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NOAA Overflight Map 2007-11-09 1205-1325
Damage to the COSCO Busan after striking the bridge

The Cosco Busan oil spill occurred at 8:30 a.m. on 7 November 2007 between San Francisco, California and Oakland, California, in which 53,500 gallons (200,000 litres) of toxic bunker fuel spilled into San Francisco Bay after the container ship Cosco Busan struck the Delta Tower of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge in thick fog.

Investigators found that bar pilot John Cota was intoxicated from his use of prescription pharmaceuticals while piloting the boat, which rendered him unable to use the onboard radar and electronic maps correctly, and that the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service did not warn Cota that he was sailing into the bridge. [1] Cota was sentenced to 10 months in federal prison for his role in the incident.[2]

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency after meeting federal, state and local officials overseeing the cleanup. The proclamation made additional state personnel, funding and equipment available to assess and clean up the environmental damage.[3]

Contents

Causes

The National Transportation Safety Board determined the following probable causes of the crash[4]:

  1. the pilot’s degraded cognitive performance from his use of prescription medications,
  2. the absence of a comprehensive pre-departure master/pilot exchange and a lack of effective communication between Pilot John Cota and Master Mao Cai Sun during the accident voyage, and
  3. (Cosco Busan Master) Sun's ineffective oversight of Cota's piloting performance and the vessel’s progress.

Other contributing factors included:[5]

  1. the failure of Fleet Management Ltd. to train the Cosco Busan crewmembers and failing to ensure that the crew understood and complied with the company’s safety management system, and
  2. the U.S. Coast Guard’s failure to provide adequate medical oversight of Cota, in view of the medical and medication information he had reported to the Coast Guard. [6]

Responsibility

Senator Barbara Boxer and San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom criticized the Coast Guard for its response, as its initial reported figures, between 100 and 400 gallons of oil, were significantly lower than those of the actual spill.[7]

On Friday, 30 November 2007, the United States government filed a lawsuit against the ship and the pilot.

On July 23, 2008, a federal grand jury indicted Fleet Management Ltd[8] of Hong Kong, the company that operated the Cosco Busan. The indictment included six felonies for allegedly falsifying documents to interfere with a federal investigation and two misdemeanor counts of criminal negligence for allegedly helping to cause the spill. [9]. The company has offered to plead guilty to the misdemeanors.

On October 23, 2008, the California state Board of Pilot Commissioners released a report, saying the spill was the result of a series of mistakes by the pilot Captain John Cota. The 18-page report found Cota had made seven serious errors in piloting the ship, including failing to correctly read an electronic chart on the ship, sailing in fog so thick that he could see only 200 feet ahead and sailing at an unsafe speed. Cota faced seven federal charges for spilling oil and killing federally protected birds.[10]

On March 6, 2009, Cota negotiated a plea agreement with prosecutors [11] to federal water pollution and migratory bird killing charges. The agreement called for him to serve two to ten months in prison and included a fine between $3,000 and $30,000. On July 10th, he was sentenced to 10 months imprisonment.[12]

Area affected

A Contra Costa county sign in Richmond Marina Bay warns of shoreline closure due to oil contamination.

The tidal mechanics of San Francisco Bay[13] caused the spill to spread rapidly, affecting a large area of the California North Coast, including the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Ocean Beach and the Marin Headlands.[14]

More than 50 public beaches were closed, including Crissy Field, Fort Point, Baker Beach, China Beach and Kirby Cove.[15]

By 14 November 2007, beaches as far south as Pacifica, California had been closed due to the spill.[16]

Richmond's shoreline and wildlife were seriously affected by the spill. Beaches and shorelines were closed, but later reopened. However, access was still restricted as of December 2007.[17] The government organizations responsible for the cleanup response and recovery devoted much effort to the East Bay since it was the area most impacted. The East Bay segments were the last ones to be signed off as cleaned because of the additional maintenance and monitoring that were required.

Effects

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Environmental

According to the California Department of Fish and Game, the spill is known to have killed 2,519 birds: 1,084 birds were collected alive (664 of which died; 421 of which were rehabilitated and released) and 1,856 were collected dead.[18] The actual number of birds impacted is subject to investigation. Seals were also killed. About 200 miles (320 km) of coastline was oiled. The eggs laid by Herring, which typically enter the bay in December, were killed in areas affected by the spill. [19]

Economic

Several fisheries in the Bay Area may have been affected by the spill and the crab and sport fishing seasons were postponed by several weeks.[20] As of November 30, State biologists had tested more than 1100 samples of fish, mussels and Dungeness crab in San Francisco Bay and coastal waters outside the Golden Gate. The tests found unsafe levels of contaminants in mussels from Rodeo Beach and the Berkeley pier.

Total monetary damages were estimated at $2.1 million for the ship, $1.5 million for the bridge's fender, and more than $70 million for environmental cleanup. Environmental restoration costs are still being calculated. [21]

Volunteering

Initial official releases from public agencies warned against involvement of volunteers, and worked to deflect volunteers into non-contact activities. This included asking people to act as drivers for bird transport, or as support staff to other efforts. The U.S. Coast Guard directed volunteers to clean non-oiled beaches.[22]

For the first few days OSHA rules were interpreted as requiring HAZWOPER certification, a minimum of 24 hours of classroom time, before involvement in any effort that may result in oil contact. Eventually, and after significant pressure from would-be volunteers, a four-hour "Disaster Service Worker Volunteer Certification" subset of the course was offered.[23] OSHA rules require exactly 240 minutes of classroom time, and the certification is valid for only one incident, e.g., this oil spill.

Cleanup timeline

The COSCO Busan under repair at Pier 70. Next to it is the SS Oceanic.

Ad-hoc volunteers were discouraged from cleaning beaches during the early days following the spill, as government workers and private contractor The O'Brien's Group handled the official disaster response. On 11 November 2007, cleanup and reports were focused on damage assessment of the COSCO Busan.[24] Oil-soaked birds were put in boxes and driven to the San Francisco Bay Oiled Wildlife Care and Education Center in Fairfield to be rehabilitated by University of California, Davis, veterinary medical students,[25] and as of 2007-11-25, some birds were returned to the wild.

Aftermath

MV COSCO Busan departs San Francisco under the Golden Gate Bridge

On 21 December 2007, the COSCO Busan sailed out of San Francisco Bay en route to South Korea with a new crew.[26] Around the same time, the demolished Bay Bridge fender section was found 25 miles (40 km) south of Half Moon Bay, and the fender was repaired at the Bay Bridge.[27]

Prior spills

The SS Cape Mohican was the source of a 1996 spill of 40,000 gallons of heavy fuel oil[24] in San Francisco Bay causing $3.625 million in natural resources damages.[28][29]

See also

References

  1. ^ Prisoners of the Cosco Busan - East Bay Express, May 27, 2009
  2. ^ Old bridge bumper technology means future oil spills likely, San Francisco Examiner, November 5, 2009.
  3. ^ Oil Spill Spreads in San Francisco Bay - New York Times
  4. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. 2009. Allision of Hong Kong-Registered Containership M/V Cosco Busan with the Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, California, November 7, 2007. Marine Accident Report NTSB/MAR-09/01. Washington, DC.
  5. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. 2009. Allision of Hong Kong-Registered Containership M/V Cosco Busan with the Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, California, November 7, 2007. Marine Accident Report NTSB/MAR-09/01. Washington, DC.
  6. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. 2009. Allision of Hong Kong-Registered Containership M/V Cosco Busan with the Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, California, November 7, 2007. Marine Accident Report NTSB/MAR-09/01. Washington, DC.
  7. ^ M/V Cosco Busan. Incident News.
  8. ^ http://www.fleetship.com/
  9. ^ SAN FRANCISCO / Felony charges for ship's management / Company operating the Cosco Busan when it hit the Bay Bridge and spilled oil is accused of falsifying route documents
  10. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/10/24/MNUE13N39D.DTL&sn=002&sc=995 ]San Francisco Chronicle, October 23, 2008, visited on October 24, 2008
  11. ^ "John Cota, Pilot Of The Cosco Busan, Pleads Guilty". Archived from the original on 2009-05-18. http://www.webcitation.org/5gsKQJvQm. Retrieved 2009-03-07.  
  12. ^ What's The Buzz? The Cunningham Report, July 20, 2009
  13. ^ Tides and Currents in San Francisco Bay: Voyage and Questions
  14. ^ San Francisco Oil Spill - Map of San Francisco Bay Oil Spill and Closed Beaches
  15. ^ More beaches close in wake of spill - Examiner.com
  16. ^ Pacifica Tribune Online - Pacifica Beaches Closed
  17. ^ Oil Spill Information, City of Richmond website, retrieved 2007-12-18
  18. ^ http://www.dfg.ca.gov/ospr/spill/nrda/cosco-busan-nrda-bird-injury-factsheet-feb-2008.pdf
  19. ^ http://www.dfg.ca.gov/ospr/spill/nrda/cosco-busan-nrda-factsheet-jan-2008.pdf
  20. ^ The spill threatens to delay opening of crab season
  21. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. 2009. Allision of Hong Kong-Registered Containership M/V Cosco Busan with the Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, California, November 7, 2007. Marine Accident Report NTSB/MAR-09/01. Washington, DC.
  22. ^ Public Affairs USCG District 11: Non-oiled beaches in need of clean up, 2007-11-12
  23. ^ Volunteers Rush Through Training, Start Cleanup
  24. ^ a b Bay cleanup efforts expanding / LINGERING CONSEQUENCES: Spill will have far-ranging effects on plants and animals in and around bay for years, scientists fear
  25. ^ Oiled-bird Being Rescued In San Francisco
  26. ^ Patched-up Cosco Busan sails out of bay, lawsuits in its wake
  27. ^ Bay Bridge fender repaired ahead of schedule
  28. ^ Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree in an Oil Spill Case | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA
  29. ^ California Department of Fish & Game

External links

Coordinates: 37°48′03″N 122°22′29″W / 37.80073°N 122.37486°W / 37.80073; -122.37486


COSCO Busan oil spill
File:COSCO Busan damage
The damaged MV COSCO Busan after striking the bridge tower fender
Location San Francisco Bay
Coordinates 37°48′03″N 122°22′29″W / 37.80073°N 122.37486°W / 37.80073; -122.37486Coordinates: 37°48′03″N 122°22′29″W / 37.80073°N 122.37486°W / 37.80073; -122.37486
Date 7 November 2007
Cause
Cause COSCO Busan collision with the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge in thick fog.
Operator COSCO Busan
Spill characteristics
Volume 53,500 USgal (203,000 l; 44,500 imp gal)
Area 150 sq mi (390 km2)
Shoreline impacted 26 mi (42 km)

The COSCO Busan oil spill occurred at 08:30 UTC-8 on 7 November 2007 between San Francisco and Oakland, California, in which 53,500 USgal (203,000 l) of IFO-380 heavy fuel oil, sometimes referred to as "bunker fuel", spilled into San Francisco Bay after the container ship M/V COSCO Busan operated by, Fleet Management Ltd., struck Delta Tower of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge in thick fog.

Investigators found that maritime pilot John Cota was impaired from his use of prescription pharmaceuticals while piloting the boat, which rendered him unable to use the onboard radar and electronic maps correctly, and that the Vessel Traffic Service of the United States Coast Guard failed to warn Cota that the vessel was headed for the bridge.[1] Cota was sentenced to 10 months in federal prison for his role in the incident.[2]

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency after meeting federal, state and local officials overseeing the cleanup. The proclamation made additional state personnel, funding and equipment available to assess and clean up the environmental damage.[3]

Contents

Causes

[[File:|thumbnail|The COSCO Busan laid up at Pier 70 for repairs. Next to it is the SS Oceanic.]]

The National Transportation Safety Board determined the following probable causes of the accident:[4]

  1. the pilot’s degraded cognitive performance from his use of prescription medications, despite his completely clean post accident drug test,
  2. the absence of a comprehensive pre-departure master/pilot exchange and a lack of effective communication between Pilot John Cota and Master Mao Cai Sun during the accident voyage, and
  3. (COSCO Busan Master) Sun's ineffective oversight of Cota's piloting performance and the vessel’s progress.

Other contributing factors included:[4]

  1. the failure of Fleet Management Ltd. to train the COSCO Busan crewmembers (which led to such acts of gross negligence as the bow lookout eating breakfast in the galley instead of being on watch) and Fleet Management's failure to ensure that the crew understood and complied with the company’s safety management system;
  2. the failure of Caltrans to maintain foghorns on the bridge which were silent despite the heavy fog;[5]
  3. the failure of Vessel Traffic Safety (VTS) to alert Cota and Sun that they were headed for the tower. VTS is legally required to alert a vessel if an accident appears imminent, yet they remained silent;[5]
  4. the malfunctioning radar on the COSCO Busan, which led Captains Cota and Sun to use an electronic chart for the rest of the voyage. Although Coast Guard investigators found the radar to be in working order, they did not examine it until days after the accident (allowing time for faulty equipment to be fixed, which is not uncommon after a marine accident)
  5. Captain Sun's incorrect identification of symbols on the electronic chart;
  6. the U.S. Coast Guard’s failure to provide adequate medical oversight of Cota, in view of the medical and medication information he had reported to the Coast Guard.[4]

Responsibility

File:20071110 farallon islands
NOAA Overflight Map 2007-11-09 1205-1325

Senator Barbara Boxer and San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom criticized the Coast Guard for its response, as its initial reported figures, between 100 to 400 USgal (380 to 1,500 l) of oil, were significantly lower than those of the actual spill.[6]

On Friday, 30 November 2007, the United States government filed a lawsuit against the ship and the pilot.[citation needed]

On July 23, 2008, a federal grand jury indicted Fleet Management Ltd of Hong Kong, the company that operated the COSCO Busan. The indictment included six felonies for allegedly falsifying documents to interfere with a federal investigation and two misdemeanor counts of criminal negligence for allegedly helping to cause the spill.[7] The company offered to plead guilty to the misdemeanors.

On October 23, 2008, the California state Board of Pilot Commissioners released a report, saying the spill was the result of a series of mistakes by the maritime pilot Captain John Cota. The 18-page report found Cota had made seven serious errors in piloting the ship, including failing to correctly read an electronic chart on the ship, sailing in fog so thick that he could see only 200 feet ahead and sailing at an unsafe speed. Cota faced seven federal charges for spilling oil and killing federally protected birds.[8]

On March 6, 2009, Cota negotiated a plea agreement with prosecutors to federal water pollution and migratory bird killing charges.[9] The agreement called for him to serve two to ten months in prison and included a fine between $3,000 and $30,000. On July 10, he was sentenced to 10 months imprisonment.[10]

Bay Area impact

File:Oil spill in san francisc bay
Containment booms languish about the shores and wetlands of Crissy Field.

The tidal mechanics of San Francisco Bay caused the spill to spread rapidly, affecting a large area of the California North Coast, including the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Ocean Beach and the Marin Headlands.[11]

More than 50 public beaches were closed, including Crissy Field, Fort Point, Baker Beach, China Beach and Kirby Cove.

By 14 November 2007, beaches as far south as Pacifica, California had been closed due to the spill.[12]

Richmond's shoreline and wildlife were seriously affected by the spill. Beaches and shorelines were closed, but later reopened. However, access was still restricted as of December 2007.[13] The government organizations responsible for the cleanup response and recovery devoted much effort to the East Bay since it was the area most impacted. The East Bay segments were the last ones to be signed off as cleaned because of the additional maintenance and monitoring that were required.

Environmental

File:Richmond marina bay shore closure - oil
A Contra Costa county sign in Richmond Marina Bay warns of shoreline closure due to oil contamination.

According to the California Department of Fish and Game, the spill is known to have killed 2,519 birds: 1,084 birds were collected alive (664 of which died; 421 of which were rehabilitated and released) and 1,856 were collected dead.[14] The actual number of birds impacted is subject to investigation. Seals were also killed. About 200 miles (320 km) of coastline was oiled. The eggs laid by herring, which typically enter the bay in December, were killed in areas affected by the spill.[15]

Economic

Several fisheries in the Bay Area may have been affected by the spill and the crab and sport fishing seasons were postponed by several weeks.[16] As of November 30, State biologists had tested more than 1100 samples of fish, mussels and Dungeness crab in San Francisco Bay and coastal waters outside the Golden Gate. The tests found unsafe levels of contaminants in mussels from Rodeo Beach and the Berkeley pier.

Total monetary damages were estimated at $2.1 million for the ship, $1.5 million for the bridge's fender, and more than $70 million for environmental cleanup. Environmental restoration costs are still being calculated.[4]

Volunteering

Initial official releases from public agencies warned against involvement of volunteers, and worked to deflect volunteers into non-contact activities. This included asking people to act as drivers for bird transport, or as support staff to other efforts. The U.S. Coast Guard directed volunteers to clean non-oiled beaches.[17]

For the first few days OSHA rules were interpreted as requiring HAZWOPER certification, a minimum of 24 hours of classroom time, before involvement in any effort that may result in oil contact. Eventually, and after significant pressure from would-be volunteers, a four-hour "Disaster Service Worker Volunteer Certification" subset of the course was offered.[18] OSHA rules require exactly 240 minutes of classroom time, and the certification is valid for only one incident, e.g., this oil spill.

Cleanup timeline

File:Cosco Busan
M/V COSCO Busan departing San Francisco under its new name, MSC Hanjin Venezia approaching the Golden Gate Bridge

Ad-hoc volunteers were discouraged from cleaning beaches during the early days following the spill, as government workers and private contractor The O'Brien's Group handled the official disaster response. On 11 November 2007, cleanup and reports were focused on damage assessment of the COSCO Busan.[19] Oil-soaked birds were put in boxes and driven to the San Francisco Bay Oiled Wildlife Care and Education Center in Fairfield to be rehabilitated by University of California, Davis, veterinary medical students, and as of 25 November, some birds were returned to the wild.[20]

Aftermath

On 21 December 2007, COSCO Busan sailed out of San Francisco Bay en route to Busan, South Korea with a new crew under her new name Hanjin Venezia.[21] US$1.5 million in repairs were completed to the bridge fender, three weeks ahead of schedule and $500,000 under budget around the same time.[22]

See also

File:SF From Marin Highlands3.jpg San Francisco Bay Area portal


References

  1. ^ John Upton (27 May 2009). "Prisoners of the COSCO Busan". The East Bay Express. http://www.eastbayexpress.com/news/prisoners_of_the__i_cosco_busan__i_/Content?oid=986934. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  2. ^ John Upton (, 5 November 2009). "Old Bridge Bumper Technology Means Future Oil Spills Likely". The San Francisco Examiner. http://www.sfexaminer.com/local/Old-bridge-bumper-technology-means-future-oil-spills-likely-69245927.html. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  3. ^ Marshall, Carolyn (November 10, 2007). "Oil Spill Spreads in San Francisco Bay". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/10/us/10spill.html. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d Rosenker, Mark V.; Sumwalt, Robert L.; Higgins, Kathryn O'Leary; Hersman, Deborah A. P. (18 February 2009) (.PDF). Marine Accident Report: Allision of Hong Kong-Registered Containership M/V Cosco Busan with the Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, California, November 7, 2007. NTSB/MAR-09/01. National Transportation Safety Board. http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2009/MAR0901.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  5. ^ a b bridge recording from COSCO Busan
  6. ^ Emergency Response Division, Office of Response and Restoration, National Ocean Service (2010). "M/V COSCO Busan". IncidentNews. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce. http://www.incidentnews.gov/incident/7708. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  7. ^ Bob Egelko (Thursday, 24 July 2008). "Felony Charges for Ship's Management". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/07/23/BA6B11TSPL.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  8. ^ Carl Nolte (Friday, 24 October 2008). "Oil Spill Ship Pilot Found at Fault in Accident". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/10/24/MNUE13N39D.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  9. ^ Elias, Paul (6 March 2009). "Captain involved in SF oil spill pleads guilty". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2009Mar06/0,4670,BaySpill,00.html. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  10. ^ Staff writers (20 July 2009). "What's The Buzz?". The Cunningham Report. http://www.cunninghamreport.com/news_item.php?id=934. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  11. ^ Ingrid Taylar. "San Francisco Bay Oil Spill Map". About.com. http://sanfrancisco.about.com/od/sanfranciscomaps/ig/San-Francisco-Icon-Maps/sanfranciscooilspillmap.htm. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  12. ^ "Pacifica Beaches Closed". Pacifica Tribune. Archived from the original on 2008-02-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20080227235807/http://www.pacificatribune.com/localnews/ci_7460711. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  13. ^ Oil Spill Information, City of Richmond website, retrieved 2007-12-18
  14. ^ Steve Hampton; Greg Baker; Al Donner (February 2008) (.PDF). Natural Resource Damage Assessment for the Cosco Busan Oil Spill Bird Injury Summary. California Office of Spill Prevention and Response. http://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=17518. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  15. ^ Steve Hampton; Greg Baker; Al Donner (January 2008) (.PDF). Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Planning for the Cosco Busan Oil Spill. California Office of Spill Prevention and Response. http://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=17519. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  16. ^ Brian Hoffman (Saturday, November 10, 2007). "The spill threatens to delay opening of crab season". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/11/10/MNDAT9KJB.DTL. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  17. ^ Public Affairs USCG District 11: Non-oiled beaches in need of clean up, 2007-11-12
  18. ^ Robert Selna; Heather Knight; Jonathan Curiel; Jane Kay (Tuesday, November 13, 2007). "Volunteers Rush Through Training, Start Cleanup". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/11/13/MN24TB2L0.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  19. ^ Jane Kay (Sunday, November 11, 2007). "Bay Cleanup Efforts Expanding". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/11/11/MNFSTA5L9.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  20. ^ University of California, Davis (12 November 2007). "Oiled-bird Being Rescued In San Francisco". ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071112082754.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  21. ^ Marisa Lagos (Friday, 21 December 2007). "Patched-up Cosco Busan Sails Out of Bay, Lawsuits in its Wake". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/12/21/BA6PU24Q0.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  22. ^ Staff writers (Saturday, 22 December 2007). "Bay Bridge Fender Repaired Ahead of Schedule". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/12/22/BAGLU36MA.DTL. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 

External links


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