-regime;" however, just short of calling the war a victory.

^ "Iraqis report 43 civilians killed in and around Aziziyah as U.S. troops approached Baghdad," Associated Press, 25 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Iraqis report 43 civilians killed in and around Aziziyah as U.S. troops approached Baghdad," Associated Press , 25 April 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.April Fool then sold to the Iraqi false "top secret" invasion plans provided by Franks' team.^ One airstrike, on April 5, hit a house that was believed to be used by top Iraqi intelligence agency officials.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq .
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decoy deception successfully misled the Iraqi military into deploying major forces in Northern and Western Iraq in anticipation of attacks by way of Turkey or Jordan, which never took place.^ Have coalition forces secured the Mansour area, where the major leadership attack took place?
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ After the first Gulf War, in an initiative dubbed Operation Pacific Haven, the American military – in a matter of only a few months – airlifted 6,600 Iraqi Kurds and Arabs from Turkey to Anderson Air Force Base in Guam.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Israeli air force also operates F-16s, as do Jordan, Egypt, Turkey, UAE, Oman and Bahrain.
  • Iraq Seeks F-16 Fighters - WSJ.com 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.This greatly reduced the defensive capacity in the rest of Iraq and significantly facilitated the actual attacks via Kuwait and the Persian Gulf in the southeast.^ Following Turkey 's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the US-led Coalition was forced to abandon a planned simultaneous attack from north and south, so the primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally speaking, the operational challenges posed by regime removal are greater than those posed during the 1991 Gulf War, when the goal was merely to eject the Iraqis from Kuwait and reduce their capacity for aggression.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, repeated attacks by U.S. and British aircraft enforcing the “no-fly” zone over southern Iraq had enfeebled Iraq’s air defenses and command/communications systems.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

Defending force

.The number of personnel in the Iraqi military prior to the war was uncertain, but it was believed to have been poorly equipped.^ The number of personnel in the Iraqi military prior to the war was uncertain, but it was believed to have been poorly-equipped.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If only 20 percent of the dead at Baghdad's civilian hospitals were military personnel (and identified as such), they would have numbered approximately 720.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Rate of Desertion Desertion rates -- which were higher in the 2003 war than in 1991 -- are a factor that might have helped keep Iraqi personnel attrition to percentages below those registered in 1991.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103][104][105] .The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the Iraqi armed forces to number 538,000 (Iraqi Army 375,000, Iraqi Navy 2,000, Iraqi Air Force 20,000 and air defense 17,000), the paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam 44,000, Republican Guard 80,000 and reserves 650,000.[106] Another estimate numbers the army and Republican Guard at between 280,000 to 350,000 and 50,000 to 80,000, respectively,[107] and the paramilitary between 20,000 and 40,000.[108] There were an estimated thirteen infantry divisions, ten mechanized and armored divisions, as well as some special forces units.^ Iraqi defense forces are reinforced at the birthplace of Saddam in the town of Tikrit.

^ During this pause, U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Army tactical aircraft continued to attack Republican Guard divisions south of Baghdad.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the Iraqi armed forces to number 389,000 (army 350,000, navy 2,000, air force 20,000 and air defence 17,000), the paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam 44,000, and reserves 650,000.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Iraqi Air Force and Iraqi Navy played a negligible role in the conflict.^ The Iraqi Air Force and Iraqi Navy played a negligible role in the conflict.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the Iraqi armed forces to number 389,000 (army 350,000, navy 2,000, air force 20,000 and air defence 17,000), the paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam 44,000, and reserves 650,000.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pre-existing electrical and water shortages continued throughout the conflict and looting began as Iraqi forces collapsed.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the invasion, Iraqi forces, along with foreign volunteers from Syria, traveled to Iraq and took part in the fighting, usually under the command of the Saddam Fedayeen.^ There is evidence that some of the resistance was organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fedayeen Saddam are paramilitary forces that have strong political loyalty to Saddam Hussein and, before the war, reported directly to the presidential palace rather than through the regular army’s command.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the peak of sectarian fighting, many Iraqis’ homes were destroyed or occupied, causing previously mixed neighborhoods to become increasingly homogeneous.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is not known for certain how many foreign fighters fought in Iraq in 2003, however, intelligence officers of the U.S. First Marine Division estimated that 50% of all Iraqi combatants in central Iraq were foreigners.^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war 4.1.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Army’s Third Infantry Division fired upon targets inside Iraq, followed shortly thereafter by artillery from the U.S. Marine Corps’ First Marine Division.
  • Off Target: The Conduct of the War and Civilian Casualties in Iraq: III. CONDUCT OF THE GROUND WAR 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC hrw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[109][110]
.In addition, the terrorist group Ansar al-Islam controlled a small section of northern Iraq in an area outside of Saddam Hussein's control.^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The target was Sargat and after heavy fighting with both groups, the Special Forces finally took Sargat and pushed the remaining units out of Northern Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a detailed description of events and conflicts leading up to and during the disarmament and invasion of Iraq, which ended with the capture of Saddam Hussein.

.Ansar al-Islam had been fighting against Kurdish forces since 2001. At the time of the invasion they fielded approximately 600 to 800 fighters.^ They co-operated with Kurdish forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the invasion, U.S. military forces have faced a counterinsurgency that has killed thousands of Americans and Iraqis.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Quantitatively, Iraq fielded a fighting force in 2003 only half as large as its 1991 force.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111] .Ansar al-Islam was led by the Jordanian-born militant Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who would later become an important leader in the Iraqi insurgency.^ At this stage in the conflict, it is impossible to determine the precise nature of the insurgent forces or the relative representation within them of former Hussein regime loyalists, native Sunni militants resentful of the American occupation, and foreign jihadists like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi of Jordan.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 30 Iraqis killed in 30 March attack by "40 Commando" at Abu Al Khasib outside Basra.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The group’s leader, Juhayman al-Utaybi, called for the “purification of Islam” and the overthrow of the House of Saud.
  • Was the U.S. Invasion of Iraq Justified? - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ansar al-Islam was driven out of Iraq in late March by a joint American-Kurdish force during Operation Viking Hammer.^ They co-operated with Kurdish forces.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A joint resolution is adopted by Congress that authorizes the use of force against Iraq, and gives the Bush administration chargeable reasoning to wage explicit military action against Iraq.

^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Invasion

UK bomb tonnage (2002) [112]
Mar
  
0.0
Apr
  
0.3
May
  
7.3
Jun
  
10.4
Jul
  
9.5
Aug
  
14.1
Sep
  
54.6
Oct
  
17.7
Nov
  
33.6
Dec
  
53.2
Routes and major battles fought by invasion force and afterwards
.Since the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the U.S. and UK had been engaged in low-level attacks on Iraqi air defenses which targeted them while enforcing Iraqi no-fly zones.^ Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 1991 Gulf War 79.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to invasion, US-led Coalition forces involved in the 1991 Persian Gulf War had been engaged in a low-level conflict with Iraq, enforcing Iraqi no-fly zones.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the first Gulf War, in an initiative dubbed Operation Pacific Haven, the American military – in a matter of only a few months – airlifted 6,600 Iraqi Kurds and Arabs from Turkey to Anderson Air Force Base in Guam.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28] .These zones, and the attacks to enforce them, were described as illegal by the former UN Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali and the then French foreign minister, Hubert Vedrine.^ He is also the father of former Foreign Minister Maria Consuelo Araujo, who resigned in February after her brother Senator Sivaro Araujo was jailed.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ UN Secretary General Ban will study the proposals and send them on to the Security Council.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The UN International Independent Investigating Commission into the assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, headed by Serge Brammertz, submitted the latest report to the UN secretary general.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Other countries, notably Russia and China, also condemned the zones as a violation of Iraqi sovereignty.^ Other countries have acted with varying degrees of generosity toward Iraqi refugees.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other European countries have taken in far smaller numbers of Iraqis.
  • Rutgers Law Record: Out of Iraq: The U.S. Legal Regime Governing Iraqi Refugee Resettlement 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.lawrecord.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fall of Baghdad saw the outbreak of regional violence throughout the country, as Iraqi tribes and cities began to fight each other over old grudges.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113][114][115] .In mid-2002, the U.S. began more carefully selecting targets in the southern part of the country to disrupt the military command structure in Iraq.^ In mid-2002, the US began to change its response strategy, more carefully selecting targets in the southern part of the country in order to disrupt the military command structure in Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Iraq began to plunge ever more rapidly into the abyss not long after the March, 2003 attack, this crowd stubbornly mostly stayed the course with Bush.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ The second assumption is that internal migrants flow to all parts of the country that are more peaceful.
  • The Polls--Review: Methodological Review of "Mortality After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey" -- Marker, 10.1093/poq/nfn009 -- Public Opinion Quarterly 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC poq.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.A change in enforcement tactics was acknowledged at the time, but it was not made public that this was part of a plan known as Operation Southern Focus.^ A change in enforcement tactics was acknowledged at the time, but it was not made public that this was part of a plan known as Operation Southern Focus.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Orleans Mayor C. Ray Nagin suspects that the slow recovery and rebuilding of the city is part of a plan to change its racial makeup and political leadership.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The discussions on Iraq preceding that, and subsequent to that, had been basically on Operation Northern Watch and Southern Watch and I think I mentioned to you that we had a plan for a downed aircraft called Desert Badger.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The amount of ordnance dropped on Iraqi positions by Coalition aircraft in 2001 and 2002 was less than in 1999 and 2000 which was during the Clinton administration.^ This ban was instituted in 2000 by the Clinton administration, and mirrors a similar ban put in place during the Gulf War , although it appears not to have been enforced as tightly during previous military operations.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, disaggregated estimates by lower level commanders and embedded reporters suggest the number of Iraqis killed was less than 500.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Once the war commenced, US attacks on Iraqi ground units rapidly intensified, reaching and surpassing their average level in less than a week.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] .This information has been used to attempt to refute the theory that the Bush administration had already decided to go to war against Iraq before coming to office and that the bombing during 2001 and 2002 was laying the ground work for the eventual invasion in 2003. However, information obtained by the UK Liberal Democrats showed that the UK dropped twice as many bombs on Iraq in the second half of 2002 as they did during the whole of 2001. The tonnage of UK bombs dropped increased from 0 in March 2002 and 0.3 in April 2002 to between 7 and 14 tons per month in May-August, reaching a pre-war peak of 54.6 tons in September – before Congress' October 11 authorization of the invasion.^ March 31-April 01, 2003 .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ April 10-14, 2003 .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The September 5 attacks included a 100+ aircraft attack on the main air defense site in western Iraq.^ The September attacks included a 5 September 100-aircraft attack on the main air defence site in western Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air supremacy targets include a nation's air defense system and its air power assets (including air fields).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is now evidence that various Special Forces troops from the coalition (including British SAS , the U.S. Army's Delta Force, U.S. Navy SEALs, and U.S. Air Force Combat Controllers) crossed the border into Iraq well before the air war commenced, in order to guide strike aircraft in air attacks.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to an editorial in New Statesman this was "Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias, it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected."[112]
.Tommy Franks, who commanded the invasion of Iraq, has since admitted that the bombing was designed to “degrade” Iraqi air defences in the same way as the air attacks that began the 1991 Gulf War.^ Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 1991 Gulf War 79.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the decade following the Gulf War Iraq's per capita income averaged less than 30 percent of its 1989 level.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These "spikes of activity" were, in the words of then British Defence Secretary, Geoff Hoon, designed to 'put pressure on the Iraqi regime' or, as The Times reported, to "provoke Saddam Hussein into giving the allies an excuse for war". In this respect, as provocations designed to start a war, leaked British Foreign Office legal advice concluded that such attacks were illegal under international law.^ He calls on the government to take decisive steps to implement its obligations under international law to criminalize these practices.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ It is worth repeating that the reported estimates do not represent total Iraqi combatant fatalities for the areas under review.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Appendix 2, which addresses the 1990-1991 Gulf War, we conclude that a reasonable estimate of the Iraqi fatalities resulting from attacks on these targets during that earlier conflict is 3,000 to 6,000 personnel.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117][118]
.Another attempt at provoking the war was mentioned in a leaked memo from a meeting between George W. Bush and Tony Blair on January 31, 2003 at which Bush allegedly told Blair that "The US was thinking of flying U2 reconnaissance aircraft with fighter cover over Iraq, painted in UN colours.^ On 1 May 2003 George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln , in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A top secret memo leaked by a British civil servant and a parliamentary researcher detailed a lengthy conversation on April 16, 2004 between Prime Minister Blair and President Bush, in which Bush according to British media allegedly proposed bombing the Qatar central office of Al Jazeera.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his March 17, 2003 , address to the nation, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay leave Iraq, giving them a 48-hour deadline.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If Saddam fired on them, he would be in breach."[119]

Opening salvo: the Dora Farms strike

.The early morning of March 19, 2003, U.S. forces abandoned the plan for initial, non-nuclear decapitation strikes against fifty-five top Iraqi officials, in light of reports that Saddam Hussein was visiting his daughters and sons, Uday and Qusay at Dora Farms, within the al-Dora farming community on the outskirts of Baghdad.^ This was the attack on Dora Farms outside Baghdad where some Iraqi whispered into his phone that Saddam Hussein was visiting his children.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Worse, the Iraqi Army had incompetent leadership - reports state that Qusay Hussein, charged with the defense of Baghdad , dramatically shifted the positions of the two main divisions protecting Baghdad several times in the days before the arrival of U.S. forces, and as a result the units within were both confused and further demoralized when U.S. Marine and British forces attacked.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the embedded reporters he's never felt moved to announce a "turning point", as when they blew away Uday and Qusay on July 22,2003.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

[120] .At approximately 05:30 UTC two F-117 Nighthawks from the 8th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron[121] dropped four enhanced, satellite-guided 2,000-pound Bunker Busters GBU-27 on the compound.^ The bunker busters all missed the compound.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ On March 20, 2003 at approximately 02:30 UTC or about 90 minutes after the lapse of the 48-hour deadline, at 05:33 local time, explosions were heard in Baghdad.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, since the beginning of operations, our forces have fired more than 650 Tomahawk missiles and dropped more than 5,000 precision-guided munitions.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Complementing the aerial bombardment were nearly 40 Tomahawk cruise missiles fired from at least four ships, including the Arleigh Burke class destroyer, the USS Donald Cook, and two submarines in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.^ In addition, 298 Tomahawk missiles were fired by sea craft and helicopters employed 482 Hellfire and TOW missiles.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Down hurtled four 2000-pound bunker-busters and 40 cruise missiles.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ However, the wells were quickly capped and the fires put out, preventing the ecological damage and loss of oil that had occurred at the end of the Persian Gulf War.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122]
.One missed the compound entirely and the other three missed their target landing on the other side of the wall of the palace compound.^ The demographic anomaly is restricted to the balance between men on one side and women and children on the other.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123] .Saddam Hussein was not present nor were any members of the Iraqi leadership or Hussein family.^ This was the attack on Dora Farms outside Baghdad where some Iraqi whispered into his phone that Saddam Hussein was visiting his children.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ We do not need to kill thousands of innocent Iraqis to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[120] .The attack killed one civilian and injured fourteen others, including nine women and one child.^ Fifteen civilians died, including nine women and a child.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ And, on April 15, 17 people were killed and three injured in one blast in the district of Dibs.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Mosul gunmen killed two policemen and mortar rounds in a residential district killed a man and his child, and injured four.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[124][125] Later investigation revealed that Saddam Hussein had not visited the farm since 1995.[122]

Opening attack

.On March 20, 2003 at approximately 02:30 UTC or about 90 minutes after the lapse of the 48-hour deadline, at 05:33 local time, explosions were heard in Baghdad.^ On March 20, 2003 at approximately 02:30 UTC or about 90 minutes after the lapse of the 48-hour deadline, at 05:33 local time, explosions were heard in Baghdad.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 20, 2003 .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ March 30, 2003 .
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Special operations commandos from the CIA's Special Activities Division from the Northern Iraq Liaison Element infiltrated throughout Iraq and called in the early air strikes.^ The target was Sargat and after heavy fighting with both groups, the Special Forces finally took Sargat and pushed the remaining units out of Northern Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And then we ended up with an “A” day, which is – well, then there was a period we put coalition and some Special Operators on the ground, and then there was “A” day when the air war began.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The discussions on Iraq preceding that, and subsequent to that, had been basically on Operation Northern Watch and Southern Watch and I think I mentioned to you that we had a plan for a downed aircraft called Desert Badger.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[45] .At 03:15 UTC, or 10:15 p.m.^ At 03:15 UTC, or 10:15 p.m.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.EST, George W. Bush announced that he had ordered an "attack of opportunity" against targets in Iraq.^ EST, U.S. President George W. Bush announced that he had ordered the coalition to launch an "attack of opportunity" against targets in Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 1 May 2003 George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln , in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany has rejected threats against two Germans held hostage in Iraq and warnings of terrorist attacks if German troops are not withdrawn from Afghanistan.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.When this word was given, the troops on standby crossed the border into Iraq.^ (Later on, during the invasion, it was rumored that Turkey itself had sent troops into the Kurdish part of Iraq.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is now evidence that various Special Forces troops from the coalition (including British SAS , the U.S. Army's Delta Force, U.S. Navy SEALs, and U.S. Air Force Combat Controllers) crossed the border into Iraq well before the air war commenced, in order to guide strike aircraft in air attacks.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And to Iraqi's neighbor Syria: We have information that shipments of military supplies have been crossing the border from Syria into Iraq, including night vision goggles.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before the invasion, many observers had expected a lengthy campaign of aerial bombing before any ground action, taking as examples the 1991 Persian Gulf War or the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan.^ Before the invasion, many observers had expected a lengthy campaign of aerial bombing in advance of any ground action, taking as examples the Persian Gulf War or the invasion of Afghanistan.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the wells were quickly capped and the fires put out, preventing the ecological damage and loss of oil that had occurred at the end of the Persian Gulf War.
  • Iraqi, United, military, Coalition, Security, Council, British, units, Division, weapons, troops, force, April - 2003 invasion of Iraq 29 September 2009 18:28 UTC www.alphasearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, U.S. plans envisioned simultaneous air and ground assaults to decapitate the Iraqi forces quickly (see Shock and Awe), attempting to bypass Iraqi military units and cities in most cases.^ Air interdiction of ground units 4.3.2.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Time investigation suggests most of the elite Iraqi forces survived the U.S. bombardment," Time Magazine , 12 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To summarize and compare the dynamics in the two wars: In 1991, a gradual increase in the intensity of air attack over a four week period was matched by Iraqi ground force adaptation and a slowly mounting wave of desertions.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The assumption was that superior mobility and coordination of Coalition forces would allow them to attack the heart of the Iraqi command structure and destroy it in a short time, and that this would minimize civilian deaths and damage to infrastructure.^ For reviews and photographs of some of this structural damage see: Iraq Peace Team, Civilian Casualties and Infrastructure Damage in the 2003 US-led Attack on Baghdad, 20 March-1 April 2003, available at: http://inlet.org/wade/iptreports/2003apr04/ 23.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Exacerbating recovery work in Jenin was the fact that a fair portion of the damaged structures were not merely destroyed but leveled and plowed under.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was expected that the elimination of the leadership would lead to the collapse of the Iraqi Forces and the government, and that much of the population would support the invaders once the government had been weakened.^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ This would lead us to expect male noncombatant fatalities to be 85 percent as numerous as those of women and children, given a general population in which males constitute 30 percent of the total while women and children constitute 70 percent.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represents an Iraqi force only 70 percent as strong as the official structure and organization of the Iraqi military would suggest.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Occupation of cities and attacks on peripheral military units were viewed as undesirable distractions.^ That attack and those on other targets in the city resulted in 200 Iraqis killed, according to a military intelligence report issued tonight," March 27.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Following Turkey's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the Coalition was forced to modify the planned simultaneous attack from north and south.^ And then we had a date Turkey will be addressing their decision whether ground forces can go through or whether they have to go around.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Khudayer Abbas Itewi was one of those laid to rest Sunday, three weeks after he was killed when coalition forces bombed his camp north of Baghdad....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ This, for several reasons: First, the advance of coalition ground units decisively and comprehensively challenged Iraqi forces in ways that air power alone never could.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126] .Special Operations forces from the CIA and US Army managed to build and lead the Kurdish Peshmerga into an effective force and assault for the North.^ In the north, ground forces and special forces are securing Kirkuk and Mosul and are degrading regime forces in and near Tikrit.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark McDonald, "Kurdish guerrillas, US Special Forces fight together in Sheikhan," Knight Ridder news service, 7 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Chris Tomlinson and Hamza Hendawi, "US forces storm into Baghdad, seize Saddam's New Presidential Palace," Associated Press, 7 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

The primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations. .One result of this was that one of the divisions intended for the invasion was forced to relocate and was unable to take part in the invasion until well into the war.^ The second thing I would say is they have been allowing people to go into that country, and people who were intending to oppose coalition forces.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ RUMSFELD: Well, we're one week into this and it seems to me it's a bit early for history to be written, one would think.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard Norton-Taylor and Rory McCarthy, "War in the Gulf: British plan to take Basra by force," Guardian, 26 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Many observers felt that the Coalition devoted sufficient numbers of troops to the invasion, but too many were withdrawn after it ended, and that the failure to occupy cities put them at a major disadvantage in achieving security and order throughout the country when local support failed to meet expectations.^ We will use 1,200 as an upper-end estimate for the uniformed military dead who might have been identified as military and treated at hospitals throughout the city, either military or civilian ones.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lancet 368:1421–28) described a household survey of Iraq that attempted to estimate the number of excess casualties since the invasion of that country in 2003.
  • The Polls--Review: Methodological Review of "Mortality After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey" -- Marker, 10.1093/poq/nfn009 -- Public Opinion Quarterly 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC poq.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That real estate will end up being occupied by the coalition forces.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

NASA Landsat 7 image of Baghdad, April 2, 2003. The dark streaks are smoke from oil well fires set in an attempt to hinder attacking air forces.
.The invasion was swift, leading to the collapse of the Iraq government and the military of Iraq in about three weeks.^ Fathila, Northern Iraq: "The people in Fathlia insist there was no Iraqi military presence in the village of about 2,000 people.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The oil infrastructure of Iraq was rapidly seized and secured with limited damage in that time.^ The 20 th was securing and repairing Iraqi oil infrastructure, collateral damage estimates, hardened and underground facilities, targeting for OP Plan 1003 Victor, Iraqi hydrology update.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" is a quarterly report to Congress that for the first time states that "some elements of the situation in Iraq are properly descriptive of a 'civil war''".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

Securing the oil infrastructure was considered of great importance. .In the Persian Gulf War, while retreating from Kuwait, the Iraqi army had set many oil wells on fire, in an attempt to disguise troop movements and to distract Coalition forces.^ Sean D. Naylor,"3rd Infantry cavalry troop routs Iraqi unit in fierce firefight," Army Times, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As the regime deploys death squads to slaughter its own citizens, coalition forces are working to save Iraqi lives.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking, the operational challenges posed by regime removal are greater than those posed during the 1991 Gulf War, when the goal was merely to eject the Iraqis from Kuwait and reduce their capacity for aggression.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the 2003 invasion, Iraqi forces had mined some 400 oil wells around Basra and the Al-Faw peninsula with explosives.^ Richard J. Newman, "The Iraqi File: Long before they went into combat, US forces had gotten the goods on their Iraqi foe," Air Force Magazine (July 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Time investigation suggests most of the elite Iraqi forces survived the U.S. bombardment," Time Magazine , 12 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "US armor decimates Iraqi forces near airport," CNN, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Coalition troops launched an air and amphibious assault on the Al-Faw peninsula during the closing hours of March 20 to secure the oil fields there; the amphibious assault was supported by warships of the Royal Navy, Polish Navy, and Royal Australian Navy.^ Thus, the impression that the attack on ground troops during OIF was compressed into about half the time of the ODS air campaign is valid.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, coalition ground units (with air units in close support) imposed the coalition's war objectives on Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, about 80 percent of the air effort against ground troops occurred during a 15-day period beginning four days into the conflict.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States Marine Corps' 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, attached to 3 Commando Brigade and the Polish Special Forces unit GROM attacked the port of Umm Qasr.^ C. Mark Brinkley, "Marines attack dug-in Iraqi army units around Basra," Marine Corps Times, 22 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "US Marines awed by Iraqi resistance at Umm Qasr," Agence France Presse, 23 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 8, "The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved to capture Rashid airport in the southeast corner of Baghdad, said Brig.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.There they met with heavy resistance by Iraqi troops.^ We assume that there were another 60,000 Iraqi troops in the field who played little role in the fighting and drew relatively little coalition fire.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They met with their Iraqi coauthor in advance, who then conducted the training in Iraq.
  • The Polls--Review: Methodological Review of "Mortality After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey" -- Marker, 10.1093/poq/nfn009 -- Public Opinion Quarterly 16 October 2009 2:50 UTC poq.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Civil defense workers who went to Nadr immediately said they saw no sign of the Iraqi military there.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The British Army's 16 Air Assault Brigade also secured the oilfields in southern Iraq in places like Rumaila while the Polish commandos captured offshore oil platforms near the port, preventing their destruction.^ On 30 March British air assault brigade attacks two companies of Iraqi infantry north of Rumayla, destroying 17 T-55 tanks and five artillery pieces, according to British military spokesman.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Some aid groups working in central and southern Iraq before the war said poor security had hampered movement of supplies from their warehouses.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ British forces raid Al Zubayr, a Basra suburb, capturing senior Baath party politician and killing 20 of his bodyguards, according to British army spokesman.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Despite the rapid advance of the invasion forces, some 44 oil wells were destroyed and set ablaze by Iraqi explosives or by incidental fire.^ This, for several reasons: First, the advance of coalition ground units decisively and comprehensively challenged Iraqi forces in ways that air power alone never could.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi resistance was crushed in the end, but the fight to take the blazing oil wells of Rumayla was not the walk over America had counted on," The Observer ,23 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In two cases, troops fired on the buses, which blew up with such force that the Americans surmised that there must have been explosives on board."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.However, the wells were quickly capped and the fires put out, preventing the ecological damage and loss of oil production capacity that had occurred at the end of the Persian Gulf War.^ The first thing you do is to try to end the war, and to stop people from killing people, or stop people from blowing up trucks in people's faces, and stop people from doing a whole series of things that are unhelpful, stop them from burning the oil wells.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1991 Gulf War, the greatest personnel loss to units was due to desertion: 42 percent of personnel simply left their posts.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lawrence of Arabia Factfile AlltheWeb.com: Web pages results for ""T E Lawrence"" T.E. LAWRENCE / LAWRENCE OF ARABIA American Gulf War Veterans Association (US responsible for Kuwaiti Oil well fires) Guardian Unlimited .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

.In keeping with the rapid advance plan, the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division moved westward and then northward through the western desert toward Baghdad, while the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved along Highway 1 through the center of the country, and 1 (UK) Armoured Division moved northward through the eastern marshland.^ "Marines yesterday found the bodies of 15 Iraqis killed Thursday(27 March) during that firefight along the blacktop highway."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sean D. Naylor,"3rd Infantry Division crosses Karbala Gap," Army Times, 3 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sunday said his unit was moving today through an area with homes, warehouses and highways.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Spanish units moved south to the Saudi-Iraqi border, then drove north to join U.S. forces.^ Tanks attached to the 3rd Battalion 7th Marine Infantry attacked five Iraqi tanks just north of the Kuwait border, easily destroying them.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H. Clay Lyle had moved his tanks and Bradleys towards a position that the Air Force said the Iraqis were occupying on the north side of a freeway.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Polish troops moved with U.S. Marines, and Danish soldiers fought with the British and Australians in southern Iraq.^ On the way, Marines fought and defeated heavily armed Iraqi forces in tanks and armoured personnel carriers, before moving on to the military airfield.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ British troops and US marines destroy company of 60 Iraqis and a dozen vehicles in Umm Qasr.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Kim Sengupta, "Iraq Crisis: Saddam's Elite Troops Are on the Move, Says US," Independent, 28 February 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Battle of Nasiriyah

.Initially, the U.S. 1st Marine Division fought through the Rumaila oil fields, and moved north to Nasiriyah—a moderate-sized, Shi'ite dominated city with important strategic significance as a major road junction and its proximity to nearby Talil Airfield.^ "A Reuters journalist reported that at least 30 Iraqis had been killed yesterday as US Marines finally forced their way through Nasiriyah after five days of bloody fighting in the strategically important southern Iraqi city; Around 30 dismembered bodies were seen by the wreckage of two buses."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On the way, Marines fought and defeated heavily armed Iraqi forces in tanks and armoured personnel carriers, before moving on to the military airfield.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 8, "The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved to capture Rashid airport in the southeast corner of Baghdad, said Brig.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.It was also situated near a number of strategically important bridges over the Euphrates River.^ A key bridge crosses the Euphrates River at Al Mussayib, but it was unclear when American forces might attempt to take it."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The United States Army 3rd Infantry Division defeated Iraqi forces entrenched in and around the airfield and bypassed the city to the west.^ Iraqi forces also attempted to block Tigris River bridges between west and east Bagdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Brigade Combat Team from 3rd Division blunts charge bytruck-mounted militia, killing "as many as 100 Iraqis".
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.On March 23, a convoy from the 3rd Infantry Division, including the female American soldiers Jessica Lynch and Lori Piestewa, was ambushed after taking a wrong turn into the city.^ Dexter Filkins and Michael Wilson, "Battle for a city turns into abrutal street fight," New York Times , 25 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Stephen Twitty, commander of the 3rd Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment."William Branigin, "One 'Good Fight' But Little Else," Washington Post, 23 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Tigris counter-attack on April 8: "US 3rd Infantry Division forces were confronted by 200 to 300 paramilitary fighters and Special Republican Guards, racing to block the American advance, according to US military sources.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Eleven U.S. soldiers were killed, and seven, including Lynch and Piestewa, were captured.^ Iraqi soldiers killed in seven-hour battle near airport.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On Saturday a suicide bomber targeted a Canadian military convoy, killing a child and injuring four, including a Canadian soldier.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[127] .Piestewa died of wounds shortly after capture, while the remaining five prisoners of war were later rescued.^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Baghdad: "On Thursday, the Red Cross said at least one person died and 14 were wounded in Baghdad on the first day of war."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Although these five have been released, eight Ethiopians captured at the same time remain in custody.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Piestewa, who was from Tuba City, Arizona, and an enrolled member of the Hopi Tribe, was believed to have been the first Native American woman killed in combat in a foreign war.^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abdullah Hammoud came to bury his son Mohammed, who he said was killed by American fire in a Baghdad suburb.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

An American Amphibious fighting vehicle destroyed near Nasiriyah
.On the same day, U.S Marines entered Nasiriyah in force, facing heavy resistance as they moved to secure two major bridges in the city.^ "A Reuters journalist reported that at least 30 Iraqis had been killed yesterday as US Marines finally forced their way through Nasiriyah after five days of bloody fighting in the strategically important southern Iraqi city; Around 30 dismembered bodies were seen by the wreckage of two buses."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 1 Marine units confront 50 Iraqi fighters during effort to secure bridge over Saddam Canal in village of Musal Hir near An Numinayah."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Given the fierce two-week battle for control of Nasiriyah -- a city of 560,000 -- it should not be surprising if the toll for combatants and noncombatants together surpassed this number.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.American Marines suffered several fatalities during a firefight with Fedayeen in the urban fighting.^ "Marines yesterday found the bodies of 15 Iraqis killed Thursday(27 March) during that firefight along the blacktop highway."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In several of these cases, most of the fatalities were suffered in a single devastating attack.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the Saddam Canal, 18 Marines were killed in heavy fighting with Iraqi soldiers.^ Iraqi soldiers reported killed in street fighting on outskirts of Basra.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Dozens of Iraqi soldiers were killed Monday in the fighting.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.An Air Force A-10 was involved in a case of friendly fire that resulted in the death of six Marines when it accidentally attacked an American amphibious vehicle.^ During that war, six weeks of air attack on dispersed and dug-in units extracted a relatively modest death toll.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Al Mansour district, Baghdad: "An Iraqi Red Crescent (IRCS) maternity hospital in the al-Mansour district of Baghdad was damaged on 2 April in an attack by American and British forces on a nearby building.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In two cases, troops fired on the buses, which blew up with such force that the Americans surmised that there must have been explosives on board."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Two other vehicles were destroyed when a barrage of RPG and small arms fire killed most of the Marines inside.^ "Marines take fire at Baghdad University," CNN.com, 9 April 2003 Also see, Peter Maass, "'Good Kills'," New York Times, 20 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Infantry Division units "have been striking Baath Party headquarters and other Iraqi positions, destroying about 12 vehicles and killing 40 party officials and about 200 fighters, said field commanders.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Baghdad, ambulance shooting: "Two Iraqis were killed and three others wounded today when US troops shot at an ambulance on a central Baghdad street.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[128] .A Marine from Marine Air Control Group 28 died of enemy fire, and two Marine engineers drowned in the Saddam Canal.^ On April 1 Marine units confront 50 Iraqi fighters during effort to secure bridge over Saddam Canal in village of Musal Hir near An Numinayah."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ This finding is counter to the findings of sparks igniting the methane gas explosion in which 12 died, reported by two state investigations and another by International Coal Group.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.On the evening of March 24, a battalion of the 1st Marine Regiment pushed through Nasiriyah and established a perimeter 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) north of the city.^ Oliver Burkeman, "Battle for key city leads to 'massacre of children' claim," Guardian, 24 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 4 Marines confronted irregular fighters near Al Muhaydias Salih, north of Aziziyah and 20 miles south of Baghdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ When fighting grew intense in the Nasiriyah area and one of the city's hospitals came under attack, some of the area wounded were transferred north to Al Hillah.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi reinforcements from Kut launched several counterattacks.^ Chris Tomlinson, "US Marines battle for military airport in southeastern Baghdad; Iraqis launch counterattack in Baghdad," Associated Press, 8 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Chris Tomlinson and Hamza Hendawi, "US Marines seize military airport in southeastern Baghdad; Iraqis launch counterattack in Baghdad," Associated Press, 8 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Chris Tomlinson, "US Marines battle for military airport in southeastern Baghdad; Iraqis launch counterattack in Baghdad," Associated Press, 8 April2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The Marines managed to repel them using indirect fire and close air support.^ As with the old man, the Marines fired on a SUV driving along the river bank that was getting too close to them.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The inputs and assumptions noted above now allow us to fully define the components of the estimated Iraqi combatant death toll:     Deaths in close combat (direct fire weapons, short-range indirect fire,  and close air support) (88) .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a final step in deriving a range for actual close combat fatalities, we postulate that: Estimates of Iraqi combatant fatalities made by field observers and included in our database probably missed between 25 and 35 percent of the combatant deaths caused by direct fire weapons, short-range indirect fire weapons, and close air support.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last Iraqi attack was beaten off at dawn.^ At one stage a large number of Iraqi tanks and trucks grouped together and attempted a counter-attack but were beaten off by allied tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The battalion estimated that 200-300 Iraqi soldiers were killed, without a single American casualty.^ Q: 30,000 Iraqi soldiers killed – I’m sorry, it was killed not just casualties.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Estimates for the number of Iraqis killed vary between 150, 200, and 300.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Nasiriyah was declared secure, but attacks by Iraqi Fedayeen continued. These attacks were uncoordinated, and resulted in firefights in which large numbers of Fedayeen were killed. .Because of Nasiriyah's strategic position as a road junction, a significant gridlock occurred as U.S. forces moving north converged on the city's surrounding highways.^ When fighting grew intense in the Nasiriyah area and one of the city's hospitals came under attack, some of the area wounded were transferred north to Al Hillah.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H. Clay Lyle had moved his tanks and Bradleys towards a position that the Air Force said the Iraqis were occupying on the north side of a freeway.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "More than 100 Iraqi bodies littered the road north from Nasiriyah."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

A destroyed Iraqi tank near Nasiriyah hospital
.With the Nasiriyah and Talil Airfields secured, Coalition forces gained an important logistical center in southern Iraq and established FOB/EAF Jalibah, some 10 miles (16 km) outside of Nasiriyah.^ Twelve other civilians died in a ground battle as Republican Guardsmen fled Aziziyah (southern Iraq) , nine miles south of Taniya."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Some aid groups working in central and southern Iraq before the war said poor security had hampered movement of supplies from their warehouses.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Thorns Harper,"Allied Ground Forces Advance Deep into Southern Iraq," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 22 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Additional troops and supplies were soon brought through this forward operating base and Italian and Spanish soldiers were now arriving to advance south of the U.S. Army's advance.^ South Korea has invested $2.1 billion in a coal mine project in the Russian Republic of Sakha, hoping to guarantee coal supplies now provided primarily from Australia and Indonesia.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Rajiv Chandrasekaran and Peter Baker, "Sandstorm Delays Army's Advance; US Reports Fierce Battle in South," Washington Post, 26 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Rajiv Chandrasekaran and Peter Baker, "Sandstorm Delays Army's Advance; US Reports Fierce Battle in South," Washington Post, 26March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The 101st Airborne Division continued its attack north in support of the 3rd Infantry Division.^ In western Baghdad, 101st Airborne Division kills two Iraqis in attack on former Republican Guard headquarters.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Tanks attached to the 3rd Battalion 7th Marine Infantry attacked five Iraqi tanks just north of the Kuwait border, easily destroying them.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Units of the US 101st Airborne Division were involved.'Two enemy tanks have been destroyed and a host of (Iraqi) infantry,' Loudon added."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Spanish, British, and Australian paratroopers moved to Talil.
.By 27 March 28, a severe sand storm slowed the Coalition advance as the 3rd Infantry Division halted its northward drive half way between Najaf and Karbala.^ "Coalition progress slowed by heavy fighting as strikes pound Baghdad," Agence France-Presse, 26 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sean D. Naylor,"3rd Infantry Division crosses Karbala Gap," Army Times, 3 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ It was not entirely clear what toll it had taken but the 3rd Infantry said it had killed between 300 and 400 Iraqi troops."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

As a result of heavy rains that occurred along with the sand storm, orange-colored mud fell on some parts of the invasion force in the area. .Air operations by helicopters, poised to bring reinforcements from the 101st Airborne, were blocked for three days.^ And then we ended up with an “A” day, which is – well, then there was a period we put coalition and some Special Operators on the ground, and then there was “A” day when the air war began.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.There was particularly heavy fighting in and around the bridge near the town of Kufl.^ Iraqi soldiers estimated killed in fighting around bridge over Saddam canal.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Mike Williams ( Cox News Service ), "Kurds allied with U.S. troops fight in north: Key bridge seized near town of Bardarash as Saddam's soldiers incur heavy losses," Montreal Gazette , 4 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Another fierce battle was at Najaf, where American Airborne and Armored units with British air support fought a fierce battle in Najaf with Iraqi Regulars, Republican Guard units, and paramilitary forces.^ Tigris counter-attack on April 8: "US 3rd Infantry Division forces were confronted by 200 to 300 paramilitary fighters and Special Republican Guards, racing to block the American advance, according to US military sources.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As they approached Baghdad on April 3, units of the "3rd Infantry fought Republican Guard and Iraqi army forces, destroying at least seven Iraqi armored personnel carriers and 15 tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ During British advance into Basra 120 paramilitaries killed by Royal Scots Tribune Guards Battle Group; other units in the operation kill more; corpses of Iraqi militia litter roadway; a dozen Iraqi dead seen at one defensive position.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The battle lasted from March 24 to April 4, and resulted in a Coalition victory.^ Oliver Burkeman, "Battle for key city leads to 'massacre of children' claim," Guardian, 24 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Troops battle Iraq's elite," wires, Eagle-Tribune (Lawrence, Massachusetts), 24 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Paul Vallely, "A Manhunt in the Tigris, the Battle for Basra, and a Propaganda War Turning Vicious," The Independent (London), 24 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Four American soldiers and 590–780 Iraqi soldiers were killed.^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The Americans opened fire, and four of the Iraqis were killed.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "U.S. officers estimated they killed more than 200 Iraqi soldiers before it came to a close late tonight."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Basra

.The Iraqi port city of Umm Qasr was the first British obstacle.^ Iraqis estimated killed in battle for Umm Qasr.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "US Marines awed by Iraqi resistance at Umm Qasr," Agence France Presse, 23 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.A joint Polish-British-American force ran into unexpectedly stiff resistance, and it took several days to clear the Iraqi forces out.^ Prior to USMC entry into Numaniyah, helicopter gunships kill several Iraqi defenders.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sixty Iraqis estimated killed on one day by one company of two engaged in effort to clear Karbala, according to Capt.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ British officials discovered that ten Iraqis detained in Basra switched places with visitors over the course of several days, allowing their escape.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Fourteen Coalition soldiers and 30 Iraqi soldiers were killed.^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Q: 30,000 Iraqi soldiers killed – I’m sorry, it was killed not just casualties.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraqis killed as coalition seizes Tikrit.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Farther north, the British units fought their way into Iraq's second-largest city, Basra, on April 6, coming under constant attack by regulars and Fedayeen, while 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment (the British Red Devils) cleared the 'old quarter' of the city that was inaccessible to vehicles.^ Paul Harris, "They were pinned down in Basra, ears echoing with the thump of mortars"; British tanks have staged a lightning raid on the heart of Iraqi's second city," The Observer, 30 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Tini Tran, "In British-held city, hospital becomes a locus of resentment," Associated Press, 9 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unit Personnel Attrition: Evidence from the field How did Iraqi field units fare under air attack in terms of casualties?
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Entering Basra was achieved after two weeks of fierce fighting.^ Later, in the town of Kalar, The Guardian was told of a further 12 deaths and 95 injuries in the two weeks after fighting stopped."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Given the fierce two-week battle for control of Nasiriyah -- a city of 560,000 -- it should not be surprising if the toll for combatants and noncombatants together surpassed this number.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A total of 11 British soldiers were killed, while 395-515 Iraqi soldiers, irregulars, and Fedayeen were killed.^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "U.S. officers estimated they killed more than 200 Iraqi soldiers before it came to a close late tonight."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "US officers estimated Iraqi losses there at about 500 soldiers, many of them killed by air attacks.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Elements of 1 (UK) Armoured Division began to advance north towards U.S. positions around Al Amarah on April 9. Pre-existing electrical and water shortages continued throughout the conflict and looting began as Iraqi forces collapsed.^ "US armor decimates Iraqi forces near airport," CNN, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Iraqis report 43 civilians killed in and around Aziziyah as U.S. troops approached Baghdad," Associated Press, 25 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.While Coalition forces began working with local Iraqi Police to enforce order, a joint team composed of Royal Engineers and the Royal Logistics Corps of the British Army rapidly set up and repaired dockyard facilities to allow humanitarian aid to begin to arrive from ships arriving in the port city of Umm Qasr.^ Take the port city, Umm Qasr -- what the plan was.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraqis estimated killed in battle for Umm Qasr.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In areas where the war is winding down, coalition forces are bringing humanitarian aid and are working with a number of international organizations in other countries to deliver food, water, medicine and other necessities.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.After a rapid initial advance, the first major pause occurred near Karbala.^ Aerial and artillery bombardment, major ground engagements, and numerous smaller skirmishes also occurred in, around, or near Halabja, Karbala, Kirkuk, Mosul, Samawah, Tikrit, and Umm Qasr -- among others.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There, U.S. Army elements met resistance from Iraqi troops defending cities and key bridges along the Euphrates River.^ Iraqi forces also attempted to block Tigris River bridges between west and east Bagdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ There are more troops moving into the Baghdad area every day, as well as other cities.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.These forces threatened to interdict supply routes as American forces moved north.^ H. Clay Lyle had moved his tanks and Bradleys towards a position that the Air Force said the Iraqis were occupying on the north side of a freeway.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Rajiv Chandrasekaran and Peter Baker."Strikes Intensify as Forces Move North", Washington Post, 22 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Eventually, troops from the 101st Airborne Division of the U.S Army secured the cities of Najaf and Karbala to prevent any Iraqi counterattacks on the 3rd Infantry Division's lines of communication as the division pressed its advance toward Baghdad.^ [The US adviser to the Iraqi Health Ministry, Stephen] Browning said the lack of security and looted trucks had prevented supplies from reaching hospitals....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Iraqis report 43 civilians killed in and around Aziziyah as U.S. troops approached Baghdad," Associated Press , 25 April 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Apart from the Baghdad data, a demographic skew towards males is also evident in data on nearly 800 civilian casualties in the cities of Karbala, Najaf, and Diwaniya collected by another NGO, the Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Special operations

The northern front during March and April 2003
.The 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 5th Special Forces Group, United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) conducted reconnaissance in the cities of Basra, Karbala and various other locations.^ I met today with the deputy minister of defense of Singapore, Dick and I did, and he's offered medical units and he's offered various other things.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ C. Mark Brinkley, "Marines attack dug-in Iraqi army units around Basra," Marine Corps Times, 22 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Three important areas in which our coverage is notably incomplete are the northern front, the operations of US marine units in Baghdad, and special force operations.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.In the North, the 10th Special Forces Group (10th SFG) and CIA paramilitary officers from their Special Activities Division had the mission of aiding the Kurdish parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party, de facto rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991, and employing them against the 13 Iraqi Divisions located near Kirkuk and Mosul.^ In the north, ground forces and special forces are securing Kirkuk and Mosul and are degrading regime forces in and near Tikrit.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ "US armor decimates Iraqi forces near airport," CNN, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Turkey had officially prohibited any Coalition troops from using their bases or airspace, so lead elements of the 10th SFG had to make a detour infiltration; their flight was supposed to take four hours but instead took ten.
.Hours after the first of such flights, Turkey did allow the use of its air space and the rest of the 10th SFG infiltrated in.^ Rumsfeld: I fashioned guidelines for going to war or using force that I did when I first got here.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.The preliminary mission was to destroy the base of the Kurdish terrorist group Ansar al-Islam, believed to be linked to Al Qaeda.^ Khormal, Kurdistan: "At the weekend the US fired more than 70 missiles at territory in north-east Iraq controlled by Ansar al-Islam, a radical Islamist group linked by the Bush administration to al-Qaida....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ One of those arrested was Abdelmoname Ben Khalifa Mansour, who was detained on charges of belonging to a group linked to al Qaeda and detained for 1.5 years before the case collapsed and all defendants were acquitted.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Not counted above is the 22 March bombardment of Ansar al-Islam camp in Kurdish-held territory, which supposedly killed between 60 and 100 militants.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Concurrent and follow-on missions involved attacking and fixing Iraqi forces in the north, thus preventing their deployment to the southern front and the main effort of the invasion.^ Iraqi intelligence services have a global presence including in the U.S., and could strike the U.S., our allies or other deployed forces in unconventional ways.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On March 26, 2003, the 173rd Airborne Brigade augmented the invasion's northern front by parachuting into northern Iraq onto Bashur Airfield, controlled at the time by elements of 10th SFG and Kurdish peshmerga.^ Paul Watson and John Daniszewski, "US Opens Northern Front in Iraq; Paratroopers secure an airfield in Kurdish enclave; Baghdad blames the U.S. for a missile strike that it says killed 15 civilians," Los Angeles Times, 27 March 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dexter Filkins and Michael Wilson, "Battle for a city turns into abrutal street fight," New York Times , 25 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The fall of Kirkuk on April 10, 2003 to the 10th SFG, CIA Paramilitary Teams and Kurdish peshmerga precipitated the 173rd's planned assault, preventing the unit's involvement in combat against Iraqi forces during the invasion.^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war 4.1.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William Branigin, "Troops find vials, chemical manuals U.S. forces also found gas masks and unidentified white powder," Washington Post, 5 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The successful occupation of Kirkuk came as a result of approximately two weeks of fighting that included the Battle of the Green Line (the unofficial border of the Kurdish autonomous zone) and the subsequent Battle of Kani Domlan Ridge (the ridgeline running northwest to southeast of Kirkuk), the latter fought exclusively by 3rd Battalion, 10th SFG and Kurdish peshmerga against the Iraqi I Corps.^ "In and around Diwaniyah to the southeast, Republican Guard units and US Marines fought an eight-hour battle Tuesday, with Marines killing at least 80 Iraqi soldiers and taking more than 40 Iraqis prisoner, U.S. officials said; Marines from the 3rd Battalion, 4th Regiment Marines killed 80 to 90 Iraqi fighters, said Lt. Col.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Overnight fighting at the beginning of the week took place in eastern Batticaloa district, including heavy artillery and rocket fire.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Wide array of air power, including A-10s and B-52s, aid ground troops in battle against 30 Iraqi armored vehicles and infantry -- at least 15 vehicles destroyed and 100 Iraqi soldiers killed.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The 173rd Brigade would eventually take responsibility for Kirkuk days later, becoming involved in the counterinsurgency fight and remain there until redeploying a year later.^ Women and children were among the recognizable dead remaining in the wreckage days later.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Desert Storm involved less than 150 equivalent brigade days of ground combat.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further reinforcing operations in Northern Iraq, the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable), serving as Landing Force Sixth Fleet, deployed in April to Erbil and subsequently Mosul via Marine KC-130 flights.^ Special operations in western Iraq: .
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Special operations in western Iraq Notes .
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 1 Marine units confront 50 Iraqi fighters during effort to secure bridge over Saddam Canal in village of Musal Hir near An Numinayah."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The 26 MEU(SOC) maintained security of the Mosul airfield and surrounding area until relief by the 101st Airborne Division.^ Iraqis killed or wounded by 101st Airborne Division as it attempts to clear Najaf of militia fighters.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In western Baghdad, 101st Airborne Division kills two Iraqis in attack on former Republican Guard headquarters.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Units of the US 101st Airborne Division were involved.'Two enemy tanks have been destroyed and a host of (Iraqi) infantry,' Loudon added."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.After Sargat was taken, Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion, 10th SFG and CIA paramilitary officers along with their Kurdish allies pushed south towards Tikrit and the surrounding towns of Northern Iraq.^ Kurdish officials say at least 150 people had been killed by US bombing at the weekend in northern Iraq - while others say around 60 have died.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ It was my brother Patrick, calling from Sulaimaniyah, three hours drive east through the mountains from the Kurdish capital of Arbil, in northern Iraq.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ Squad from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 7th Infantry Regiment kills at least three Iraqi soldiers.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Previously, during the Battle of the Green Line, Bravo Company, 3/10 with their Kurdish allies pushed back, destroyed, or routed the 13th Iraqi Infantry Division.^ Tanks attached to the 3rd Battalion 7th Marine Infantry attacked five Iraqi tanks just north of the Kuwait border, easily destroying them.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Units of the US 101st Airborne Division were involved.'Two enemy tanks have been destroyed and a host of (Iraqi) infantry,' Loudon added."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ More than 150 Iraqis killed or injured as 3 rd Infantry Division fights its way north from Karbala.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

The same company took Tikrit. .Iraq was the largest deployment of Special Forces since Vietnam.^ Especially notable were lapses in reporting on operations in northern Iraq, Marine Corps operations in Baghdad, and special forces operations nation-wide.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fall of Baghdad (April 2003)

An American M1 Abrams tank destroyed by Iraqi infantry
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein’s statue in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the capture of the city.
.Three weeks into the invasion, US-led Coalition forces moved into Baghdad.^ On April 8, "The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved to capture Rashid airport in the southeast corner of Baghdad, said Brig.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Central Command estimates that 2,000 to 3,000 Iraqi troops were killed during US armored foray into Baghdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Three important areas in which our coverage is notably incomplete are the northern front, the operations of US marine units in Baghdad, and special force operations.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Units of the Iraqi Special Republican Guard led the defence of the city.^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In western Baghdad, 101st Airborne Division kills two Iraqis in attack on former Republican Guard headquarters.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rest of the defenders were a mixure of Republican Guard units, Regular army units, Iraqi Fedayeen, and non-Iraqi Arab volunteers.^ All told, the Republican Guard plus several stalwart regular divisions probably comprised 85,000 troops.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sean D. Naylor,"3rd Infantry cavalry troop routs Iraqi unit in fierce firefight," Army Times, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initial plans were for Coalition units to surround the city and gradually move in, forcing Iraqi armor and ground units to cluster into a central pocket in the city, and then attack with air and artillery forces.^ Air interdiction of ground units 4.3.2.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard J. Newman, "The Iraqi File: Long before they went into combat, US forces had gotten the goods on their Iraqi foe," Air Force Magazine (July 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We accept 30 to 50 fatalities for the 22 March Ansar attack and add these to the totals for combatant fatalities due to air attacks outside major cities.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This plan soon became unnecessary, as an initial engagement of armored units south of the city saw most of the Republican Guard's assets destroyed and routes in the southern outskirts of the city occupied.^ 'The trucks have been destroyed and most of the people as well,' said US Major Mike Birmingham on the outskirts of Baghdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As they approached Baghdad on April 3, units of the "3rd Infantry fought Republican Guard and Iraqi army forces, destroying at least seven Iraqi armored personnel carriers and 15 tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.On April 5 Task Force 1-64 Armor of the U.S. Army's Third Infantry Division executed a raid, later called the "Thunder Run", to test remaining Iraqi defenses, with 29 tanks and 14 Bradley Armored Fighting Vehicles advancing to the Baghdad airport.^ "US armor decimates Iraqi forces near airport," CNN, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqis killed during a tank fight north and east of the airport.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As they approached Baghdad on April 3, units of the "3rd Infantry fought Republican Guard and Iraqi army forces, destroying at least seven Iraqi armored personnel carriers and 15 tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

They met heavy resistance,[citation needed] but were successful in reaching the airport. .US troops faced heavy fighting in the airport, and were even temporarily pushed out, but eventually secured the airport.^ "Within hours the vanguard of the US assault quickly captured the southern side of the airport taking out enemy sniper positions with tank blasts...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Some 250 Iraqis killed when US troops secure a bridge north of Najaf; another 200 killed near a storage depot west of the city.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The biggest number of deaths appears to have occurred April 5 and 6 when US troops began fighting their way into the city.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The next day, another brigade of the 3rd I.D. attacked into downtown Baghdad and occupied one of the palaces of Saddam Hussein in fierce fighting.^ Chris Tomlinson and Hamza Hendawi, "US forces storm into Baghdad, seize Saddam's New Presidential Palace," Associated Press, 7 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Stephen Twitty, commander of the 3rd Battalion, 2 nd brigade, 3 rd Infantry Division estimates that most of 750 Iraqis who attacked US positions at three highway intersections south of Baghdad were killed in the fight; one company commander claims his unit alone killed 300 who attacked in waves.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ B.P. McCoy of 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines estimates 50-60 Iraqis killed in effort to seize bridge leading into Baghdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.US Marines also faced heavy shelling from Iraqi artillery as they attempted to cross a river bridge.^ Iraqi forces also attempted to block Tigris River bridges between west and east Bagdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On 4 April Marines conduct 8 hours of close combat against irregulars in marsh, continues heavy fighting up to Diyala river.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "US Marines awed by Iraqi resistance at Umm Qasr," Agence France Presse, 23 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The Iraqi commander directed the fire, and one shell from an Iraqi gun killed or wounded four Marines, but the river crossing was successful.^ The Americans opened fire, and four of the Iraqis were killed.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "A Marine guarding a hospital on the eastern side of the Tigris River was shot and killed when two Syrian men posing as gardeners sneaked up, pulled out a concealed gun and opened fire at point-blank range.Other Marines at the checkpoint returned fire, killing one of the assailants and injuring the other, officers reported."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sixty Iraqis estimated killed on one day by one company of two engaged in effort to clear Karbala, according to Capt.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The Iraqis managed to inflict heavy casualties on the American forces near the airport from defensive positions but suffered severe casualties from air bombardment.^ Air defense and artillery units would have been subjected to especially heavy attack by cluster bombs;   Several Iraqi divisions were singled out for intense bombardment -- notably the Medina and Baghdad Republican Guard divisions -- both because of their pivotal position, blocking the approach to Baghdad, and as a demonstration to other Iraqi units; (76) and   Whenever Iraqi units attempted to move -- especially in convoy -- they made themselves exceedingly vulnerable to efficient air attack and, thus, ran the risk of high casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, several hospitals other than the three near the airport were reported during the war to have been overwhelmed with casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi soldiers killed in seven-hour battle near airport.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Within hours of the palace seizure and with television coverage of this spreading through Iraq, U.S. forces ordered Iraqi forces within Baghdad to surrender, or the city would face a full-scale assault.^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represents an Iraqi force only 70 percent as strong as the official structure and organization of the Iraqi military would suggest.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A factor that would have significantly influenced the balance of risk among the four noncombatant groups was the late exodus from Baghdad of thousands of Iraqi families.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iraqi government officials had either disappeared or had conceded defeat, and on April 9, 2003, Baghdad was formally occupied by Coalition forces.^ William Branigin, "Troops find vials, chemical manuals U.S. forces also found gas masks and unidentified white powder," Washington Post, 5 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Deirdre Shesgreen, "Number of casualties may never be known; Logistics, politics prevent true accounting of Iraqi deaths," Seattle Times, 9 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ John Kifner and Ian Fisher, "US Marines leave Baghdad," New York Times, 20 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of Baghdad remained unsecured however, and fighting continued within the city and its outskirts well into the period of occupation.^ 'The trucks have been destroyed and most of the people as well,' said US Major Mike Birmingham on the outskirts of Baghdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Dexter Filkins and Michael Wilson, "Battle for a city turns into abrutal street fight," New York Times , 25 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "The cemetery at this holy site 100 miles south of Baghdad provided an insight, however limited, into at least a portion of those casualties.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Saddam had vanished, and his whereabouts were unknown. .On April 10, a rumor emerged that Saddam Hussein and his top aides were holed up in a mosque complex in the Al Az'Amiyah District of Baghdad.^ This was the attack on Dora Farms outside Baghdad where some Iraqi whispered into his phone that Saddam Hussein was visiting his children.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ USMC Baghdad combat April 8-10: 25-50 estimated Iraqi combatant fatalities (PDA corrected estimate).
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Al-Mansour neighbourhood, Baghdad: "Pentagon officials said the decision to bomb the middle class district of Mansour, where 14 civilians are believed to have died on Monday, was based on "credible information" that Saddam Hussein and his sons were meeting there.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Three Companies of Marines were sent to capture him. .The Marines came under heavy fire from rocket-propelled grenades, mortars, and assault rifles.^ Overnight fighting at the beginning of the week took place in eastern Batticaloa district, including heavy artillery and rocket fire.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ On April 9, "US Marines came under attack Wednesday afternoon at Baghdad University and stormed onto the campus to return fire...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Hassan said he was fleeing the city and was in a sedan with three other men on the road when they came under fire, apparently from the marines.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.One Marine was killed and 20 were wounded, but neither Saddam or any of his top aides were found.^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "Marines take fire at Baghdad University," CNN.com, 9 April 2003 Also see, Peter Maass, "'Good Kills'," New York Times, 20 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On Monday the family home in the Beyaa neighbourhood of west Baghdad was bombed by American aircraft, wounding one of Mr Din's brothers, and killing another outright.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.U.S. forces supported by mortars, artillery, and aircraft continued to attack Iraqi forces still loyal to Saddam Hussein and non-Iraqi Arab volunteers.^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saddam Hussein General Hospital, Najaf (March 20-April 15, 2003): "Six days after the "liberation" of Najaf, Iraqis of all ages continue to pack the corridors of Saddam Hussein General Hospital.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.U.S. aircraft flying in support were met with Iraqi anti-aircraft fire.^ From Iraqi positions on the ground, anti-aircraft fire shot up into the darkness.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi anti-aircraft missiles....
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.On April 12, the final resistance to U.S. forces was mounted.^ Charles J. Hanley, "Civilian toll, war's underside, mounts as U.S. forces approach Baghdad," Associated Press, 3 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One Marine was killed, but by late afternoon, all fighting had ceased.^ There is at least one observation of a mass grave dug by the US marines in southeast Baghdad, in which all of the corpses are identified as male.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They got one of us, but we got all of them"; Subsequently two militia are killed near Diyala bridge.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.A total of 34 U.S. soldiers and 2,320 Iraqi soldiers and Fedayeen were killed.^ Iraqi soldiers killed at Latifiyah.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi soldiers reported killed in street fighting on outskirts of Basra.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Many Iraqis celebrated the downfall of Saddam by vandalizing the many portraits and statues of him together with other pieces of his cult of personality.^ Rumsfeld: Yeah, and he was talking to me about what he was thinking and what he might have to do, but to know -- he needs to know how all these other pieces would fit with him.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ US tank units kill "at least a dozen Iraqis and many others were believed dead from artillery and air strikes."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.One widely publicized event was the dramatic toppling of a large statue of Saddam in Baghdad's Fardus Square.^ Near the war's official end the Saddam (now "General") Hospital in Nasiriyah -- one of two large ones in the city -- reported 713 dead.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This attracted considerable media coverage at the time. As the British Daily Mirror reported,
."For an oppressed people this final act in the fading daylight, the wrenching down of this ghastly symbol of the regime, is their Berlin Wall moment.^ "People power overwhelmed defenders of the regime as the final drama unfolded," The Irish Times, 10 April 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Big Moustache has had his day."[129]
As Staff Sergeant Brian Plesich reported in On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom,
."The Marine Corps colonel in the area saw the Saddam statue as a target of opportunity and decided that the statue must come down.^ One area of incompleteness regards Marine Corps operations in Baghdad, which seem under-reported.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Q: April 9 th the day the Saddam statue came down in Baghdad.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.Since we were right there, we chimed in with some loudspeaker support to let the Iraqis know what it was we were attempting to do..."^ Q: And you know you said what are the targets and it turns out there are 4,000 targets, isn’t that right?
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, some of them are external to the department so they have to be there so that other people looking at it know that, and then some that just aren’t controllable.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

."Somehow along the way, somebody had gotten the idea to put a bunch of Iraqi kids onto the wrecker that was to pull the statue down.^ M.E. Sprengelmeyer, "101st Airborne Unit Attempts to Break down Security Zone Iraqis Have Put up in Hillah," Rocky Mountain News, 9 April 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While the wrecker was pulling the statue down, there were Iraqi children crawling all over it. Finally they brought the statue down"[130]
.The fall of Baghdad saw the outbreak of regional, sectarian violence throughout the country, as Iraqi tribes and cities began to fight each other over old grudges.^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ A total of 94 hospitals and medical centers exist in the governorates other than Baghdad that saw some significant fighting.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Officers with theUS Army's 3rd Infantry Division said 200 Iraqis were killed, wounded or captured in fighting that broke out overnight southeast of the city of Karbala, 80 kilometers (50 miles) from Baghdad."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The Iraqi cities of Al-Kut and Nasiriyah launched attacks on each other immediately following the fall of Baghdad to establish dominance in the new country, and the US-led Coalition quickly found themselves embroiled in a potential civil war.^ Al Kut area and north to Baghdad city limits: .
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Now, US Homeland Security and Energy officials are calling for other cities to follow suit to help first responders pinpoint legitimate radioactive materials and compare it with new sources, potentially flagging a dirty bomb while it is still being developed, or used to guide cleanup if there is a radiological release.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The US and other countries are considering further sanctions, and Mugabe says he will expel Western diplomats who support the opposition, and said they can "go hang".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.US-led Coalition forces ordered the cities to cease hostilities immediately, explaining that Baghdad would remain the capital of the new Iraqi government.^ Mike Williams, "Marines struggle to bring order to turbulent city," Cox News , 16 April 2003.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ A report in the Guardian, a British newspaper, fairly summarizes the chaos that ensued in the days following the American seizure of the Saddam airport: (24) Although Iraqi officials continued to reassure residents that coalition forces would not enter the capital, few seemed convinced.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attempted truck-borne "human wave" counter-attack on US forces holding a key intersection in west Baghdad: 50-80 Iraqi combatant fatalities (PDA estimate).
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Nasiriyah responded favorably and quickly backed down; however, Al-Kut placed snipers on the main roadways into town, with orders that invading forces were not to enter the city.^ At least "dozens" of the dead and wounded in Al Hillah came from elsewhere, however -- notably the vicinity of Nasiriyah.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heavy security is in place following the incident, and prices have gone back down.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Al Kut area and north to Baghdad city limits: .
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.After several minor skirmishes, the snipers were removed, but tensions and violence between regional, city, tribal, and familial groups continued.^ The fourth group are families attempting to relocate within the city or to areas outside the city.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monte Reel, "Samawah firefights continue; 82nd Airborne troops skirmish with Iraqi army, militia groups," Charlotte Observer, 31 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.US General Tommy Franks assumed control of Iraq as the supreme commander of the coalition occupation forces.^ US Commander in Iraq General David Petraeus has requested another Army brigade in addition to five en route.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Coalition ground forces employed more than 25,000 direct fire and short-range indirect fire weapons in Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 30003 reference refers to the Naval Air Systems Command, the procurement agency responsible for furnishing the US Navy's air force with its weaponry."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Shortly after the sudden collapse of the defense of Baghdad, rumors were circulating in Iraq and elsewhere that there had been a deal struck (a "safqua") wherein the US-led Coalition had bribed key members of the Iraqi military elite and/or the Ba'ath party itself to stand down.^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Ahead of the anniversary of the US invasion of Iraq, there have been anti-war protests across the US, Europe, Canada and Australia.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Chris Tomlinson, "US Marines battle for military airport in southeastern Baghdad; Iraqis launch counterattack in Baghdad," Associated Press, 8 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.In May 2003, General Franks retired, and confirmed in an interview with Defense Week that the US-led Coalition had paid Iraqi military leaders to defect.^ Deirdre Shesgreen, "Number of casualties may never be known; Logistics, politics prevent true accounting of Iraqi deaths," Seattle Times, 9 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ A Time investigation suggests most of the elite Iraqi forces survived the U.S. bombardment," Time Magazine , 12 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chris Tomlinson, "US Marines battle for military airport in southeastern Baghdad; Iraqis launch counterattack in Baghdad," Associated Press, 8 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

The extent of the defections and their effect on the war are unclear.
.US-led Coalition troops promptly began searching for the key members of Saddam Hussein's government.^ Harvey Rice, "Hundreds of elite troops killed; US forces batter Saddam's divisions in battles, aerial attacks," Houston Chronicle, 4 April 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The biggest number of deaths appears to have occurred April 5 and 6 when US troops began fighting their way into the city.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ News - Saddam was held by Kurdish forces, drugged and left for US troops Yahoo!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

.These individuals were identified by a variety of means, most famously through sets of most-wanted Iraqi playing cards.^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Operation Iraqi Freedom these target sets may have comprised as many as 900 individual targets or target areas.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Undoubtedly, most of these casualties were associated with the nearby airport battles and with the armored incursions conducted by the US Third Division, which passed through nearby areas.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On July 22, 2003 during a raid by the U.S. 101st Airborne Division and men from Task Force 20, Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, and one of his grandsons were killed in a massive fire-fight.^ Unlike the embedded reporters he's never felt moved to announce a "turning point", as when they blew away Uday and Qusay on July 22,2003.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ In fighting around the city Monday, troops from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division killed and wounded several Iraqi soldiers, and captured 20 prisoners of war.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqis killed during a tank fight north and east of the airport.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Saddam Hussein was captured on December 13, 2003 by the U.S. Army's 4th Infantry Division and members of Task Force 121 during Operation Red Dawn.^ Sig Christenson, "For the 3rd Infantry, clearing the dead is a grim part of life," San Antonio Express-News, 13 April 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Egyptian security forces continued arrests of Muslim Brotherhood members periodically during the week.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Sean D. Naylor,"3rd Infantry cavalry troop routs Iraqi unit in fierce firefight," Army Times, 4 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Other areas

.In the north, Kurdish forces opposed to Saddam Hussein had already occupied for years an autonomous area in northern Iraq.^ (In fact Saddam had already "disarmed", as disclosed in Hussein Kamel's debriefings by the UNSCOM inspectors, the CIA and MI6 in the summer of 1995 when Kamel told them all, with corroboration from aides who had also defected, that on Saddam Hussein's orders his son-in-law had destroyed all of Iraq's WMDs years earlier, right after the Gulf War.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Three important areas in which our coverage is notably incomplete are the northern front, the operations of US marine units in Baghdad, and special force operations.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

With the assistance of U.S. Special Forces and air strikes, they were able to rout the Iraqi units near them and to occupy oil-rich Kirkuk on April 10.
.U.S. special forces had also been involved in the extreme south of Iraq, attempting to occupy key roads to Syria and airbases.^ Especially notable were lapses in reporting on operations in northern Iraq, Marine Corps operations in Baghdad, and special forces operations nation-wide.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A key bridge crosses the Euphrates River at Al Mussayib, but it was unclear when American forces might attempt to take it."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.In one case two armored platoons were used to convince Iraqi leadership that an entire armored battalion was entrenched in the west of Iraq.^ Sixty Iraqis estimated killed on one day by one company of two engaged in effort to clear Karbala, according to Capt.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ One airstrike, on April 5, hit a house that was believed to be used by top Iraqi intelligence agency officials.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Then came one "new dawn" for Iraq after another: the handback of Iraqi sovereignty in June 2004, the two elections and the new constitution in 2005.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.On April 15, U.S. forces took control of Tikrit, the last major outpost in central Iraq, with an attack led by the Marines' Task Force Tripoli.^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ On April 8, "The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved to capture Rashid airport in the southeast corner of Baghdad, said Brig.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "US forces enter Tikrit," BBC, 14 April 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.About a week later the Marines were relieved in place by the Army's 4th Infantry Division.^ A single US army or marine division is able to surveil, deter, coerce, or independently engage thousands of "targets" simultaneously, ranging in size down to a single individual.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Summary of the invasion

Aircraft of the USAF 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and UK and Australian counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert on April 14, 2003. Aircraft include KC-135 Stratotanker, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16CJ Falcon, British GR-4 Tornado, and Australian F/A-18 Hornet.
.The US-led Coalition forces toppled the government and captured the key cities of a large nation in only 21 days.^ Quantitatively, Iraq fielded a fighting force in 2003 only half as large as its 1991 force.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US forces report capturing 12 suspected insurgents in raids across the country.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The invasion did require a large army build-up like the 1991 Gulf War, but many didn't see combat and many were withdrawn after the invasion ended.^ Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 1991 Gulf War 79.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This proved to be short-sighted, however, due to the requirement for a much larger force to combat the irregular Iraqi forces in the aftermath of the war.^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war 4.1.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General Eric Shinseki, Army Chief of Staff, recommended "several hundred thousand"[131] troops be used to maintain post-war order, but then Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld—and especially his deputy, civilian Paul Wolfowitz—strongly disagreed.^ Did you ever talk to Cheney in a way that you could tell me this that I can use it to explain what the job of the Secretary of Defense in a situation like this is or was it just obvious to you?
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 (Interview with Bob Woodward of the Washington Post.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ This was sufficient time for those Iraqi troops under attack to learn to steer clear of their vehicles and weapon systems, and it was sufficient time for the lesson to generalize throughout the Iraqi field army.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

General Abizaid later said General Shinseki had been right.[132]
.The Iraqi army, armed mainly with Soviet-built equipment, was overall ill-equipped in comparison to the U.S. and UK forces.^ In 2003, America's armed forces had to do much more than dislodge Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also made similar payments to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN).
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ On the way, Marines fought and defeated heavily armed Iraqi forces in tanks and armoured personnel carriers, before moving on to the military airfield.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

Attacks on U.S. supply routes by Fedayeen militiamen were repulsed. .The Iraqis' artillery proved largely ineffective, and they were unable to mobilize their air force to attempt a defense.^ Richard J. Newman, "The Iraqi File: Long before they went into combat, US forces had gotten the goods on their Iraqi foe," Air Force Magazine (July 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi forces also attempted to block Tigris River bridges between west and east Bagdad.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Mixed Iraqi forces attempted a counter-attack on Tuesday as US forces sought to expand their control of the government area.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The Iraqi T-72 tanks, the heaviest armored vehicles in the Iraqi Army, were both outdated and ill-maintained, and when they were mobilized they were rapidly destroyed, thanks in part to U.S. and UK air supremacy.^ Wide array of air power, including A-10s and B-52s, aid ground troops in battle against 30 Iraqi armored vehicles and infantry -- at least 15 vehicles destroyed and 100 Iraqi soldiers killed.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As they approached Baghdad on April 3, units of the "3rd Infantry fought Republican Guard and Iraqi army forces, destroying at least seven Iraqi armored personnel carriers and 15 tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The Iraqi forces included formations of between 20 and 60 vehicles, including T-72 tanks and civilian trucks outfitted with military weapons."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The U.S. Air Force, Marine Corps, Naval Aviation, and British Royal Air Force operated with impunity throughout the country, pinpointing heavily defended resistance targets and destroying them before ground troops arrived.^ Thus, the impression that the attack on ground troops during OIF was compressed into about half the time of the ODS air campaign is valid.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, about 80 percent of the air effort against ground troops occurred during a 15-day period beginning four days into the conflict.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main battle tanks (MBT) of the U.S. and UK forces, the U.S. M1 Abrams and British Challenger 2, proved worthy in the rapid advance across the country.^ "The hospital ceased to function on Monday when it became a main battle theatre between US forces and Iraqi fighters.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ "British forces intensify battle for Basra," Agence France-Presse, 31 March 2003.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.With the large number of rocket propelled grenade (RPG) attacks by irregular Iraqi forces, few U.S. and UK tanks were lost and no tank crew were killed by hostile fire.^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqis killed during a tank fight north and east of the airport.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Reports of large numbers of Basra residents being forced to take up arms and militiamen firing from behind human shields were similarly not borne out in the interviews."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The only tank loss sustained by the British Army was a Challenger 2 of the Queen's Royal Lancers that was hit by another Challenger 2, killing two crew members.^ In the early morning hours Saturday, while they slept, 10 members of his family were killed by two missiles fired from a warplane that destroyed the house, Hamoodi said."
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Another suicide car bomb in western Yarmouk district targeted an Iraqi army checkpoint, killing one soldier and injuring two civilians.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ An armed assault targeting Judge Omar Abdul Nabi killed him and two others in his car, and injured another.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

All three British tank crew fatalities were a result of friendly fire.
.The Iraqi Army suffered from poor morale, even amongst the elite Republican Guard.^ But Iraqi Special Republican Guard and special forces continued to fight running battles in the northern area of the main terminal...
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In western Baghdad, 101st Airborne Division kills two Iraqis in attack on former Republican Guard headquarters.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ As they approached Baghdad on April 3, units of the "3rd Infantry fought Republican Guard and Iraqi army forces, destroying at least seven Iraqi armored personnel carriers and 15 tanks."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Entire units disbanded into the crowds upon the approach of invading troops, or actually sought out U.S. and UK forces out to surrender.^ Soldiers from the brigade's B Troop, 10th Cavalry, escorting an anti-artillery unit, came upon two truck transports of Iraqi soldiers.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.In one case, a force of roughly 20–30 Iraqis attempted to surrender to a two-man vehicle repair and recovery team, invoking similar instances of Iraqis surrendering to news crews during the Persian Gulf War.^ Other demographic data on Iraqi casualties Some demographic data on civilian casualties in Baghdad is also available from a Spanish NGO that documented 42 cases of civilian attack in the capital involving over 100 individuals during the period 20 March through 5 April.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the decade following the Gulf War Iraq's per capita income averaged less than 30 percent of its 1989 level.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other Iraqi Army officers were bribed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or coerced into surrendering.^ Army officer reports at least 50 Iraqi fighters killed in attempt to overrun US position.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Baghdad, ambulance shooting: "Two Iraqis were killed and three others wounded today when US troops shot at an ambulance on a central Baghdad street.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ One airstrike, on April 5, hit a house that was believed to be used by top Iraqi intelligence agency officials.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Worse, the Iraqi Army had incompetent leadership – reports state that Qusay Hussein, charged with the defense of Baghdad, dramatically shifted the positions of the two main divisions protecting Baghdad several times in the days before the arrival of U.S. forces, and as a result the units within were both confused and further demoralized when U.S. Army forces attacked.^ Air defense and artillery units would have been subjected to especially heavy attack by cluster bombs;   Several Iraqi divisions were singled out for intense bombardment -- notably the Medina and Baghdad Republican Guard divisions -- both because of their pivotal position, blocking the approach to Baghdad, and as a demonstration to other Iraqi units; (76) and   Whenever Iraqi units attempted to move -- especially in convoy -- they made themselves exceedingly vulnerable to efficient air attack and, thus, ran the risk of high casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A commander of an air defense unit to the east of Baghdad reported 10 percent fatalities: 25 dead out of a unit of 250.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A Reuters journalist reported that at least 30 Iraqis had been killed yesterday as US Marines finally forced their way through Nasiriyah after five days of bloody fighting in the strategically important southern Iraqi city; Around 30 dismembered bodies were seen by the wreckage of two buses."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.The invasion force did not see the entire Iraqi military thrown against it; U.S. and UK units had orders to move to and seize objective target-points rather than seek engagements with Iraqi units.^ Al Hussein hospital, Karbala, cluster bombs: "Relief workers say the problem is far worse in Iraq than it was in Afghanistan because the Iraqis sited military installations-primary targets for U.S. bombs-near civilian centers.
  • Project on Defense Alternatives - Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports 18 September 2009 5:05 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Unit Personnel Attrition: Evidence from the field How did Iraqi field units fare under air attack in terms of casualties?
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represents an Iraqi force only 70 percent as strong as the official structure and organization of the Iraqi military would suggest.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This resulted in most regular Iraqi military units emerging from the war fully intact and without ever having been engaged by U.S. forces, especially in southern Iraq.^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ A Time investigation suggests most of the elite Iraqi forces survived the U.S. bombardment," Time Magazine , 12 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is assumed that most units disintegrated to either join the growing Iraqi insurgency or returned to their homes.
According to the declassified Pentagon report, "The largest contributing factor to the complete defeat of Iraq's military forces was the continued interference by Saddam." The report, designed to help U.S. officials understand in hindsight how Saddam and his military commanders prepared for and fought the invasion, paints a picture of an Iraqi government blind to the threat it faced, hampered by Saddam's inept military leadership and deceived by its own propaganda and inability to believe the United States would invade a sovereign country without provocation. .According to the BBC, the report portrays Saddam Hussein as "chronically out of touch with reality - preoccupied with the prevention of domestic unrest and with the threat posed by Iran."^ Saddam Hussein profile BBC NEWS .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

[133]

Security, looting and war damage

Looting took place in the days following the 2003 invasion. Similar looting occurred for two weeks following the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama.
.It was reported that the National Museum of Iraq was among the looted sites.^ Especially notable were lapses in reporting on operations in northern Iraq, Marine Corps operations in Baghdad, and special forces operations nation-wide.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most initial news reports were that 100 percent of the museum's artifacts had been removed by looters. .In fact, no more than 3 percent of its contents were removed by thieves[citation needed].^ In some case, when the estimates emanate from higher command or political authorities, they may reflect an information warfare objective more than they do facts on the ground.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ The remainder of the force -- fully 80 percent of the units or more -- would have suffered rates of less than one percent, which would be consistent with the Time survey.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rumsfeld: You’ve got more facts than I do about this stuff.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

An assertion that U.S. forces did not guard the museum because they were guarding the Ministry of Oil and Ministry of Interior is disputed by investigator Colonel Matthew Bogdanos in his 2005 book, "Thieves of Baghdad." Bogdanos notes that the Ministry of Oil building was bombed, but the museum complex, which took some fire, was not bombed. .He also writes that Saddam Hussein's troops set up sniper's nests inside and on top of the museum, and nevertheless U.S. Marines and soldiers stayed close enough to prevent wholesale looting.^ On 4 April Marines conduct 8 hours of close combat against irregulars in marsh, continues heavy fighting up to Diyala river.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Iraqi soldiers and paramilitaries had set up mortar positions at an old brick factory on the edge of town.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.Early on, U.S. officials reacted defensively to the first, false news reports of 100 percent looting[citation needed].^ A commander of an air defense unit to the east of Baghdad reported 10 percent fatalities: 25 dead out of a unit of 250.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, its defense spending -- official and unofficial -- fell by 85 percent.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to U.S. officials, the "reality of the situation on the ground" was that hospitals, water plants, and ministries with vital intelligence needed security more than other sites.^ And it is easy to find in the broader universe of Baghdad area hospitals surveyed by the newspaper teams many more dead than the Knight-Ridder survey would allow.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some case, when the estimates emanate from higher command or political authorities, they may reflect an information warfare objective more than they do facts on the ground.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In areas more remote from hospitals, however, the problem of undocumented burials may have been worse than in Baghdad.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were only enough U.S. troops on the ground to guard a certain number of the many sites that ideally needed protection, and so, apparently, some "hard choices" were made.^ There was an apparent friendly fire incident on Saturday, when NATO troops opened fire on a police patrol, killing five.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ There are no estimates of how many casualties were associated specifically with collapsed buildings, although the regime reported few deaths from the bombing of its sites.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We accept no more than 180,000 as the number of regular army, Republican Guard, and Special Republican Guard troops who deployed for the war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The FBI was soon called into Iraq to track down the stolen items.^ The discussions on Iraq preceding that, and subsequent to that, had been basically on Operation Northern Watch and Southern Watch and I think I mentioned to you that we had a plan for a downed aircraft called Desert Badger.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

It was found that the initial claims of looting of substantial portions of the collection were heavily exaggerated. .Initial reports claimed a near-total looting of the museum, estimated at upwards of 170,000 inventory lots, or about 501,000 pieces.^ Its total for civilian fatalities during the period covered by our report is approximately 5,450 - 7,100, with a mid-point of about 6,275.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our estimate for total observed and reported Iraqi combatant fatalities for the period 20 March through 20 April is 4,895 - 6,370.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ It is worth repeating that the reported estimates do not represent total Iraqi combatant fatalities for the areas under review.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most recent estimate places the number of stolen pieces at around 15,000, and about 10,000 of them probably were taken in an "inside job" before U.S. troops arrived, according to Bogdanos.^ All told, the Republican Guard plus several stalwart regular divisions probably comprised 85,000 troops.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a field commander who led the operation estimates the number of fatalities as more than 1,000.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ (By comparison, air-delivered munitions numbered about 30,000.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over 5,000 looted items have since been recovered.[134]
.There has been speculation that some objects still missing were not taken by looters during the invasion, but were taken by Saddam Hussein or his entourage before or during the fighting.^ Saddam Hussein wasn't there.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ This was the attack on Dora Farms outside Baghdad where some Iraqi whispered into his phone that Saddam Hussein was visiting his children.
  • Alexander Cockburn: Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now? 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ The 2-7 Infantry secured the Karbala gap on 2 April, killing "some 30 to 50 Iraqi soldiers during the five-hour fight, U.S. officers said."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] There have also been reports that early looters had keys to vaults that held rarer pieces, and some have speculated as to the pre-meditated systematic removal of key artifacts.^ Outsourcing: Danger to Privacy White House Press Secretary Lashes Out at Reporter: "There's a Convention plan puts protesters blocks away (This DEMOCRATIC convention!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.The National Museum of Iraq was only one of many museums and sites of cultural significance that were affected by the war.^ Turning to the second category -- strategic, air supremacy, and "military system" targets: Strategic targets encompass those that directly affect a nation's will or its underlying capacity to wage war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the reduced effort implied by flying only one-third as many fighter and bomber sorties does not imply a commensurate reduction in impact.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparison of OIF and ODS air campaigns One third as many fighter and bomber sorties were flown in OIF as in ODS and only 13 percent as many air-delivered munitions were used.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many in the arts and antiquities communities briefed policy makers before the need to secure Iraqi museums. Despite the looting being lighter than initially feared, the cultural loss of items from ancient Sumer is significant.[citation needed]
.More serious for the post-war state of Iraq was the looting of cached weaponry and ordnance which fueled the subsequent insurgency.^ Subsequently, coalition ground units (with air units in close support) imposed the coalition's war objectives on Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, Britain "created facts" before Iraq war: Blix Bin Laden Deputy Warns of More Attacks on the U.S. (just in time for elections?
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" is a quarterly report to Congress that for the first time states that "some elements of the situation in Iraq are properly descriptive of a 'civil war''".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.As many as 250,000 tons of explosives were unaccounted for by October 2004.[135] Disputes within the US Defense Department led to delays in the post-invasion assessment and protection of Iraqi nuclear facilities.^ The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) released its annual assessment of the safety, performance, and reliability of the US nuclear weapons stockpile.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Led by five tanks, mixed Iraqi forces attempt a counter-attack on US positions at international airport on April 4; 40 Iraqis are killed.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Many of the bombs employed against ground forces were delivered by B-52s, which are known to have dropped 27,000 tons of munitions on these targets.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tuwaitha, the Iraqi site most scrutinized by UN inspectors since 1991, was left unguarded and was looted.[136][137]
Zainab Bahrani, professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, reported that a helicopter landing pad was constructed in the heart of the ancient city of Babylon, and "removed layers of archeological earth from the site. The daily flights of the helicopters rattle the ancient walls and the winds created by their rotors blast sand against the fragile bricks. .When my colleague at the site, Maryam Moussa, and I asked military personnel in charge that the helipad be shut down, the response was that it had to remain open for security reasons, for the safety of the troops."^ Dan Mcdougall,"Troops Secure Baghdad Airport as Frightened Iraqis Seek Safety," The Scotsman, 5 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[138]
Bahrani also reported that in the summer of 2004, "the wall of the Temple of Nabu and the roof of the Temple of Ninmah, both sixth century BC, collapsed as a result of the movement of helicopters."[138] .Electrical power is scarce in post-war Iraq, Bahrani reported, and some fragile artifacts, including the Ottoman Archive, would not survive the loss of refrigeration.^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Murphy and Conetta, eds., Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports (May 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" is a quarterly report to Congress that for the first time states that "some elements of the situation in Iraq are properly descriptive of a 'civil war''".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[138]

Bush declares "End of major combat operations" (May 2003)

The USS Abraham Lincoln returning to port carrying its Mission Accomplished banner
George W. Bush on the Abraham Lincoln wearing a flight suit after landing on the aircraft carrier in a military jet.
Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003
.On May 1, 2003, Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war.^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war 4.1.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bush's landing was criticized by opponents as an unnecessarily theatrical and expensive stunt. Clearly visible in the background was a banner stating "Mission Accomplished." The banner, made by White House staff and supplied by request of the United States Navy,[139] was criticized as premature. .The White House subsequently released a statement that the sign and Bush's visit referred to the initial invasion of Iraq and disputing the claim of theatrics.^ News - China angry as Bush meets Dalai Lama at White House Kelly conspiracy theorists flock online MediaGuardian.co.uk .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ CIA seeks probe of White House Bush Administration Is Focus of Inquiry (washingtonpost.com) Yahoo!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Odai, Qusai Deaths Go Against U.S. Ban Probe called for White House tactics over Iraq intelligence .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

The speech itself noted: "We have difficult work to do in Iraq. We are bringing order to parts of that country that remain dangerous."[140]
Post-invasion Iraq has been marked by violent conflict between U.S.-led soldiers and insurgents. The ongoing resistance in Iraq was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to as the Sunni triangle and Baghdad.[141]
This resistance may be described as guerrilla warfare. .The tactics in use were to include mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, improvised explosive devices (IED's), and handheld antitank grenade-launchers (RPG's), as well as sabotage against the oil infrastructure.^ On Wednesday, the Iraqi army found 1,600 liters of nitric acid in 64 small containers prepared as roadside bombs in Baghdad's northern district of Adhamiya.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ This category covers the effects of direct fire weapons (ranging from small arms to tank main guns), short-range indirect fire weapons (mortars), and combat aircraft and helicopters providing close support for ground troops.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iraqi leadership and armed forces adapted in other ways as well: the Iraqi air force was dispersed and Iraqi air defense units used their radars sparingly or not at all in recognition that they would draw fire.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were also attacks toward the power and water infrastructure.
.There is evidence that some of the resistance was organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.^ There is evidence that in some cities (Basra) bodies disinterred from undocumented graves by volunteers were cycled into the hospital system, where they may have been counted among the hospital dead.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hospitals tended to classify the dead as civilian as long as they had no form of military identification or clothing and there was no other evidence to the contrary.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Some other people there, Mr. Secretary said that the one who is most skeptical of this intelligence was the President interestingly enough.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[142]

Casualties

Death toll

.While estimates on the number of casualties during the invasion in Iraq vary widely, the majority of deaths and injuries have occurred after U.S. President Bush declared the end of "major combat operations" on May 1, 2003.[143] According to CNN, the U.S. government reported that 139 American military personnel were killed before May 1, 2003, while over 4,000 have been killed since 2003.[143] Estimates on civilian casualties are more variable than those for military personnel.^ Murphy and Conetta, eds., Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports (May 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (These could have been civilian combatants or military personnel out of uniform.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a field commander who led the operation estimates the number of fatalities as more than 1,000.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

According to Iraq Body Count, a group that relies on Western press reports to measure civilian casualties, approximately 7,500 civilians were killed during the invasion phase, while more than 60,000 civilians have been killed as of April 2007.[144]
.In November 2006 Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that since the March 2003 invasion between 100,000 and 150,000 Iraqis have been killed.^ The best estimate for postwar health-related deaths is between 60,000 and 100,000, including children and adults.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our own estimate of Iraqi war dead can accommodate between 4,000 and 8,000 deaths in the Shiite community, but probably not more.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Coalition?s invasion of Iraq, he served as his country?s first postwar civilian Minister of Defense, was elected to the Transitional National Assembly as a member of the United Iraqi Alliance, and was appointed Minister of Finance under Dr. Ibrahim al-Jaffari.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[145] .Al-Shemari based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals – such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total.^ If only 20 percent of the dead at Baghdad's civilian hospitals were military personnel (and identified as such), they would have numbered approximately 720.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this, presumably, is an estimate based on interviews with just a partial sample of the city's ambulance drivers and hospital workers.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on these assumptions and estimates our totals for the Baghdad war dead are:     .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146]
.The Lancet surveys of casualties of the Iraq War, conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University, estimates much higher civilian casualties, but does not differentiate between the invasion phase (March-May 2003) and the occupation phase (post May 2003).^ Murphy and Conetta, eds., Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports (May 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also see: Charles J. Hanley, "Questions linger about Hillah battle that left hundreds of civilian casualties," Associated Press, 17 May 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lancet survey estimates that over 650,000 Iraqi civilians have died as a result of the conflict, with the vast majority of these deaths occurring after May 2003.[147] These studies were highly controversial at their time of publication, attracting considerable criticism from predominantly non-scientific sources.^ Deirdre Shesgreen, "Number of casualties may never be known; Logistics, politics prevent true accounting of Iraqi deaths," Seattle Times, 9 April 2003, p.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Niko Price, "AP, in first nationwide tally of Iraqi civilian war deaths, counts at least 3,240," Associated Press, 11 June 2003; Laura King, "Baghdad's Death Toll Assessed; A Times hospital survey finds that at least 1,700 civilians were killed and more than 8,000 injured in Iraq's capital during the war and aftermath," Los Angeles Times, 18 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Time investigation suggests most of the elite Iraqi forces survived the U.S. bombardment," Time Magazine , 12 May 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A September 14, 2007 estimate by ORB (Opinion Research Business), an independent British polling agency, suggests that the total Iraqi violent death toll due to the Iraq War since the US-led invasion is more than 1.2 million (1,220,580).^ This makes plausible a total death toll of 800 or more.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total estimate of Iraqi noncombatant fatalities : .
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total Iraqi noncombatant death toll 4.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although higher than the 2006 Lancet estimate, these results, which were based on a survey of 1499 adults in Iraq from August 12–19, 2007, are reasonably consistent with the figures that were published in the Lancet study.^ Notably, our estimate of civilian fatalities is higher than that published in the AP study.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Appendix 2, which addresses the 1990-1991 Gulf War, we conclude that a reasonable estimate of the Iraqi fatalities resulting from attacks on these targets during that earlier conflict is 3,000 to 6,000 personnel.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some case, when the estimates emanate from higher command or political authorities, they may reflect an information warfare objective more than they do facts on the ground.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[148][149][150][151]
On January 28, 2008, ORB published an update based on additional work carried out in rural areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000 with a given range of 946,000 to 1,120,000.[152]

Iraqi refugees

Iraqis fleeing to neighboring countries.
.Over 4.2 million Iraqis, more than 16% of the Iraqi population, have lost their homes and become refugees since 2003. As of June 21, 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.^ Iraqi Rate of Desertion Desertion rates -- which were higher in the 2003 war than in 1991 -- are a factor that might have helped keep Iraqi personnel attrition to percentages below those registered in 1991.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In absolute terms, US, British, and Iraqi combatant fatalities were substantially fewer in the 2003 war than in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, fighting erupted between the national army and a Hutu rebel group, leading some 10,000 civilians to flee.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[153][154] Roughly 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. All kinds of people, from university professors to bakers, have been targeted by militias, insurgents and criminals. .Approximately 331 school teachers were slain in the first four months of 2006, according to Human Rights Watch, and at least 2,000 Iraqi doctors have been killed and 250 kidnapped since the 2003 U.S. invasion.^ At least 50 Iraqi fighters were killed according to Capt.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Approximately 20 Iraqis were killed."
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ Sixty Iraqis estimated killed on one day by one company of two engaged in effort to clear Karbala, according to Capt.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

[155][156][157]
.The UN reports that although Christians comprise less than 5% of Iraq's population, they make up nearly 40% of the refugees fleeing Iraq.^ In the decade following the Gulf War Iraq's per capita income averaged less than 30 percent of its 1989 level.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although their aggregate data does not distinguish the gender of victims, they do report on their age distribution.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its arms imports declined by more than 95 percent, essentially making it impossible for Iraq to maintain its equipment in good working order, much less to modernize it.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[158][159] .More than 50% of Iraqi Christians have already left the country.^ More than 150 Iraqis killed or injured as 3 rd Infantry Division fights its way north from Karbala.
  • Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey and assessment of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: News]

^ In 2003, America's armed forces had to do much more than dislodge Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Iraqi Freedom involved more than 400 (through 15 April).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[160] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[161] .But as the war has radicalized Islamic sensibilities, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.^ (By comparison, air-delivered munitions numbered about 30,000.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a case where 3,500 total fatalities occur this model would predict about 2,500 male fatalities and 1,000 fatalities among women and young people under the age of 14 years.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coalition put about 2,500 medium and heavy machine guns to work in the Iraq war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[162][163] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidi communities are at the risk of elimination due to ethnic cleansing by Islamic extremists.[164][165] .As many as 110,000 Iraqis could be targeted as collaborators because of their work for coalition forces.^ This could produce an overall personnel loss of between 1.4 and 1.8 percent which, for a force of 120,000, would imply between 1,700 and 2,200 fatalities.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi intelligence services have a global presence including in the U.S., and could strike the U.S., our allies or other deployed forces in unconventional ways.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[166]
.A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.^ Finally, with regard to the strategic and political utility of the methods demonstrated in OIF: we need to accept that it is not yet clear what the United States has achieved in Iraq and at what cost.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These costs weigh on the relationship between the United States and other nations -- especially those in the region -- and they affect the postwar challenge that the United States faces in Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[167]

War Crimes

.After the ambush of the 507th Maintenance Company during the battle of Nasiriyah on March 23, the bodies of several American soldiers who had been killed in the ambush were shown on Iraqi television.^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a "friendly fire" incident US forces killed one Iraqi soldier and injured three.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The predictable result was that Baghdad civilians were killed or injured as American forces and firepower swept through sectors of the city and engaged Iraqi combatants.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these soldiers had visible gunshot wounds to head, leading to speculation that they had been executed.^ Some of these would have been hastily buried near where they died by local citizens or by the US military -- sometimes in "mass" graves.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other hospitals as well would have received some military casualties and dead -- and they would have designated at least some of these dead as "military."
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Except for Sgt. Donald Walters, no evidence has since surfaced to support this scenario and it is generally accepted that the soldiers were killed in action. Five live prisoners of war were also interviewed on the air, a violation of the Geneva Conventions.[168][169]
.Sergeant Donald Walters was initially reported to have been killed in the March 23 ambush of the 507th Maintenance Company after killing several Fedayeen before running out of ammunition.^ NPA has admitted responsibility for the La Libertad ambush that killed a village chief and six other people on 9 March.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.However, an eyewitness later reported that he had seen Walters being guarded by several Fedayeen in front of a building.^ However, several hospitals other than the three near the airport were reported during the war to have been overwhelmed with casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forensics work later found Walters' blood in front of the building and blood spatter suggesting he died from two gunshot wounds to the back at close range. This led the Army to conclude that Walters had been executed after being captured, and he was posthumously awarded the Prisoner of War Medal in 2004.[170][171]
It was alleged in the authorized biography of Pfc. Jessica Lynch that she was raped by her captors after her capture as part of the 507th Maintenance Company, based on medical reports and the pattern of her injuries, though this is not supported by Ms Lynch.[172] .Mohammed Odeh al-Rehaief, who later helped American forces rescue Lynch, stated that he saw an Iraqi Colonel slap Lynch while she was in her hospital bed.^ The predictable result was that Baghdad civilians were killed or injured as American forces and firepower swept through sectors of the city and engaged Iraqi combatants.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[173] The staff at the hospital where Lynch was held later denied both stories, saying that Lynch was well cared for.[174] While Lynch suffers from amnesia due to her injuries, Lynch herself has denied any mistreatment whilst in captivity.
.Also on March 23, a British Army engineering unit made a wrong turn near the town of Az Zubayr, which was still held by Iraqi forces.^ The post-war testimony of Iraqi officers and the experience of coalition forces suggest an Iraqi field force of distinctly under strength units.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, for several reasons: First, the advance of coalition ground units decisively and comprehensively challenged Iraqi forces in ways that air power alone never could.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air power marched to Baghdad ahead of ground power and it rolled over Iraqi army units before coalition ground forces attempted to engage them decisively.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The unit was ambushed and Sapper Luke Allsopp and Staff Sergeant Simon Cullingworth became separated from the rest. Both were captured and executed by Iraqi irregular forces. .In 2006, a video of Allsopp lying on the ground surrounded by Iraqi irregular forces was discovered.^ In neither campaign were aerial attacks on Iraqi ground forces evenly distributed across the full duration of the campaign.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, for several reasons: First, the advance of coalition ground units decisively and comprehensively challenged Iraqi forces in ways that air power alone never could.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors conclude that "most of these uncategorized strikes were A-10, F/A-18, or A/V-8 sorties that, in all likelihood, were targeted against Iraqi ground forces" (Figure 12, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175]
.Marine Sergeant Fernando Padilla-Ramirez was reported missing from his supply unit after an ambush north of Nasiriyah on March 28. His body was later dragged through the streets of Ash-Shatrah and hung in the town square.^ "More than 100 Iraqi bodies litter road out of Nasiriyah," AFX European Focus, 25 March 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His body was later taken down and buried by sympathetic locals. His body was discovered by American forces on April 10.[176][177][178]
.During the Battle of Nasiriyah, there was an incident where Iraqi irregulars feigned surrender to approach an American Marine unit securing a bridge.^ M.E. Sprengelmeyer, "101st Airborne Unit Attempts to Break down Security Zone Iraqis Have Put up in Hillah," Rocky Mountain News, 9 April 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After getting close to the Marines, the Iraqis suddenly opened fire, killing 10 Marines and wounding 40.[179] Word of this quickly spread through the ranks, and American forces reinforced security procedures for dealing with prisoners of war.^ The portion of war fatalities that were civilian noncombatants may have been twice as great in OIF as in ODS: almost 30 percent in OIF versus almost 15 percent in Desert Storm;   In accord with this, the total number of Iraqi civilian noncombatants killed in OIF was remarkably close to the number killed in ODS and may have exceeded it.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that between 10,800 and 15,100 Iraqis were killed in the war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a "friendly fire" incident US forces killed one Iraqi soldier and injured three.
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[180]
.On March 30, soldiers from the British Royal Scots Dragoon Guards reported that they had observed Fedayeen fighters using children as human shields in the village of Kuj Al Mum.^ Together they imply that approximately 30 percent of the Iraqi fatalities observed and reported by field personnel and journalists were the result of artillery fire and air interdiction operations.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government soldiers report they found fourteen bodies of suspected Tamil Tigers.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ California fire fighters are used to fires associated with hot summer weather, but during the driest year on record they now face a yearlong fire season.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.On March 31, Iraqi Republican Guard units were reported to be using women as human shields outside of Hindiyah.^ By early April -- after barely two weeks of combat -- [Combined air component commander Lt. General Michael Moseley] was able to report, "The preponderance of the Republican Guard divisions that were outside of Baghdad are now dead."
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some accounts of US aerial bombardment of Iraqi ground units see:   "Intensive US bombing targets Republican Guard: general," Agence France Presse, 31 March 2003; Peter Baker and Rajiv Chandrasekaran, "Iraqi Militia, Elite Forces Roll South Into Fierce Attack by US Warplanes," Washington Post, 27 March 2003, p.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the battle of Khafji, USMC units and units of the Saudi National Guard engaged an Iraqi battalion-sized unit in the city itself.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[179] .Many other incidents of Fedayeen fighters using human shields were reported from various towns in Iraq.^ Bodycount sought to integrate hospital and other fatality surveys with numerous press reports of individual casualty incidents.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the supplementary compilations used in this report is one published by PDA: Civilian Casualties in the 2003 Iraq War: A Compendium of Accounts and Reports (Commonwealth Institute, May 2003).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparison of OIF and ODS air campaigns One third as many fighter and bomber sorties were flown in OIF as in ODS and only 13 percent as many air-delivered munitions were used.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[181]
.Some reports indicate that the Fedayeen used ambulances to deliver messages and transport fighters into combat.^ In our review of this data we assumed that some proportion of the observed and reported Iraqi "combatant" fatalities were actually noncombatant fatalities.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparison of OIF and ODS air campaigns One third as many fighter and bomber sorties were flown in OIF as in ODS and only 13 percent as many air-delivered munitions were used.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a matter of fact, some civilians -- such as security personnel, Fedayeen, Baath Party activists, and police -- also acted as combatants.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On March 31, Fedayeen forces in a Red Crescent marked ambulance attacked American soldiers outside of Nasiriyah, wounding 3.[179][182]
.During the Battle of Basra, British forces of the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) reported that on March 28, Fedayeen forces opened fire on thousands of civilian refugees fleeing the city, wounding several people.^ A portion of the civilian fatalities were families fleeing the city, who unfortunately collided with the allied advance.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British officials discovered that ten Iraqis detained in Basra switched places with visitors over the course of several days, allowing their escape.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ According to one journalist's report, the total for the city up until 1 April was 73 civilian deaths.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183][184]
.Fedayeen and Republican Guard forces were reported to have executed Iraqi soldiers who tried to surrender on multiple occasions, as well as threatening the families of those who refused to fight.^ Rumsfeld: I’m trying to think who it was -- neither of them go to those meetings.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ We assume that there were another 60,000 Iraqi troops in the field who played little role in the fighting and drew relatively little coalition fire.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Rights Watch reports that Sri Lankan government and military officials are threatening to cut aid and withdraw security for displaced persons who refuse to return.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[185][186][187] One such incident was directly observed during the Battle of Debecka Pass.[188]

Media coverage

U.S. media coverage

.The U.S. invasion of Iraq was the most widely and closely reported war in military history.^ The estimation of nation-wide combatant casualties comprises three data reviews: The first draws on field observations and casualty estimates by US military personnel and embedded reporters.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" is a quarterly report to Congress that for the first time states that "some elements of the situation in Iraq are properly descriptive of a 'civil war''".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ The impact of the 1991 war and subsequent sanctions on Iraq's military was even greater -- leaving it less than 30 percent as strong in 2003 as in 1990.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[189] .Television network coverage was largely pro-war and viewers were six times more likely to see a pro-war source as one who was anti-war.^ It has been relatively late in the game I think that we have starting getting copies of Presidential speeches in enough time that one – there’s two kinds of seeing something in advance.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ The remainder of the force -- fully 80 percent of the units or more -- would have suffered rates of less than one percent, which would be consistent with the Time survey.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, Britain "created facts" before Iraq war: Blix Bin Laden Deputy Warns of More Attacks on the U.S. (just in time for elections?
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

[190] .The New York Times ran a number of articles describing Saddam Hussein's attempts to build weapons of mass destruction.^ John Kifner and Ian Fisher, "US Marines leave Baghdad," New York Times, 20 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Craig S. Smith, "Basra falls though fighting persists," New York Times, 8 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally they include a nation's capacity to develop and employ strategic weapons -- that is: weapons of mass destruction.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The September 8, 2002 article titled "U.S. Says Hussein Intensifies Quest for A-Bomb Parts" would be discredited, leading the New York Times to issue a public statement admitting it was not as rigorous as it should have been.^ John Kifner and Ian Fisher, "US Marines leave Baghdad," New York Times, 20 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 26, 2002 21:07:41 CBS News .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ Craig S. Smith, "Basra falls though fighting persists," New York Times, 8 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191]
.At the start of the war in March 2003, as many as 775 reporters and photographers were traveling as embedded journalists.^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survey of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 War Appendix 2.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Remember March 19 th when the war started and you and Director Tenet went over to the White House with that Intelligence about the bunker?
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[192] .These reporters signed contracts with the military that limited what they were allowed to report on.^ Some of these would have been hastily buried near where they died by local citizens or by the US military -- sometimes in "mass" graves.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sources for these estimates are approximately 160 press reports containing numerical estimates of Iraqi combatant fatalities made by military personnel and embedded reporters.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other hospitals as well would have received some military casualties and dead -- and they would have designated at least some of these dead as "military."
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[193] When asked why the military decided to embed journalists with the troops, Lt. Col. Rick Long of the U.S. Marine Corps replied, “Frankly, our job is to win the war. Part of that is information warfare. So we are going to attempt to dominate the information environment.”[194]
.A September 2003 poll revealed that seventy percent of Americans believed there was a link between Saddam Hussein and the attacks of 9/11.[195] 80% of Fox News viewers were found to hold at least one such belief about the invasion, compared to 23% of PBS viewers.^ Saddam Hussein profile BBC NEWS .
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^ January 29, 2002 Attack on the United States DoD News: Assistant Secretary Clarke Interview with WBZ Boston September 11 News.com - Mysteries - Early Signs & Predictions of the 9-11-2001 Attack on America.
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^ International Security News VHeadline.com - Venezuela Evidence of CIA plot to murder Chavez The Australian: Taliban holds anti-US pow-wow [September 22, 2003] Yahoo!
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

[196] Ted Turner, founder of CNN, claimed that Rupert Murdoch was using Fox News to advocate an invasion.[197] .Critics have argued that this statistic is indicative of misleading coverage by the U.S. media since viewers in other countries were less likely to have these beliefs.^ At least some other European countries are likely to follow.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

[198] A post-2008 election poll by FactCheck.org found that 48% of Americans believe Hussein played a role in the 9/11 attacks, the group concluded that "voters, once deceived, tend to stay that way despite all evidence."[199]

Independent media coverage

Independent media also played a prominent role in covering the invasion. .The Indymedia network, among many other independent networks including many journalists from the invading countries, provided reports in a way difficult to control by any government, corporation or political party.^ Get more details on all nine fraud categories in Appendix I of the report, including identity theft, investment fraud, cyberstalking, phishing, spoofing, spamming, and others.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Other major air attacks included the 29 March bombardment of a meeting of 200 Hussein supporters in Basra and a reported 4-5 April attack on Arab volunteer camps outside Kut, which was said to claim as many as another 600.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi intelligence services have a global presence including in the U.S., and could strike the U.S., our allies or other deployed forces in unconventional ways.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States Democracy Now, hosted by Amy Goodman has been critical of the reasons for the 2003 invasion and the alleged crimes committed by the U.S. authorities in Iraq.^ Finally, with regard to the strategic and political utility of the methods demonstrated in OIF: we need to accept that it is not yet clear what the United States has achieved in Iraq and at what cost.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These costs weigh on the relationship between the United States and other nations -- especially those in the region -- and they affect the postwar challenge that the United States faces in Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a serious breach of national security, Plame's identity was revealed in 2003 to discredit her husband for criticizing the Iraq war.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

On the other side, among media not opposing to the invasion, The Economist stated in an article on the matter that "the normal diplomatic tools—sanctions, persuasion, pressure, UN resolutions—have all been tried, during 12 deadly but failed years" then giving a mild conditional support to the war stating that "if Mr Hussein refuses to disarm, it would be right to go to war".[200]
Australian war artist George Gittoes collected independent interviews with soldiers while producing his documentary Soundtrack To War. .The war in Iraq provided the first time in history that military on the front lines were able to provide direct, uncensored reportage themselves, thanks to blogging software and the reach of the internet.^ The conclusions were that the Iraqi military was at a lower level of capability at that time than it was in the Gulf War.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Seldom in history has a conflict been so closely scrutinized on the ground while it occurred as was the 2003 Iraq war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (More specifically, we estimate that there were between 20,000 and 26,000 Iraqi military fatalities in the first Gulf War.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dozens of such reporting sites, known as soldier blogs or milblogs, were started during the war.^ However, several hospitals other than the three near the airport were reported during the war to have been overwhelmed with casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These blogs were more often than not largely pro-war and stated various reasons why the soldiers and Marines felt they were doing the right thing.^ A person who has not invested the same amount of time and developed the same amount of conviction about what it is they’re doing, why they’re doing it and why that’s right tends to be uncomfortable with the decisions and can be blown off the wind – blown by the wind -- and change their mind and be worried and anguished.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ Our estimate of between 200 and 300 noncombatant dead allows that there might have been more than 800 total war dead in the Nasiriyah area.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My impression personally is that in retrospect it was the right thing to go and the advantages were in large measure achieved and the disadvantages were for the most part avoided.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[201]

International media coverage

International coverage of the war differed from coverage in the U.S. in a number of ways. .The Arab-language news channel Al Jazeera and the German Satellite channel Deutsche Welle featured almost twice as much information on the political background of the war.^ HoustonChronicle.com - Coalition runs into guerrilla tactics Subject: English Al Jazeera Site Hacked Wired News: English Al-Jazeera Website Hacked Al Bawaba - Middle East News and Information (Cheney lesbian daughter human shield?
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^ News - Iraq War Swells Al Qaeda's Ranks, Report Says (surprising?
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^ War, Politics, Culture :: NextDraft News .
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[202] Al Jazeera also showed scenes of civilian casualties which were rarely seen in the U.S.

Criticisms

Opponents of military intervention in Iraq have attacked the decision to invade Iraq along a number of lines, including calling into question the evidence used to justify the war, arguing for continued diplomacy, challenging the war’s legality, suggesting that the U.S. had other more pressing security priorities, (i.e. Afghanistan and North Korea) and predicting that the war would destabilize the Middle East region. .The breadth and depth of the criticism was particularly notable in comparison with the first Gulf War, which met with considerably less domestic and international opposition, although the geopolitical situation had evolved since the last decade.^ In the decade following the Gulf War Iraq's per capita income averaged less than 30 percent of its 1989 level.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq" is a quarterly report to Congress that for the first time states that "some elements of the situation in Iraq are properly descriptive of a 'civil war''".
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ This steep decline in Iraqi power partly reflected the effects of the first Gulf War and partly the effects of the sanctions that followed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others criticize the war in Iraq, actually invoking the word "terrorism" in an attempt to parallel the perceived violences in the US (9/11) to what Iraqis experienced daily during 2003 and thereafter.^ However, several hospitals other than the three near the airport were reported during the war to have been overwhelmed with casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US, Britain "created facts" before Iraq war: Blix Bin Laden Deputy Warns of More Attacks on the U.S. (just in time for elections?
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

.Particular to many criticisms is the perceived colonial impetus to erase certain histories while imposing others, perhaps best demonstrated by the US led coalition's destruction of every mural and statue of Saddam Hussein to the October 2003 installation of the new dinar, erasing the face of Saddam Hussein and putting on the new currency Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham, 10th century mathematician and scientist.^ Patrick Peterson, "Many civilians believed to be among dead in battle at Nasiriyah," Knight Ridder News Service, 26 March 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Kifner and Ian Fisher, "US Marines leave Baghdad," New York Times, 20 April 2003.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi fatalities in 2003 were perhaps only 37 percent as numerous; US and British fatalities, 48 percent as numerous.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[203]

Rationale based on faulty evidence

.The central U.S. justification for launching the Iraq War was that Saddam Hussein's alleged development of nuclear and biological weapons and purported ties to al-Qaeda made his regime a "grave and growing"[204] threat to the United States and the world community.^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Finally, with regard to the strategic and political utility of the methods demonstrated in OIF: we need to accept that it is not yet clear what the United States has achieved in Iraq and at what cost.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, coalition ground units (with air units in close support) imposed the coalition's war objectives on Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[205] .During the lead-up to the war and the aftermath of the invasion, critics cast doubt on the evidence supporting this rationale.^ Nor will the new warfare capabilities lead to an era of reduced conflict deaths if their promise serves as a rationale to wage more wars.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that between 10,800 and 15,100 Iraqis were killed in the war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the personnel strength of the Iraqi military was often cited to be in excess of 400,000 prior to the war, scant evidence has been offered to support this figure.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Concerning Iraq’s weapons programs, prominent critics included Scott Ritter, a former U.N. weapons inspector who argued in 2002 that inspections had eliminated the nuclear and chemical weapons programs, and that evidence of their reconstitution would “have been eminently detectable by intelligence services ….” Although it is popularly believed that Saddam Hussein had forced the IAEA weapons inspectors to leave Iraq, they were in fact withdrawn at the request of US Ambassador Peter Burleigh in advance of Operation Desert Fox, the 1998 American bombing campaign.^ In a Sky News interview former UN chief weapons inspector Hans Blix said UK Prime Minister Blair of Britain had deliberately embellished the case for invading Iraq, by changing question marks to exclamation marks.
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^ Italian immigration sweeps after 9/11 led to the wrongful arrest of 15 people accused of plotting to attack the US embassy with chemical weapons.
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^ Responding to the emergence of a claimed new cure for AIDS in the Gambia, the joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS and WHO issued a call for 'evidence-based' responses to the disease.
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After the build-up of U.S. troops in neighboring states, Hussein welcomed them back and promised complete cooperation with their demands. .Experienced IAEA inspection teams were already back in Iraq and had made some interim reports on its search for various forms of WMD.[206][207][208][209][210] Joseph C. Wilson, an American diplomat investigated claims that Iraq had sought uranium for nuclear weapons in Niger and reported that they had no substance.^ Hospitals tended to classify the dead as civilian as long as they had no form of military identification or clothing and there was no other evidence to the contrary.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News - Bremer contradicts Blair on mass destruction weapons in Iraq Blair's WMD claim dismissed by America's Baghdad chief The Observer .
  • 911 Bookmarks Volume 01 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC graham.main.nc.us [Source type: News]

^ (Much higher estimates for 1992-1998 sanction deaths are made by some, but these are based on faulty baseline statistics for prewar childhood mortality in Iraq).
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[211][212]
.Similarly, alleged links between Iraq and al-Qaeda were called into question during the lead up to the war, and were discredited by an October 21, 2004 report from U.S. Senator Carl Levin, which was later corroborated by an April 2006 report from the Defense Department’s inspector general.^ However, several hospitals other than the three near the airport were reported during the war to have been overwhelmed with casualties.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ During the Gulf War approximately 35-40 percent of Iraq's combat power was destroyed.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[213] .These reports further alleged that Bush Administration officials, particularly former undersecretary of defense Douglas J. Feith, manipulated evidence to support links between al-Qaeda and Iraq.^ Jordan's military court has sentenced four Iraqi al-Qaeda militants to death for attacking Jordanians in Iraq.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/031807.html 25 September 2009 10:33 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ Bush orders administration officials to `stop the leaks' (A joke - or what?
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^ And then on the 5 th a timeline again of March and then on the 12 th – correction that was February and on February 12 th military response to suspect al-Qaeda facility in Iraq.
  • DefenseLink News Transcript: Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.defenselink.mil [Source type: Original source]

[214]

Lack of a U.N. mandate

.One of the main questions in the lead-up to the war was whether the United Nations Security Council would authorize military intervention in Iraq.^ Turning to the second category -- strategic, air supremacy, and "military system" targets: Strategic targets encompass those that directly affect a nation's will or its underlying capacity to wage war.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, coalition ground units (with air units in close support) imposed the coalition's war objectives on Iraq.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether the war's death toll registers at the upper or lower end of this range, its repercussions would be about the same.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When it became increasingly clear that U.N. authorization would require significant further weapons inspections, and that the U.S. and the UK planned to invade Iraq regardless, many criticized their effort as unwise, immoral, and illegal.^ Of course, a truer measure of intensity would look at effects on the ground -- specifically, lethality -- and this would require taking the proportion of precision and guided weapons into account.
  • The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict. PDA Research Monograph 8, 20 October 2003. Carl Conetta 20 November 2009 6:21 UTC www.comw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blix criticises UK's Iraq dossier Yahoo!
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^ It urged the UK to remedy these shortcomings as quickly as possible and decided to conduct a further examination of the UK?s efforts to fight bribery.
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.Robin Cook, then the leader of the British House of Commons and a former foreign secretary, resigned from Tony Blair's cabinet in protest over the UK’s decision to invade without the authorization of a U.N. resolution.^ He is also the father of former Foreign Minister Maria Consuelo Araujo, who resigned in Februa