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Police observing crowds prior to confrontations

The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of racially motivated riots and mob violence originating in Cronulla, New South Wales and spreading, over the next few nights, to additional Sydney suburbs.

On December 4, 2005 a group of volunteer surf life savers were assaulted, with several other violent assaults occurring over the next week. These incidents were widely reported and commented on in Sydney media. At midday on 11 December 2005 approximately 5,000 people gathered at Cronulla beach to protest against a recent spate of violence against locals. The large crowd initially assembled without incident however, fuelled by alcohol, the crowd turned to violence when a young man of “Middle Eastern appearance”[1] was spotted on the beach. He was surrounded by the crowd outside a local hotel and attacked. Retaliatory riots were took place that night, and on subsequent nights, resulting in extensive property damage and several more assaults including one stabbing and two ambulance officers being injured by thrown beer bottles.

The attacks were widely condemned by local, state and federal political members, police, local community leaders and locals of Cronulla and adjacent areas. A large number of arrests were made over the subsequent months, from both the initial riot on 11 December and the retaliatory riots held over the subsequent nights. The incidents badly damaged Australia’s international image, with several countries issuing travel warnings, and a lack of confidence about the capability of police to handle incidents of this magnitude.

Contents

Lead up to the Riots

On Sunday, 4 December 2005,[1][2] police were called to North Cronulla Beach following an assault on two volunteer surf lifesavers by a group of “up to 20 men”.[1][2][3][4] The surf lifesavers sustained lacerations,[2] bruising[2] and several blows to the head[2] and were taken to a nearby hospital.[2]

A local teacher reported that on 7 December at 16:15[5] a “group of [25-30] Lebanese [men]”[5] had surround a man in his forties at the Cronulla beach car park and “punched him in the head from behind”[5] and when he defended himself they swarmed him and kicked him,[5] with a stranger who tried to assist him being attacked.[5] The local teacher attempted to report the incident to police but police “told everyone to go home”.[5] Another witness, Warwick Kent, corroborated the events and added “they were screaming ‘We own this country’”.[5] Additionally, even before the recent events, people, particularly women,[5] claimed to have been harassed, almost daily, by “groups of young Lebanese men”[5] describing the women as being “Aussie sluts”.[5]

What kind of grubs? Well I’ll tell you what kind of grubs this lot were. This lot were middle eastern grubs.

Alan Jones, 5 December 2005, on 2GB radio[6]

The events were reported widely across the Sydney media and, particularly on talkback radio[7] Alan Jones of Sydney’s 2GB Radio called for “a rally, a street march, call it what you will. A community show of force.”[7] calling the people responsible for the attack on the lifesavers “Middle Eastern grubs.”[8] When a listener, Berta, commented that she had heard “really derogatory remarks”[7] aimed at Middle Eastern people Jones interrupted stating “We don't have Anglo-Saxon kids out there raping women in western Sydney.”[7] Jones was later found to have breached the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) Code of Conduct section 1.3(a), as his comments were “likely to encourage violence or brutality and to vilify people of Lebanese and Middle-Eastern backgrounds on the basis of ethnicity”.[8]

Riots

Crowds gathered at North Cronulla amid Australian flags and anti-Lebanese fanfare.

Over the course of Sunday, 11 December 2005, approximately 5000[1][3][9] people gathered in and around North Cronulla Beach. Early in the morning people began to gather and impromptu barbecues and “partying”[1] took place,[9] however at or around midday a young man of “Middle Eastern appearance”[1] was spotted on the beach and the crowds began “chanting stuff [and] yelling out things”[1] before rushing him.[1][9] The man attempt to avoid the crowd by quickly entering Northies (a local pub) but the crowd forcibly dragged him out and attacked him,[1] but the police, having been in Cronulla (including helicopters and patrol boats[1]) since the early morning,[1] quickly resolved the situation.[1][3][9] A local teacher reported that the man had shouted “I’m going to blow youse all up”.[5]

This Sunday every Fucking Aussie in the shire, get down to North Cronulla to help support Leb and wog bashing day...Bring your mates down and let’s show them this is our beach and they’re never welcome back

—Widely circulated SMS believed to have instigated the gathering at Cronulla.[1][10]

At approximately 14:00 another two boys (from Bangladesh[1]) were targeted by the crowd,[1] with the crowd repeatedly chanting “Fuck off Lebs!”,[1] with the boys subsequently being able to escape by car.[1] Chants and slogans such as “Fuck off Lebs!”,[1] “We grew here, you flew here”,[10] “Aussie Pride”,[10] “Fuck off wogs!”,[1] were repeated throughout the day by the crowd. The crowd also attacked the police by throwing beer bottles.[1][3] Police vehicles were also swarmed and prevented from entering the area.[3]

Rumours had persisted throughout the day that an additional 600 people[1] would arrive by train, mostly from the west of Cronulla, to join the crowds.[1] At approximately 15:00 “two young men of Middle Eastern appearance”[1] also arrived at Cronulla train station[1] the crowd outside chanting “Fuck off wogs!”.[1]

By the end of the day 26 people were treated for injuries[1] with at least two of the injured requiring hospital treatment.[3] A total of 16 were arrested,[1][2] and charged with 42 offences[2] including; malicious damage,[2] assaulting a police officer,[2][3] affray,[2] offensive conduct,[2][3] resisting arrest[2] and numerous driving offences.[2] One police officer was hit by a car[2] and two ambulance officers were also amongst the injured[1] as their ambulance, under police escort,[3] was surrounded and beer bottles were thrown,[3][4] with one of the officers being hit on the head with a bottle and the other receiving lacerations on their arm.[3]

Crowds with police and ambulance in background

Evening retaliation

At some point during the night around 100[1] locals of nearby Punchbowl, New South Wales (a suburb to Cronulla’s north–west) gathered together at the local Punchbowl Park.[1] At approximately 21:00 the locals formed a convoy of “more than 40 cars”[1][11] and drove down to the beaches “to get revenge”[1] with many of the cars ending up in Maroubra.[1] At 22:45 police were ordered “not to approach convoys of men of Middle Eastern appearance”[12] however car details and registration details were to be recorded.[12] A local of Maroubra reported that each of the cars that arrived was “full, you know had four passengers”[1] The convoy, of up to 200 people,[11][13] was armed with bars and bats[1][11][14] knives, machetes and guns,[11] assaulting several people,[1][11] knocking one unconscious[13] and threatening another with rape,[13] and damaging between 60[1] and 100[14] cars, setting at least one on fire.[1] As police moved to contain the violence police in riot gear were deployed[14][15] and the crowds responded by throwing bricks and glass.[14] Residents reported that in some streets “every car”[16] had had their windows smashed, with glass covering the streets.[16] Police also confiscated 40 iron bars.[17]

Attacks

A 26–year–old mechanic[18] dubbed “Dan”[19] was stabbed in the back three times[18] and twice in the thigh[18] with a 9.8 centimetre blade[18] at approximately 22:25.[14] The incident occurred outside Woolooware golf club[14][15][18] when two cars[14] carrying a group of males “described as being of Mediterranean or Middle Eastern appearance”[14][15] approached the man and his friends. Dan and his friends attempted to flee from the group who were shouting “Get the Aussie dogs ... get the Aussie sluts”,[19] but Dan decided to confront the group.[18] Dan was knocked to the ground and was repeatedly kicked in the head.[18] He was taken to hospital in a serious condition.[14][15] The blade had narrowly missed his spine and lungs.[18]

Jake Schofield was attacked by a group of four men of “Middle Eastern appearance”,[20] the men beat Schofield repeatedly; stomping on his head,[20] stabbing him twice[20] and hitting him with a piece of concrete[20] before stealing his wallet and keys.[20] The attack left him with a fractured eye socket[20] and fractured nose.[20]

Aftermath

Additional (though smaller) riots were also held on the following nights in the suburbs of Marouba and Brighton-le-Sands as well Cronulla.[21] Similar text messages had also turned up in other states including Queensland,[22] Victoria[22] and Western Australia.[22]

On December 12 rioters had written various Anti-Australian sentiments including; “Aussi [sic] to Die”,[11]Intifada”,[11] “It’s war”,[11] “Sunday cowards die, Soldiers rize [sic]”,[11] “Never rest assie [sic] dog”,[11] “Yous came by chains u convict dogs”,[11] and “We fear no ozy [sic] pigs” [11] before continuing destroying cars[11][23] and local shops.[23] Approximately 2000 people[24] gathered inside Lakemba Mosque with another 800[24] gathered outside the evening after the riot.[24] Sheikh Shady Suleiman spoke to the crowd and called for calm.[24] However some were armed with Glock pistols[13] which they displayed to the media.[13] At least some of the people gathered were reported to have planned to go onto Maroubra,[23] however the police blocked roads leading into Maroubra[23] and 20 police cars surrounded the mosque.[23] Uniting Church in Auburn,[22] a predominately Tongan congregation,[22] was burned[22] and those attending christmas carols were abused and threatened.[11] More than 30 Molotov cocktails were also confiscated by police.[2]

800 police officers[11] formed Operation Seta[2] and were on patrol on the following nights, with up to 450 police officers[25][26] blockading Cronulla on the night of Tuesday 13 December[25] and an additional 11 people were arrested;[2] five were arrested in relation to a replica pistol[2] and six were arrested for property damage.[2] An additional seven people were injured[2] including another police officer.[2] A husband and wife were taken to hospital after the wife was struck in the head[2] and the husband tried to defend her.[2] Another man was struck by a baseball bat and suffered a fractured forearm.[2]

Criminal Prosecutions

Ali Osman,[27][28] 18, was charged with affray[27] and assault occasioning actual bodily harm[27] for the original attacks on the volunteer lifesavers on 4 December 2005[27][28] and was given 300 hours of community service for the assault[28] and 200 hours for affray[28] though they would be served concurrently.[29] Osman was the only person charged over the attack.[30] Yahya Jamal Serhan was arrested over the stabbing of “Dan” on December 12 and charged with affray and maliciously inflicting grievous bodily harm[19] and was sentenced to 13 months jail[31] but was immediately released[31] after having already spent nine months in custody awaiting trial.[31] Dan was angered and disappointed by the sentence “I’ve got no feeling on the left hand side of my back where the knife broke off.”[31] A second person, a 17–year–old, was also questioned by police.[32]

Marcus Kapitza,[33] 28, was jailed for 12 months[33] after pleading guilty to one charge of riot,[33] on the day of the riot Kapitza wore a singlet with the words “Mohammed was a camel-rapping faggot.”[33] He was also involved in the attack at the train station shouting “Fuck off! Fuck off the Lebs.”[33] Brent Lohman,[34] 19, was also charged over the train station assault[34] was sentenced to 11 months in jail.[34]

Two of the youths who attacked Jake Schofield turned themselves into police[20] and where charged with; armed robbery,[20] wounding,[20] malicious wounding with intent,[20] affray[20] and assault occasioning actual bodily harm.[20] Two others, Wael Tahan and Mahmoud Eid,[35] had been arrested on the night of the attack but were released without charge before being rearrested and charged with; Robbery in company,[35] malicious wounding causing grievous bodily harm[35] and affray.[35]

Brett Andrew King appeared in court in January 2006[20] charged with sending two text messages 42 times[20] for a retaliatory riot on Sunday 18 December 2005.[20] Jeffrey Ismail[36] was also charged with sending two text messages[36] under the pseudonym of John Gotti.[36] A Lebanese immigrant[11] was arrested and jailed for three months[11] for burning an Australian flag[11] at the Brighton-le-Sands RSL club.[11]

Strike Force Enoggera

Strike Force Enoggera was established on 13 December 2005[2][37] was tasked with investigating the riots.[32][37] Superintendent The strike force was initially consisted of 28 members under the command of Dennis Bray,[38] but was later increased to 100 officers on 20 January 2006.[38] During a radio interview NSW Police Commissioner Moroney claimed to have no video footage of the retaliatory attacks on 11 December,[38] however it was later revealed that the police had had a video for five weeks,[38] leading Moroney to sack Bray.[38] He was later reinstated to a lesser role[39] and replaced with Detective Superintendent Ken Mckay.[39]

By July 19 2006[40] police had laid 285 charges against 104 people,[32] 51 having been arrested as a result of the original Cronulla riot[40] and 53 arrested from the retaliation riots.[40] These persons had been charged with, amongst other things: malicious damage,[41] possession or use of a prohibited weapon,[40] assaulting police,[41] rioting,[40] resisting arrest,[41] threatening violence[40] and affray.[40]

Responses

Media and community responses

We knew always there was racism, but we never knew it was to this extent. I mean, all your life you've been - you've been raised to be Australian. I mean, you carry the Australian flag. When you go to sports events and all that, you're happy to be Australian and all that. And all of sudden people reject you. “Go home!” They shout your names. Like, “Go home, you Middle Eastern Lebs,” or whatever. “Go home.” I mean, that's a shock to us. “Go home.” I mean, like, you get cut inside your heart, you know. Like you feel like you're not part of society no more.

—Eiad Diyab, a local of Punchbowl, talking to Four Corners.[1]

Brian Wilshire, a 2GB radio host, stated the following weekend on air: “Many of them have parents who are first cousins whose parents are first cousins, the result of this inbreeding—the result of which is uneducationable [sic] people ... and very low IQ.”[42] comments he later apologized for.[42]

An anti-racism rally held in Bourke street, Melbourne,[42] and was attended by 2000 people.[42] An SMS stating “Non-violent protest against racist attacks Friday 16th 5pm Bourke St Mall. Spread this like wildfire.”[43] was circulated.

Speaking to PM (ABC Radio) a 33–year–old local, Scott, said that “Multiculturalism just hasn’t worked. You’ve just got to admit it. That’s what the whole thing’s all about. It just doesn’t work — Muslims and Christians, you know. It’s happened in France. It’s happened in Canada. It’s happened everywhere. Why do we think it’s not going to happen here?”[44] But that he and others understood that it was not a problem with Muslims, or the Lebanese, but a problem with a few individuals.[44] Another local “Russel”[44] also supported the claim stating that the incident was “90–per cent alcohol and 10–per cent racism.”[44]

Writing a year after the riots Hsu-Ming Teo, a novelist, was worried that Australian multiculturalism was being eroded.[10] Stating that multiculturalism was one of Australia’s defining features that allowed it to broker differences with its geographical neighbours[10] and that it was almost unique in its ethnic and cultural origins.[10] But suggested that in recent years multiculturalism had begun to be derided with politicians calling for one homogeneous non-divisible Australian culture citing, amongst others, the “popularity and success”[10] of Pauline Hanson.[10]

Government Responses

The New South Wales parliament convened on December 15 to pass laws giving police new powers[11][21][45] including: the ability to seize cars and mobile phones for up to seven days;[26][45] close licensed premises[26][45] and prohibit bringing alcohol into lock–down zones.[26][45] A new offence of “assault during a public disorder” was also introduced[26] and both rioting and affray had their minimum sentences increased.[26][45] NSW Premier Morris Iemma called the attacks “disgusting, cowardly behaviour”[46] and condemned the rioters. He also called on the community leaders to use “their influence to get the hot heads to cool it.”[46]

NSW Police Commissioner Ken Moroney called the riots “absolutely totally un-Australian”[3][4][9] and that “I saw, in my 40 years of police service, some of the most disgraceful behaviour and conduct by adults that I’d ever seen.”[47] NSW Opposition leader Peter Debnam called it “a real disgrace” and called for a tougher police response.[3] Australian Prime Minister John Howard condemned the violence describing it as “sickening and deplorable”[41] but denied any racial undertones[41][45] saying the events were primarily an issue of law and order[45] “The Sydney riots were an example of hoodlums who got out of control.”[42] Opposition Leader Kim Beazley described the attacks as “simply criminal behaviour, that’s all there is to it”.[41] NSW opposition leader Peter Debnam said that the sentences handed down to those arrested, specifically against Ali Osman,[30] stating that “This decision sends a really strong message to the community, to every young thug, that you can attack someone and get away with in NSW. Instead of a jail sentence he got a talking to – what a surprise in NSW.”[30]

Economic Impacts

Look at what a beautiful day it is. The weekend before Christmas over there should be absolutely packed, but there’s just a sea of empty tables

—Daryl Peat, a restaurant and bar owner in Terrigal on the New South Wales Central Coast. [48]

Many of the small businesses in and around Cronulla reported a drop to 10%[48] of the normal Christmas sales, losing thousands of dollars,[48] with only 25%[48] of Christmas shopping crowds.[48] The Crowne Plaza Hotel closed its bar on both the Saturday and Sunday after the riot.[48] Tourism and Hospitality workers in the area were laid off[49] or had their hours cut.[49] The NSW state government announced an AUD$250,000[50] tourism campaign[50] after authorities in Britain,[50] Canada[50] and Indonesia[50] issued travel warnings to their citizens.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am "Riot and Revenge". Liz Jackson (presenter). Four Corners. ABC. 2006-03-13. Transcript.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Strike Force Neil, Cronulla Riots, Review of the Police Response Media Component" (pdf). pp. 7–20. http://www.abc.net.au/mediawatch/transcripts/ep38cronulla3.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-24.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m AAP (2005-12-11). "Mob violence envelops Cronulla". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/mob-violence-envelops-cronulla/2005/12/11/1134235936223.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  4. ^ a b c "Mob mentality shameful: Police Commissioner". ABC News Online. 2005-12-11. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1528593.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sheehan, Paul (2006-01-30). "A hot, wet trail – yet police remain clueless in Cronulla". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/police-remain-clueless-in-cronulla/2006/01/29/1138469606720.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  6. ^ "Front Page – Jones and Cronulla". Media Watch. 2006-02-20. No. 2, season 2006. Transcript.
  7. ^ a b c d Marr, David (2005-12-13). "Alan Jones: I’m the person that’s led this charge". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/alan-jones-i-led-this-charge/2005/12/12/1134236003153.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  8. ^ a b Welch, Dylan (2007-04-10). "Jones rapped for pre-riot ‘scum’ remarks". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv--radio/alan-jones-breached-code/2007/04/10/1175971070038.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  9. ^ a b c d e "Cronulla mob attacks beachgoers". ABC News Online. 2005-12-11. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1528544.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Teo, Hsu-Ming (2006-12-07). "These day’s it’s harder to be different". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/these-days-its-harder-to-be-different/2006/12/06/1165081019992.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Sheehan, Paul (2006-02-07). "Trouble in the Premier’s Patch". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/trouble-in-the-premiers-patch/2006/01/13/1137118970548.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-15.  
  12. ^ a b Clennell, Andrew (2006-02-04). "Riot order: avoid Middle Eastern men". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/riot-order-avoid-middle-eastern-men/2006/02/03/1138958911068.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  13. ^ a b c d e Brown, Malcolm; Kennedy, Les; Wormald, Jared; Wainwright, Robert (2005-12-13). "Armed gangs on rampage". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/armed-gangs-on-rampage/2005/12/12/1134236005902.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-15.  
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i AAP (2005-12-12). "Retaliatory violence in Sydney’s south". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/retalitory-violence-in-sydneys-south/2005/12/12/1134235956260.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1.  
  15. ^ a b c d "Violence spreads to third Sydney suburb". ABC News Online. 2005-12-12. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1528619.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  16. ^ a b AAP (2005-12-11). "Sydney’s racial tension spread". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/sydneys-racial-tension-spreads/2005/12/11/1134235950547.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  17. ^ "Major police presence at Lakemba Mosque". ABC News Online. 2005-12-12. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1529504.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Braithwaite, David (2006-05-26). "’I felt knife snapped off in my back’". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/i-felt-knife-snapped-off-in-my-back/2006/05/26/1148524865657.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-07.  
  19. ^ a b c Kennedy, Les (2006-06-30). "Painstaking police work leads to arrest over Cronulla knife attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/painstaking-police-work-leads-to-arrest-over-cronulla-knife-attack/2006/06/29/1151174333905.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-07.  
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p AAP (2006-01-27). "Man in court over race riot texts". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/man-in-court-over-race-riot-texts/2006/01/27/1138319423216.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  
  21. ^ a b Baden, Samantha (2005-12-05). "Police guard churches as tensions rises". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/police-guard-churches/2005/12/14/1134500916773.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  22. ^ a b c d e f Baden, Samantha; AAP (2005-12-15). "Police Guard churches as tension rises". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/police-guard-churches/2005/12/14/1134500916773.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-16.  
  23. ^ a b c d e Brown, Malcolm; Silkstone, Dan; Nicholson, Brendan (2005-12-13). "Fresh violence rocks Sydney". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/riots-fire-debate-on-racism/2005/12/12/1134236003072.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  24. ^ a b c d Skelton, Russell (2005-12-14). "Message of peace not enough for hotheads". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/message-of-peace-not-enough-for-hotheads/2005/12/13/1134236064351.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
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  27. ^ a b c d Kamper, Angela (2006-09-29). "Cronulla rioter gets 300 hours". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw-act/cronulla-rioter-gets-300-hours/story-e6freuzi-1111112287392. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  
  28. ^ a b c d AAP (2006-09-29). "Teen avoids jail over Cronulla assault". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Teen-avoids-jail-over-Cronulla-assault/2006/09/29/1159337327395.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  
  29. ^ Jacobsen, Geesche (2006-09-29). "Riot spark ‘betrays migrants’". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/riot-spark-betrays-migrants/2006/09/29/1159337320025.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-18.  
  30. ^ a b c Jacobsen, Geesche (2006-09-30). "Cronulla fighter betrayed our safe haven: magistrate". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/cronulla-fighter-betrayed-our-safe-haven-magistrate/2006/09/29/1159337342874.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-18.  
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  32. ^ a b c AAP (2006-07-13). "Teen questioned over Cronulla reprisals". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/Teen-questioned-over-Cronulla-reprisals/2006/07/13/1152637789957.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-07.  
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  35. ^ a b c d AAP (2006-01-24). "Actions more than stupid: magistrate". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/NATIONAL/Actions-more-than-stupid-magistrate/2006/01/24/1137864895486.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  
  36. ^ a b c Kennedy, Les (2006-12-06). "Man in court over Cronulla revenge SMS". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/man-in-court-over-cronulla-revenge-sms/2006/12/06/1165081008241.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-15.  
  37. ^ a b "Strike Force Enoggera—A Review of policies, Practices and Procedures" (.pdf). 2006-10-24. http://www.smh.com.au/pdf/cronullareport.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  
  38. ^ a b c d e "NSW sacking sparks police disgust". ABC News Online. 2006-01-21. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200601/s1552206.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  
  39. ^ a b AAP (2006-01-21). "Sacked strike force chief reinstated". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/sacked-strike-force-chief-reinstated/2006/01/23/1137864846168.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-09.  
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Clennell, Andrew (2006-07-19). "Police tough on both sides of Cronulla riots". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/police-tough-on-both-sides-of-cronulla-riots/2006/07/18/1153166381976.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-16.  
  41. ^ a b c d e f "Police on alert after Sydney race riot". ABC News Online. 2005-12-12. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200512/s1529329.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  42. ^ a b c d e Morton, Adam; Berry, Jamie (2005-12-17). "Riots? What riots? Still relaxed and comfortable". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/what-riots-still-relaxed-and-comfortable/2005/12/16/1134703611308.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-16.  
  43. ^ "Refugee Activists to Support SMS-promoted Rally Against Race Hate". Refugee Action Collective (Victoria). 2005-12-15. http://www.rac-vic.org/html/media_05_12_15.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-18.  
  44. ^ a b c d "Cronulla locals search for answers over race riots". Micheal Vincent and Tom Iggulden (reporters). PM. 2005-12-12. Transcript.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g AAP (2005-12-13). "Emergency powers to stop riots". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/gang-peace-deal-appeal/2005/12/13/1134236033030.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-15.  
  46. ^ a b "Sydney riots ‘disgusting, cowardly’, says Iemma". Tracy Bowden (Reporter). The 7.30 Report. 2005-12-12. Transcript.
  47. ^ "Police powers will restore Sydney order: Moroney". Tracy Bowden (Reporter). The 7.30 Report. 2005-12-13. Transcript.
  48. ^ a b c d e f McCarthy, Joanne (2005-12-19). "Victory for Urban terrorists, says businessman". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/victory-for-urban-terrorists-says-businessman/2005/12/18/1134840742486.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  
  49. ^ a b Wade, Matt (2005-12-19). "Tourism braces for job losses if trouble persists". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/tourism-braces-for-job-losses-if-trouble-persists/2005/12/18/1134840742474.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  
  50. ^ a b c d e f "Man charged over Sydney messages". BBC News. 2005-12-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4551356.stm. Retrieved 2009-12-17.  

External links

News articles

(Ordered by publication dates)

Photographs and video footages

Miscellaneous

Coordinates: 34°03′06″S 151°09′21″E / 34.05159°S 151.15574°E / -34.05159; 151.15574


Simple English

File:Cronulla riots 3 -
Police watching the crowd crowds before the riots

The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of violent events between Lebanese and white Australian mobs. Riots started in and around Cronulla, a suburb on the beach in Sydney, Australia's biggest city. The violence was soon also in other suburbs around Sydney. The riots happened on 11 December, 12 December and 14 December. Police think there were about 5000 people involved.

They started when a group of Lebanese men asked a white Australian woman on a beach with a bikini on to cover up.

Also several people were sent to prison for being involved in the riot.[1]

References








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