2008 Andean diplomatic crisis: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2008 Andean diplomatic crisis
Ecuador Colombia Venezuela
Ecuador Colombia Venezuela Locator.svg
     Ecuador      Colombia      Venezuela
Map of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela

The 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis was a diplomatic stand-off between Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela beginning with an incursion into Ecuador territory across the Putumayo River by the Colombian military on March 1, 2008, which led to the death of over twenty militants, including Raúl Reyes (nom-de-guerre of Luis Edgar Devia Silva) and sixteen other members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).[1] The incursion led to increased tensions between Colombia and Ecuador, as well as the movement of Venezuelan and Ecuadorian troops to their respective borders. The crisis was ended at a Rio Group summit on 7 March 2008, with a public reconciliation between all parties.[2]

Contents

Background

In 2007, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and Colombian Senator Piedad Córdoba were acting as authorised mediators in the ongoing Humanitarian Exchange between the FARC and the government of Colombia. Colombian President Álvaro Uribe had given Chávez permission to mediate, under the conditions that all meetings with the FARC would take place in Venezuela and that Chávez would not contact members of the Colombian military directly, but instead go through proper diplomatic channels.[3][4] However, President Uribe abruptly terminated Chávez's mediation efforts on November 22, 2007, after Chávez personally contacted General Mario Montoya Uribe, the Commander of the Colombian National Army.[5] In response, Chávez said that he was still willing to mediate, but had withdrawn Venezuela's ambassador to Colombia and placed Colombian-Venezuelan relations "in a freezer". He also called Uribe a "liar and a cynic".[6] President Uribe responded that Colombia needed "mediation against terrorism, not for Chávez to legitimise terrorism," that Chávez was not interested in peace in Colombia, and that Chávez was building an expansionist project on the continent.[7] From January to February 2008, FARC released six hostages "as a gesture of goodwill" toward Chávez, who had brokered the deal and sent Venezuelan helicopters with Red Cross logos into the Colombian jungle to pick up the freed hostages.[8]

Incursion of the Colombian military into Ecuador

Santa Rosa is located in Ecuador
Santa Rosa
The incursion took place in the vicinity of Santa Rosa de Yanamaru in Ecuador's Sucumbíos province
Angostura raid
Location Near Santa Rosa de Yanamaru, Sucumbíos, Ecuador
00°22′37″N 77°07′48″W / 0.37694°N 77.13°W / 0.37694; -77.13
Target Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
Date March 1, 2008 (2008-03-01)
00:25 (UTC–5)
Executed by Colombian Armed Forces
Casualties 24[9] killed

In the week before the incursion, it was revealed that the Colombian government, with assistance from the United States' FBI and DEA, had wiretapped several satellite phones that were used by FARC forces in Southern Colombia.[10][11] According to an unnamed Colombian military source, an international call made by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez to Raúl Reyes on one of these phones was intercepted by authorities on February 27. The source claimed that Chávez called Reyes to inform him that the release of three FARC hostages held captive for almost 7 years had been completed, and the intercepted call was then used to track Reyes to a location in Colombia, near the Ecuadorian border.[12]

Colombian troop movements from Cali to the border area began on February 29.[13] On March 1, 2008 at 00:25 local time (0525 UTC), Colombia launched a military operation, 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) into Ecuador.[14][15][16]

Colombian intelligence reports indicated that Raúl Reyes was expected to stay near Angostura, Ecuador, for the night of February 29, 2008.[17] On and after February 27, several members of FARC 48th Front were captured by Colombian security forces near the Ecuadorian border, taking away some support from the main group. During the subsequent operation, the Colombian Air Force stormed Angostura, followed by a Colombian special forces group and members of the Colombian National Police.[13]

According to Colombian authorities, the guerrillas responded to the initial bombardment from a position in the vicinity of Santa Rosa de Yanamaru, on the Ecuadorian side of the border, killing Colombian soldier Carlos Hernández. A second bombardment was then carried out, resulting in the deaths of Raúl Reyes and at least 20 more FARC members.[18] Two bodies, several documents and three laptops found in the guerrilla camp were returned to Colombia.[14][19]

This was the first time the Colombian military had killed a member of FARC's leadership council in combat.[20] After the operation, Colombian authorities increased security measures nationwide fearing FARC retaliation.[21]

According to the Ecuadorian government, the attack happened 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) inside its territory, lacked its permission, and was a planned strike, intended to be followed by the incursion of Colombian troops by helicopter. It pointed out that the attack had left a total of more than 20 guerrillas and others dead in Ecuadorian territory, many of them found wearing underwear or sleeping clothes.[1][22] Ecuador's government concluded that the attack was a "massacre" and not the result of combat or "hot pursuit". Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa estimated that the war planes penetrated 10 km into Ecuador's territory and struck the guerrilla camp while flying north, followed by troops in helicopters who completed the killings. He noted that some of the bodies had been found to be shot from behind.[22]

Ecuadorian authorities found three wounded women in the camp, including a Mexican student identified as Lucía Andrea Morett Álvarez.[23][24] Lucía Morett claimed she was visiting the guerrilla group as part of an academic investigation, refusing to answer other questions about her time among them.[25] Regarding the attack on the camp, she has stated: "I was asleep when we received a first aerial attack. Two or three hours later we were attacked again".[25] Ecuador was investigating together with Mexico whether Mexicans were killed during the raid.[26] According to the director of the Ecuadorian military hospital which treated the three women, they had received some sort of medical attention from both the attacking Colombian forces and the Ecuadorian soldiers who found them later.[27]

Diplomatic developments

Colombia's violation of Ecuadorian sovereignty led to increased tensions between Colombia and most other South American states.

On Saturday, March 1, Álvaro Uribe said a few hours after the operation that "today we have taken another step against terrorism, which does not respect borders" and added that he took full responsibility for the operation.[28] Uribe also spoke by telephone with his Ecuadorian counterpart, Rafael Correa, early that morning, to inform him of the incident.[29]

In a press conference that evening, Correa rejected the incident as "aggression" against Ecuador, calling the result a "massacre," claiming that the rebels had been killed in their sleep using "advanced technology," and also said that he was summoning his ambassador in Colombia for consultations.[29]

Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez called the attack "a cowardly murder" and reacted by closing his country's embassy in Colombia and moving troops to positions near Venezuela's border with Colombia.[30]

On Sunday, March 2, Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa announced that a diplomatic note would be sent in protest at the incursion,[31] saying that the action had been a violation of Ecuador's airspace.[32] Ecuador also formally recalled its ambassador from Colombia, and expelled the Colombian ambassador from Quito.[29]

The Colombian government announced that it would not mobilise any troops in response to Hugo Chávez's order to move 10 battalions towards the frontier and would not respond to the accusations made by Chávez on his weekly TV program. On Aló Presidente Chavez denounced President Uribe as "a liar" and "a lackey of North-American Imperialism," claimed that Colombia was seeking to become "the Latin American equivalent of Israel," and compared Colombia's actions with Israeli Defense Force strikes on Palestinian militants.[33]

Colombian foreign minister Fernando Araújo Perdomo apologized to Ecuador for "the action that we were forced to take in the border zone". He added that Colombia had "never had the intention or disposition to be disrespectful of, or to violate the sovereignty or integrity of the sister republic of Ecuador".[34]

The Colombian foreign ministry affirmed, however, that Raúl Reyes "directed, for many years, criminal operations in the southern part of our country, covertly, from Ecuadorian territory, without the approval of its government". Colombia said that it was ready "to compensate any Ecuadorian citizens that could have been affected".[35]

The Colombian National Police also held a press conference, at which it revealed a series of documents taken from the guerillas, which allegedly implicated both Venezuela and Ecuador in FARC activities. (See seized documents, below.)

FARC has kidnapped hundreds of people, including democratically-elected officials and candidates, and it seeks to exchange some 40 hostages for 500 guerilla members held in Colombian prisons.[36] A FARC spokesmen announced that Raúl Reyes's death "should not affect the search for a humanitarian agreement on the exchange of kidnapped people." He added that "We encourage revolutionary firmness, not to forego any effort that supports a humanitarian exchange, and to continue in our intentions for peace and construction of an effective democracy, with social justice." Colombian officials replied that kidnapping does not encourage peace, and kidnapping democratically-elected officials does not encourage democracy.

On March 3, a statement from Venezuela's foreign ministry announced the decision to expel Colombia's ambassador and all diplomatic staff at the Colombian embassy in Caracas.[37] Authorities in Venezuela also restricted traffic at two major border crossings, according to Isidoro Teres, president of the Chamber of Industry and Commerce for the Táchira State border town of Ureña.[38]

The same day, Ecuador's Foreign Ministry issued a statement alluding to its cutting off of diplomatic ties with Colombia. It said that President Correa had initially ordered protection for a Colombian patrol surrounded by 200 FARC elements while Ecuadorian forces were attempting to verify events on the border, but that the Colombian forces had been "trying to buy time" to return to Colombia after attacking the FARC camp. The Ecuadorian government stated it had intercepted communications showing this and that the Colombian forces knew they had entered Ecuador.[39]

Colombian Minister of Defense Juan Manuel Santos said that the operation of Colombian troops could have been avoided had there been better cooperation from Quito. "If we had real collaboration from Ecuador in pursuing these groups, these situations wouldn't occur, but we've never had it. They always have taken the position that they do not want to interfere in the Colombian conflict," said Santos.[40]

At a press conference on March 4, President Uribe announced that Colombia intended to bring charges against Hugo Chávez with the International Criminal Court, for funding terrorism and genocide.[41] Later that day, Venezuela's Minister For Land And Agriculture, Elías Jaua, told state broadcaster VTV that Venezuela was closing its border with Colombia.[42] On March 5, President Chávez called the Colombian raid a "war crime," and joined Ecuador's president Rafael Correa in demanding international condemnation of the cross-border attack.[43]

In a ten-hour emergency meeting on the afternoon March 4, of the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States, Ecuador urged the OAS to condemn Colombia's violation of its territorial integrity. Colombia, in response, insisted that the hemispheric body should instead roundly condemn terrorism and its funding. Due to disagreements regarding content, the Council was unable to produce a final declaration on the matter. It did, however, agree to reconvene on March 5 to continue the debate, to convene a meeting of consultation of the member states' foreign ministers on March 17, and to set up a commission to investigate the incident.[44]

In Brazil, on a five-nation tour to drum up support for his country's position, President Correa said Ecuador would re-establish diplomatic relations with Colombia only "in the very improbable circumstance" of that country offering an unrestricted apology, assuring that no similar incidents would take place in the future, and retracting its allegations of ties between Quito and the FARC. He also emphasised that had any Ecuadorians died in the attack, "we would already be at war."[45][46]

On Wednesday, March 5, Colombian authorities reiterated their commitment to maintaining peace in the region, announcing that none of its troops would be deployed near its borders.[47]

On 6 March, the OAS criticised, but did not go so far as to condemn, the Colombian incursion into Ecuador. The OAS resolution called on Secretary General José Miguel Insulza to form a commission to investigate the incident on both sides of the border, as well as to help resolve the diplomatic crisis.[48][49] Later that day, President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua, which was already in a territorial dispute with Colombia over San Andrés and Providencia, announced the breaking of diplomatic relations with Colombia.[50] Meanwhile, Hugo Chávez threatened to nationalise Colombian assets in Venezuela, saying, "We're not interested in Colombian investments here."[51]

On March 7, at a Rio Group summit held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the presidents of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Nicaragua publicly shook hands, in a show of good will. The handshakes, broadcast live throughout Latin America, appeared to be a signal that the period of military buildups and diplomatic repercussions was over. After the summit, Ortega said he would re-establish diplomatic ties with Colombia.[52][53]

Venezuelan and Ecuadorian troop movements

Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez moved troops to near the border with Colombia,[30] warning that a Colombian incursion into Venezuela would be a "cause for war".[32] Chávez announced that he had put the Venezuelan military on high alert, pledging Venezuela would "back Ecuador in whatever circumstance".[54]

Ecuador also ordered troops to its borders.[55]

The Colombian government announced it would not mobilize any troops in response to Hugo Chávez's order to move 10 battalions towards their common border.[56][57]

Allegations about FARC relationships with Ecuador and Venezuela from seized documents

On the afternoon of March 2, 2008, in a short press release, General Óscar Naranjo, director of the Colombian National Police, as spokesperson of the Colombian government, announced that during the military operation in the Colombia-Ecuador border several documents and three laptops were retrieved along with the bodies of Raúl Reyes and one of his lieutenants.[58][59][60] Copies of 13 documents were provided by Gen. Naranjo to reporters on March 4.[60]

The first set of documents contains a letter from Reyes to the high command of FARC explaining that he had recently held meetings with the Security Minister of Ecuador, Gustavo Larrea, representing President Correa, with the intention of "establishing formal relations with the FARC". In the letter Reyes transmits the following information to the high command: the intention of the Ecuadorian government to replace police forces that do not accept the presence of the guerrilla organization in the area; the request for the release of a hostage, "perhaps the son of professor Moncayo or someone else who may increase political action"; and the decision of Ecuador to annul next year's license for the use of Manta Air Base by the United States.[61][62]

Ecuador's Interior Minister Fernando Bustamante dismissed the allegations as "false". He stated that "We are not going to accept such a thing". He added "It is very easy to say something based on evidence that has not been scrutinised publicly or internationally."[58]

The next day another set of documents, which allegedly indicate a relationship between FARC and Venezuela, was released. According to Naranjo, the documents suggest Chávez gave the FARC guerrillas US$300 million and is assisting the organization to obtain 50 kilograms (110 lb) of uranium. Óscar Naranjo also said there was evidence Hugo Chávez had received 100 million pesos when he was a jailed rebel leader (US$54,000 at the current exchange rate).[59] Some of the documents along with photographs obtained from Reyes' computer were transmitted to the press.[63] The rest of the documents still have not been released.[64] Vice president of Colombia Francisco Santos stated at a disarmament forum in Geneva that FARC was planning to build a "dirty bomb" although he presented no evidence to back up his affirmations.[65] A message to Reyes seems to indicate that the motive was to sell the uranium for a profit.[60]

A letter from FARC supremo Manuel Marulanda to the Venezuelan President was released on March 4.[66] In this letter Marulanda thanks the Venezuelan Government for its assistance in the war against the Colombian Government and Álvaro Uribe presidency, supported by the United States. FARC also offered their "modest knowledge in defense of the Bolivarian Revolution" in case of "a gringo aggression," understood as assistance against a possible military action from the United States.

Venezuelan Interior minister Ramón Rodríguez Chacín denied the accusations and stated that "They say that they find in that computer a letter from Marulanda to our commander in chief. Everybody already knows (the letters), the ones showed by our commander in chief. Pay attention, Venezuelan and Colombian people, how they manage the manipulation and deception, that kind of santanderist technique and now with fascism".[67] Rodríguez Chacín also stated that months ago, Venezuelan authorities seized another computer from the deceased narcotrafficker Wilson Varela, which in turn implicated Colombian police and General Óscar Naranjo in drug trafficking. "I deduce links of consanguinity and business between that general and that mafia capo to not reveal important information. Juan David Naranjo was one of his links and adjutants, brother of General Óscar Naranjo Trujillo." said Rodríguez Chacín. He added he had not made public the documents before "because of ethics".[68] The affair that involved General Naranjo's brother in drug trafficking was widely known since May 2006, when Naranjo himself announced it to the press.[69]

The Colombian government stated that it would present the documents to the Organization of American States (OAS) to demonstrate that Venezuela and Ecuador are supporting the FARC, and thereby "violating international law against the harboring of terrorists".[70] President Uribe stated that "our UN ambassador will announce that Colombia intends to denounce Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela (to the International Criminal Court), for sponsoring and financing people that commit genocide".[71]

On March 3, Ecuadorian security minister Gustavo Larrea admitted having met with FARC, without specifying where. Later that day, Ecuador's government announced it was in "very advanced talks" with FARC, seeking to free 12 hostages including Ingrid Betancourt. According to President Rafael Correa, the effort was thwarted by Colombia's military operation.[72] The Colombian government rejected this argument, arguing that the captured computer documents revealed Ecuador to be engaging in "hostage trafficking for political means" and political gain, by suggesting it would rotate military personnel in the border and allow FARC to operate more freely.[72][73]

On March 4, Colombian newsweekly Revista Semana published the second of two special editions following the death of FARC's Raúl Reyes, presenting some of the documents said to be found in the computers seized by the Colombian government.[74][75] The documents include several letters between FARC commanders and the Secretariat, describing:

  • September 22, 2007: a clandestine meeting between "a member or a emissary of the Secretariat" and the President of Venezuela in Caracas in a letter from "JE" to the Secretariat.
  • April 8, 2007: "Daniel" in a letter to members of the Secretariat Joaquín Gómez and Fabián Ramírez about a meeting with an associate of drug lord "Chupeta" with "high acquisitive power" to carry out an exchange of FARC drugs for missiles. According to the document, Chupeta had "contacts" in Lebanon and his organization would handle the transport with two options: via Europe or via Mexico.
  • October 4, 2007: Iván Márquez informs that he has sustained a meeting with Rodríguez Chacín on which the Commanders meeting is going to be held in Venezuela (Fuerte Tiuna in Caracas, Valencia, Barinas or Trujillo), with security enforced by Venezuelan military forces and organised by Rodríguez Chacín, "expert on this kind of issues". If it is celebrated, "President Chávez would be accompanied by Presidents Ortega, Morales and Correa, which are patria o muerte." The meeting between Chávez and Marulanda is still a issue.
  • October 8, 2007: details about secret meetings between Rodríguez Chacín and the FARC, dealing with the request for a proof of life for Ingrid. "He would be thankful if we send a record with the voice of the Colombian-French lady praising the intervention of him (Chávez) and Piedad.
  • December 23, 2007: mentions that, in reference to "300, later called dossier," "there are already formalities being advanced through instructions from the boss of the "cojo" (lame or cripple), which I (Iván) will comment on in another note. We will call the boss Ángel, and the "cojo," Ernesto". The document also discusses the procedure for the release of two hostages in February 2008. It also refers to a request from French President Nicolas Sarkozy to Chávez, asking Marulanda to receive his emissary Noe, who FARC believes to be from French intelligence. Chávez asked for the liberation of Ingrid, to which FARC responded: "we (FARC) said that if we release her, we would run out of cards".
  • January 14, 2008: a statement from "Jorge," saying that the "dossier" should be "directed collectively," with "tact, a cool head, ability and responsibility," also asking "who, where, how and when can we receive and keep the dollars?". The document also mentions the need to "determine what materials we need, amounts, prices, transports, routes, places for loading and unloading, sellers, buyers, business forms and technicians," adding that "if they donate merchandise to us it should be useful and adequate for guerrilla irregularity".
  • January 18, 2008: the meeting with Ecuadorian Security Minister Gustavo Larrea and the request for the release of Moncayo's son or something that dynamised the political duty of the mandatory.
  • February 8, 2008: a message from "Iván and Ricardo" to "Comrade Manuel" and the Secretariat, which informs of a meeting with "Ángel," who had read a letter from Manuel and would send a reply, adding that "he (Ángel) has already readied the first 50 and has a time frame for completing up to 200 during the year". The document mentions possible business deals regarding the commercialization of a petroleum quota, or the sale of gasoline in Colombia, as well as "taking from the dossier, the creation of a profitable investment company in Venezuela". The document also mentions that President Chávez is willing to receive 47 guerrilla prisoners and 500 jailed guerrillas in his territory, and that he plans to create a sort of "Contadora Group," seeking to promote peace negotiations and the recognition of the FARC as a belligerent force. If they agreed to his proposal, Chávez said it would negate any negative impact from the February 4 "manipulated march" against the FARC, and he would be willing to promote "counter-marches" for peace and the exchange in several countries.
  • February 16, 2008: the deal for 50 kg of uranium, which is going to be sold at 2.5 million USD per kG.

On March 6, 2008 Viktor Bout, a ex-KGB agent turned weapons dealer was arrested in a luxury hotel in Thailand during a raid staged by US DEA agents and carried out by Thai police forces. He is accused of supplying weapons to several militias in Asia, the Middle East and the Colombian terrorist group FARC. Sources in Spain[76] claim that his arrest was enabled by information in the captured computers, but this was contradicted by sources in Colombia.[77]

The Colombian Administrative Department of Security (DAS) reported it has asked for Interpol's technical support in order to decipher the seized FARC computers. According to DAS, Interpol has accepted the request and is sending several experts to Colombia.[78]

The final report was presented in May 15. Interpol's report said that it found no evidence that the Colombian Government had manipulated the laptops.[79] President Hugo Chavez dismissed Interpol's findings as "A show of clowns, ridiculous" given by a "gringo, aggressive, corrupt and vagabond policeman," about which "spending time on is not worthwhile." and threatened to revise both economic and diplomatic relations with Colombia.[80][81]

During Interpol's press conference, the Secretary General described the following: "the eight seized computer exhibits contained more than 600 gigabytes of data, including: 37,872 written documents, 452 spreadsheets, 210,888 images, 22,481 web pages, 7,989 email addresses,10,537 multimedia files (sound and video), and 983 encrypted files. In non-technical terms, this volume of data would correspond to 39.5 million filled pages in Microsoft Word and, if all of the seized data were in Word format, it would take more than 1,000 years to read at a rate of 100 pages per day."[82]

On June 15, 2008 Interpol issued a new press release in response to a statement by Ecuador's Foreign Ministry that the international organization considered to be incorrect. The press release stated that "[Ecuador] inaccurately suggests that Interpol had not established whether the eight seized exhibits forensically examined by Interpol's computer forensic experts had been recovered by Colombian authorities on 1 March 2008 from a FARC camp or belonged to Raul Reyes. In fact, based on a review of all the information and material provided by Colombia, including a classified oral briefing, Interpol was able to satisfy itself, and clearly stated in its report, that the seized computer exhibits it was requested to forensically examine were taken from the FARC terrorist camp on 1 March 2008 and belonged to Raul Reyes."[83] Interpol also added "that validating the contents of the computer exhibits were not manipulated after their seizure by Colombian authorities is not in any way, shape or form the same as saying that the contents of the user files are true and accurate. Interpol therefore objects to those who suggest that Interpol's report validates the source and accuracy of any particular document or user file contained therein."[83]

The data included personal pictures of Raul Reyes and the terrorist camp that was bombed in the attack. According to Colombian officials, the information contained in the laptops not only corroborated some of their previous suspicions[84] but has also led to several important discoveries about FARC's inner activities and their entire international network. The information described the way in which the FARC leadership dealt with several crimes, including the deaths in captivity of the 11 Norte del Valle deputies and their ties with notable drug dealers and Colombian politicians.[85] It led to the discovery of FARC funds related to Rodrigo Granda hidden in Costa Rica[86] and to the capture of Rosario García Albert, a Spanish woman who is believed to be the representative of the guerrilla in the European peninsula.[87] On March 25, 2008 Colombian intellingence discovered 30 kilograms of impoverished Uranium that, according to officials, corroborates the alleged deal mentioned on Reyes' computers.[88] Some important Colombian figures, including Liberal oposition senator Piedad Cordoba, are currently under prosecussion by the authorities for incriminating emails found on these laptops.[89] A chilean government official offered his resignation after being tied with some documents found on the computers.[90] The information related to the inner workings of the organization and its structural and communications challenges was used to give the FARC its biggest blow, the intelligence operation which led to the liberation of Ingrid Betancourt and three American contractors on July 2008.[91]

During the diplomatic crisis caused by the 2008 unrest in Bolivia, the United States government froze the assets of several senior members of the Venezuelan Government: ex-Interior Minister Ramón Rodríguez Chacín , senior DISIP director Henry de Jesús Rangel military intelligence chief Hugo Armando Carvajal Barrios, accusing them of "arming, supporting and financing" the FARC and their "killing of innocents" , according to the information discovered on Reyes' computers.[92][93][94]

International reaction

Communities and organizations

Americas

  •  Argentina: Foreign Minister Jorge Taiana said the country would lodge a protest of the Colombian incursion at an emergency meeting of the OAS and that Argentina was working to coordinate positions with other countries in the region.[98]
  •  Brazil: Foreign Minister Celso Amorim condemned Colombia's violation of Ecuador's territory as "very serious" and asked it to offer a "more explicit apology" to "help contain the crisis." Brazil had previously said it would help resolve the conflict, which "is beginning to destabilise regional relations" according to Marco Aurélio Garcia, foreign policy advisor to President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. Garcia told CBN radio that "we are mobilizing all of Brazil's diplomatic resources and those of other South American capitals to find a lasting solution."[99]
  •  Bolivia: President Evo Morales said the two nations' conflict could seriously affect the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) consolidation process. Morales also said he had called a special meeting of the Unasur Council of Foreign Ministers to discuss the Colombia-Ecuador diplomatic crisis on the sidelines of a Rio Group meeting in the Dominican Republic on Thursday.[100]
  •  Chile: President Michelle Bachelet demanded an explanation from Colombia on why its troops entered Ecuador, adding that "The most important thing today is that we can avoid an escalation of this conflict."[101]
  •  Cuba: Former President Fidel Castro, writing in the Communist Party newspaper Granma, blamed the United States for the dispute, saying it was a consequence of "genocidal plans of the Yankee empire."[102]
  •  Mexico: president Felipe Calderón spoke to both Correa and Uribe on Sunday, March 2, and offered his government's support for any efforts they might undertake for the prompt normalization of relations.[103] On March 6, Calderón criticised Colombia's raid saying they reject "any action that constitutes a violation of territorial sovereignty."[104]
  •  Nicaragua: President Daniel Ortega condemned the killing of Reyes, saying that president Álvaro Uribe had "killed the possibilities for peace in Colombia."[105] On 6 March 2008, Nicaragua also broke off diplomatic relations with Colombia, following its ally Ecuador.[106] Ortega stated, "We are not breaking relations with the Colombian people. We are breaking relations with the terrorist policy practiced by Álvaro Uribe's government".[107]
  •  Peru: President Alan García condemned the violation of Ecuador's sovereignty, saying that it was "unacceptable", and called for the Organization of American States to set up guidelines for anti-terror measures.[108]
  •  Suriname: Vice President Ram Sardjoe stated that their government had good relations with Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador and that they considered this as an internal matter of the three countries. He added that if possible circumstances would happen, they were willing to assist the countries.[109]
  •  Uruguay: The Ministry of Foreign Relations released a statement on March 3, 2008 that urged the three countries to set talks in order to solve the disagreements, and not to take further actions that might worsen the situation.[110]
  •  United States: Supported Colombia's position, criticised Chávez and asked for a diplomatic solution while offering assistance to Colombia in case of military action and urged Congress for FTA approval.[20][96][111][112] The major candidates in the November 2008 presidential election also supported Colombia.[113][114][115] US Southern Command downplayed the possibility of an armed confrontation between Colombia and Venezuela or Colombia and Ecuador.[116]

Asia

  •  Israel: Ambassador in Argentina, Rafael Eldad, in response to the Venezuelan president's claim that Colombia was becoming "the Latin American equivalent of Israel", said that Hugo Chávez was "introducing the culture of hatred into Latin America" and called for messages of peace and calm for the region.[117]

Europe

  •  France: Called for restraint on all sides and continued negotiations on freeing FARC hostages.[118] Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner stated that the killing of Raúl Reyes was "bad news", because of his role as France's contact to obtain the release of Ingrid Betancourt.[119] French President Nicolas Sarkozy told Colombian news channel RCN TV that he had asked Manuel Marulanda "Tirofijo", the main FARC leader, to release hostage Ingrid Betancourt. Otherwise, if she died the revolutionary group would never be taken off the international terrorist lists.
  •  Spain: Minister of Foreign Affairs Miguel Ángel Moratinos expressed his concern over the diplomatic crisis and called on all parties to remain "calm and to resolve their differences through dialogue and diplomacy, neighbourly cooperation and good faith".[120][121]

Key individuals

Social response

On March 16, 2008 Colombian artist Juanes organised a free concert on the Colombia-Venezuela border as a response to the crisis. The event called Peace without borders had a message of peace and brotherhood between the three nations. The concert gathered thousands of people from both sides of the border. The concert featured the singers Miguel Bosé, Alejandro Sanz, Juan Luis Guerra, Juan Fernando Velasco, Ricardo Montaner, Carlos Vives and Juanes himself.[122]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Stephen Lendman Spinning the News - The FARC-EP Files, Venezuela and Interpol - Global Research, May 19, 2008
  2. ^ Juan Feraro, "Latin American Crisis Resolved", Washington Post, March 8, 2008.
  3. ^ "DOSSIER DE INFORMACIÓN--PROCESO EN BUSCA DEL ACUERDO HUMANITARIO GOBIERNO DEL PRESIDENTE ÀLVARO URIBE -FARC NOVIEMBRE 27 DE 2007" (in Spanish) (PDF). http://www.actualidadcolombiana.org/pdf/dossier_prensa_acuerdo_humanitario_nov27.pdf.  
  4. ^ "Uribe terminó con mediación de Hugo Chávez" (in Spanish). Caracol TV. 2007-11-22. http://www.canalcaracol.com/noticia_interna.asp?hid_id_menu=77&hid_id=12207. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  5. ^ "Uribe termina mediación de Chávez" (in Spanish). BBC News. 2007-11-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_7106000/7106863.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  6. ^ "Chávez acusa a Uribe de mentiroso y congela las relaciones con Colombia" (in Spanish). El Clarín. 2007-11-26. http://www.clarin.com/diario/2007/11/26/elmundo/i-01549435.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  7. ^ "Uribe acusa a Chávez de ser expansionista y de apoyar a la guerilla en Colombia" (in Spanish). Telesur. 2007-11-25. http://www.telesurtv.net/secciones/noticias/nota/21184/uribe-acusa-a-chavez-de-ser-expansionista-y-de-apoyar-a-la-guerrilla-en-colombia/. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  8. ^ "Colombian rebels free hostages in jungle to Hugo Chávez". Reuters. Yahoo News. February 27, 2008. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080228/ts_nm/colombia_hostages_dc. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  9. ^ Andrew O. Selsky, "LatAm leaders agree to end border crisis", AP via Yahoo! News, March 7, 2008.
  10. ^ "FBI tuvo 'chuzados' teléfonos de varios cabecillas de las Farc". El Tiempo. 2008-02-20. http://www.eltiempo.com/justicia/2008-02-20/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3964744.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  11. ^ "Propinan golpe demoledor a red logística de las FARC". El Nuevo Herald. 2008-03-02. http://www.elnuevoherald.com/noticias/septimo_dia/story/169043.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  12. ^ "RCN confirma que una llamada de Chávez permitió ubicar a Raúl Reyes". Noticias 24. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=12585. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  13. ^ a b Gloria Inés Arias. "Desde el viernes empezó a desembarcar tropa para operativo en la frontera". El Tiempo. http://www.eltiempo.com/nacion/cali/2008-03-02/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3983106.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  14. ^ a b "Colombian military says senior rebel commander killed in combat". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23421855/print/1/displaymode/1098/.  
  15. ^ "Farc aura of invincibility shattered". BBC News. 2008-03-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7273320.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  16. ^ "Colombian Rebel Leader Raul Reyes Killed by Army, Minister Says". Bloomberg. 2008-03-01. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=a5HnABwKGrZc&refer=latin_america. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  17. ^ "Carlos Edilson Hernández León fue el soldado que murió durante el operativo contra Raúl Reyes". El Tiempo. March 3, 2008. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3982345.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  18. ^ "Ecuador 'concerned' at raid death". BBC News. 2008-03-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7312192.stm. Retrieved 2008-04-03.  
  19. ^ "Colombian Rebel Leader Raul Reyes Killed by Army, Minister Says". Bloomberg. March 1, 2008. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=a5HnABwKGrZc&refer=latin_america. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  20. ^ a b "Regional tensions rise after Colombia raid into Ecuador". Agence France-Presse. 2008-03-02. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5htqm5A0bbSSTN2xbt-HNS0KmvT7g. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  21. ^ "Colombia boosts security against possible rebel retaliation". Xinhua. 2008-03-03. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/03/content_7706083.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  22. ^ a b "Correa: 'No permitiremos que este hecho quede en la impunidad'" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2008-03-03. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/03/03/internacional/1204515279.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  23. ^ "Identifican a ciudadana mexicana que resultó herida en campamento de Raúl Reyes" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3984400.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  24. ^ "Carta de los padres de Lucía Andrea Morett Álvarez" (in Spanish). El Universal. 2008-03-05. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/487444.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  25. ^ a b "Mexicana herida en acción contra 'Raúl Reyes' recibía cursos de explosivos de las Farc" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-05. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/2008-03-06/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3988789.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  26. ^ "Ecuador, Mexico probe deaths of Mexicans in raid". Reuters. 2008-03-06. http://www.reuters.com/article/americasCrisis/idUSN06246962. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  27. ^ "Heridas en operativo contra las FARC sí recibieron atención médica colombiana" (in Spanish). El Comercio. 2008-03-06. http://www2.elcomercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=175284&id_seccion=4. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  28. ^ "Colombia reitera que no violó soberanía ecuatoriana" (in Spanish). El Universo. 2008-03-01. http://www.eluniverso.com/2008/03/02/0001/14/428E2C0AD94243F4AD4402E8862E5F80.aspx. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  29. ^ a b c "48 horas frenéticas". BBC Mundo. 2008-03-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_7274000/7274806.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  30. ^ a b "Chávez laments killing of FARC commander". http://www.conservativepulse.com/home/2008/03/02/chavez-laments-killing-of-farc-commander/.  
  31. ^ "Ecuador's President protests Colombian incursion". The Hindu. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/03/02/america/bogota.php.  
  32. ^ a b "Colombia forces kill key member of rebel group FARC". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/03/02/america/bogota.php.  
  33. ^ "Chávez: Colombia has become the Israel of Latin America". Haaretz. 2008-03-03. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=960284&contrassID=1&subContrassID=1. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  34. ^ "Colombia se disculpa ante Ecuador por la incursión 'obligada' en su territorio". El Mundo. 2008-03-03. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/03/03/internacional/1204512283.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  35. ^ "Respuesta de la Cancillería de Colombia al Gobierno de Ecuador". Presidencia de Colombia. 2008-03-02. http://web.presidencia.gov.co/sp/2008/marzo/02/04022008.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  36. ^ "Las FARC no quieren que la merte de su portavoz afecte al intercambio de rehenes" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2008-03-02. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/03/02/internacional/1204469815.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  37. ^ "Ecuador, Venezuela cut Colombia ties". Yahoo! News. 2008-03-03. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080303/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/ecuador_colombia_venezuela_7. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  38. ^ "Business leader: Venezuela authorities restrict trade at some Colombia border crossings". International Herald Tribune. 2008-03-03. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/03/03/business/LA-FIN-Venezuela-Colombia-Trade.php. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  39. ^ "El Ecuador rompe relaciones con Colombia" (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República. 2008-03-03. http://www.presidencia.gov.ec/noticias.asp?noid=12889. Retrieved 2008-05-05.  
  40. ^ "Sí (sic) Quito hubiera cooperado, la incursión se habría evitado: Juan Manuel Santos" (in Spanish). Milenio. 2008-03-03. http://www.milenio.com/index.php/2008/03/03/202600/. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  41. ^ "Colombia calls for Chávez charges". BBC News. 2008-03-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7277313.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  42. ^ "Crisis deepens as Venezuela closes Colombian border". AFP. 2008-03-04. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iWzlEd06o1UoIdZxv17wkp18uz4g. Retrieved 2008-04-04.  
  43. ^ "Chavez: Cross-border raid a 'war crime'". CNN. 2008-03-06. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/06/chavez.colombia.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  44. ^ "OAS can’t reach agreement on Ecuador Colombia conflict". Mercopress. 2008-03-05. http://www.mercopress.com/vernoticia.do?id=12813&formato=HTML. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  45. ^ "Si hubiera ecuatorianos muertos habría guerra: Correa". El Universal. 2008-03-05. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/487520.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  46. ^ "Si hubiera muertos ecuatorianos, ya estaríamos en guerra". La Gaceta. 2008-03-05. http://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/260730/Mundo/Correa:_si_hubiera_muertos_ecuatorianos_ya_estariamos_guerra.html. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  47. ^ "Ecuador seeks to censure Colombia". BBC News. 2008-03-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7278484.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  48. ^ a b "Venezuela blocks trade with Colombia amid furor over FARC attack". International Herald Tribune. 2008-03-06. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/03/06/america/colombia.php. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  49. ^ a b "Convocation of the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Appointment of a Commission". Organization of American States. 2008-03-05. http://www.oas.org/documents/events/200803_situacion_Ecuador_Colombia/cp19771e02.doc. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  50. ^ "Nicaragua Breaks Relations With Colombia". Associated Press. 2008-03-06. http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5hkZ2Wvq5FmoSc7yA4bdeePiXi1vQD8V84CC01. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  51. ^ "Colombia Pipeline Bombed by FARC After Ecuador Attack". Bloomberg. 2008-03-06. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aX3Qsx8W1Y2Y&refer=latin_america. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  52. ^ "Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela Agree to End Border Crisis". VOA. 2008-03-07. http://voanews.com/english/2008-03-07-voa73.cfm. Retrieved 2008-03-08.  
  53. ^ "Leaders say Colombia crisis over". BBC News. 2008-03-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7284597.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-08.  
  54. ^ "Venezuela puts army on high alert, closes Colombia embassy". Xinhua. 2008-03-02. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/03/content_7703282.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  55. ^ "Venezuela, Ecuador sending troops to border with Colombia after rebel leader killed". Seattle Times. 2008-03-02. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2004255911_webrebel02.html. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  56. ^ "Colombia no movilizará tropas a las fronteras con Ecuador o Venezuela" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3981514.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  57. ^ "Chávez ordena retiro de personal de embajada en Bogotá y envía tropas a frontera con Colombia" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3983259.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  58. ^ a b "Colombia says FARC documents show Correa ties". Reuters. 2008-03-02. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSN0229738220080303. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  59. ^ a b "Colombia: Evidence suggests Chávez gave FARC $300M". CNN. 2008-03-03. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/03/ecuador.colombia/?iref=mpstoryview. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  60. ^ a b c Frank Bajak (2008-03-05). "Seized laptop shows Chávez-rebel ties". Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080305/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/colombia_farc_laptop&printer=1. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  61. ^ [1]
  62. ^ [2]
  63. ^ "(Spanish) Publican diversas fotos del PC de Reyes (+ imágenes)". Noticias 24. 2008-03-03. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=12515. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  64. ^ "(Spanish) Pruebas fotográficas de vínculos de Venezuela y Ecuador con las Farc reveló gobierno de Colombia". El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3981514.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  65. ^ "Farc was planning 'dirty bomb', Colombia says". Guardian. 2008-03-04. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/04/colombia.venezuela?gusrc=rss&feed=networkfront. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  66. ^ "Estos son los documentos que involucran a Chávez y a Ecuador con las Farc y que serán mostradas en la OEA" (PDF). El Tiempo. 2008-03-04. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARCHIVO/ARCHIVO-3985321-0.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  67. ^ "Revelan que Chávez financia a las FARC. Documentos hallados en portátil de Raúl Reyes muestran que aportó U$300 millones y armamento" (in Spanish). El Correo. 2008-03-04. http://www.correoperu.com.pe/paginas_nota.php?nota_id=64005&seccion_nota=1. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  68. ^ "(Spanish) Minister Rodríguez Chacín said that computer showing Chávez delivered US$300 million to FARC is false". Globovisión. 2008-03-04. http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=80530. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  69. ^ "Family drug bust for crack cop". News 24. 2006-05-11. http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1930845,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  70. ^ "Colombia no movilizará tropas a las fronteras con Ecuador o Venezuela" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3981514.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  71. ^ "Álvaro Uribe anunció que denunciará al Presidente Chávez ante Corte Penal Internacional" (in Spanish). Globovisión. 2008-03-03. http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=80577. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  72. ^ a b "President: Ecuador was in talks with rebels to release 12 hostages, including Betancourt". International Herald Tribune. 2008-03-04. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/03/04/america/LA-GEN-Ecuador-FARC-Hostages.php. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  73. ^ "Ecuador estaba traficando con secuestrados con fines políticos, afirma Gobierno colombiano" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/conflicto/noticias/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3981514.html.  
  74. ^ "Golpe Mortal" (in Spanish). Revista Semana. 2008-03-03. http://www.nxtbook.com/ml/PS/EdExtra1/.  
  75. ^ "El computador de Reyes" (in Spanish). Revista Semana. 2008-03-04. http://www.nxtbook.com/ml/PS/EdExtra2/.  
  76. ^ "Cae el traficante de armas más buscado del mundo" (in Spanish). El País. 2008-03-06. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/Cae/traficante/armas/buscado/mundo/elpepuint/20080306elpepuint_12/Tes. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  77. ^ "Capturan al traficante de armas más buscado del mundo" (in Spanish). Semana. 2008-03-06. http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?idArt=109984. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  78. ^ "Colombia pide apoyo a la Interpol para descifrar computadores de ‘Raúl Reyes’" (in Spanish). El Comercio. 2008-03-06. http://www2.elcomercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=175262&id_seccion=4. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  79. ^ The full Interpol report is available in English and Spanish at the Interpol web page [3] [4]
  80. ^ Markey, Patrick (May 15, 2008). "Chavez reviews Colombia ties after Interpol report". BOGOTA: Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN15313068. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  81. ^ "Interpol authenticates files from Reyes' computers". eluniversal.com. May 16 , 2008. http://english.eluniversal.com/2008/05/16/en_ing_art_interpol-authenticat_16A1582759.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  82. ^ Interpol (15 May 2008). "INTERPOL’s Forensic Report on FARC computers and hardware seized by Colombia. Press statement by Ronald K. Noble, INTERPOL Secretary General.". Interpol. Archived from the original on 2009-07-23. http://www.webcitation.org/5iUGnyJsP. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  
  83. ^ a b "INTERPOL media release. INTERPOL reaffirms key findings of its examination of seized FARC computers in response to efforts to distort conclusions.". Interpol. 15 June 2008. http://www.interpol.int/public/ICPO/PressReleases/PR2008/PR200826.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  
  84. ^ "El Montesinos de Chávez" (in Spanish). Semana.com. 2 Febrero 2008. http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?IdArt=109223. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  85. ^ "Los secretos del PC de Reyes" (in Spanish). Semana.com. 8 Marzo 2008. http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?idArt=110107. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  86. ^ "Guardianes de caleta de las Farc en Costa Rica conocían a 'Rodrigo Granda' y a 'Raúl Reyes'" (in Spanish). eltiempo.com. 25 de octubre de 2008. http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-4018612. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  87. ^ Kingstone, Steve (26 de julio de 2008). "Detenida "agente" de las FARC en Europa" (in Spanish). BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_7527000/7527358.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  
  88. ^ "Incautan más de 30 Kg. de Uranio que pertenecía a las FARC" (in Spanish). Noticias24.com. 2008-03-26. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=13061. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  89. ^ "Por computador de 'Reyes' investigarán a Wilson Borja, Piedad Córdoba y Gloria Inés Ramírez" (in Spanish). ELESPECTADOR.COM. 22 mayo 2008. http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/judicial/articulo-fiscalia-envia-corte-nombres-de-congresistas-computador-de-reyes. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  90. ^ "Funcionario del gobierno chileno renuncia tras ser vinculado a las FARC" (in Spanish). Eluniverso.com. Septiembre 10, 2008. http://www.eluniverso.com/2008/09/10/0001/14/3FA4364D5C4340E982801162E7392E56.html. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  91. ^ "Colombia hostage Betancourt freed". BBC News. 3 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7486552.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  
  92. ^ Forero, Juan (September 13, 2008). "U.S. Links 3 Chávez Aides to Guerrillas". BOGOTA, Colombia: Washington Post. p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/12/AR2008091201328.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  93. ^ "El verdadero complot" (in Spanish). Semana.com. 13 Septiembre 2008. http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?idArt=115454. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  94. ^ "Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)" (PDF). U.S. Department of the Treasury - Office of Foreign Assets Control. September 11, 2008. http://counterterrorismblog.org/upload/2008/09/us_treasury_department_designa/FARC-VZ_Chart%5B1%5D.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  
  95. ^ "Colombia-Ecuador situation". Organization of American States. 2008-03-03. http://www.oas.org/OASpage/press_releases/press_release.asp?sCodigo=E-064/08. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  96. ^ a b "US urges diplomacy in Bogota row". BBC News. 2008-03-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7275732.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  
  97. ^ (Spanish) "Candidatos a presidencia de E.U. y líderes mundiales piden salida diplomática a crisis". El Tiempo. 2008-03-04. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/2008-03-04/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3984956.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  98. ^ "Argentina to lodge complaint over Colombia trespass to OAS". Xinhua. 2008-03-04. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/04/content_7712939.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  99. ^ Reuters: Brazil condemns Colombia's Ecuador raid
  100. ^ "Bolivia calls Unasur meeting on Colombia-Ecuador crisis". Xinhua. 2008-03-05. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/05/content_7721565.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-05.  
  101. ^ "Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia seek support in crisis". Reuters. 2008-03-04. http://www.stuff.co.nz/4425055a12.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  102. ^ "Castro blames U.S. for rising tensions between Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia". The Canadian Press. 2008-03-03. http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5hbSbOhhyyMNFxRHTe8SAIeYRM9bA. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  103. ^ "El Presidente Calderón sostiene conversaciones telefónicas con sus homólogos de Ecuador y Colombia". Presidencia de la República. 2008-03-02. http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/prensa/?contenido=34111. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  104. ^ "Mexico criticises Colombia's Ecuador raid". Reuters. 2008-03-06. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN0454853320080305. Retrieved 2008-03-07.  
  105. ^ "Hugo Chávez sends tanks to Colombia border". Telegraph. 2008-03-03. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/03/wchavez103.xml. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  106. ^ "Nicaragua cuts ties with Colombia", BBC News, 6 March 2008.
  107. ^ Mu, Xuequan. "Nicaragua breaks off relations with Colombian gov't". Xinhua News. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/07/content_7734634.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  108. ^ "Peru: Colombia's incursion "unacceptable"". http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/04/content_7712633.htm.  
  109. ^ "Suriname volgt rel Ecuador-Columbia-Venezuela op afstand" (in Dutch). http://www.dewestonline.cq-link.sr/main.asp?id=15213.  
  110. ^ Comunicado de prensa Nº 17/08 - Situación entre Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República Oriental del Uruguay
  111. ^ "Bush backs Colombia, warns 'provocative' Venezuela". AFP. 2008-03-04. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h_WKp_BN5a9HxXhjJQyMhk_ua1hA. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  112. ^ "George W. Bush expresa "completo apoyo" a Álvaro Uribe en conflicto diplomático con vecinos". El Tiempo. 2008-03-04. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/2008-03-04/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3985275.html. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  113. ^ "Los candidatos se pronuncian ante crisis Colombia, Venezuela y Ecuador". Terra. 2008-03-03. http://www.terra.com/noticias/articulo/html/act1158266.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  114. ^ "Un Momento Critico". El Tiempo. 2008-03-03. http://www.eltiempo.com/opinion/editorial/2008-03-04/ARTICULO-WEB-NOTA_INTERIOR-3984403.html. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  115. ^ "Hillary arremete contra Chávez y muestra su apoyo al Gobierno de Colombia". Noticias 24. 2008-03-03. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=12508. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  116. ^ "El Pentágono ve “poco preocupante” los movimientos de tropas venezolanas". Noticias 24. 2008-03-05. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=12584. Retrieved 2008-03-06.  
  117. ^ "Israel acusa a Chávez de promover el odio en América Latina". Noticias 24. 2008-03-03. http://www.noticias24.com/actualidad/?p=12507. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  
  118. ^ "Venezuela, Ecuador send troops to Colombian border". Reuters. 2008-03-02. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsMaps/idUSN0227633020080303?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  119. ^ "El mundo reacciona". BBC World. 2008-03-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_7275000/7275807.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  
  120. ^ "España llama a la "calma" y el "diálogo" a Colombia, Venezuela y Ecuador". AFP. 2008-03-04. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iP1DDxtbzefks3gVDzp2ozkZ88UA. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  121. ^ "Madrid expresa "preocupación" y llama a la calma y al diálogo". El País. 2008-03-04. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/Madrid/expresa/preocupacion/llama/calma/dialogo/elpepiint/20080304elpepiint_1/Tes. Retrieved 2008-03-04.  
  122. ^ "Juanes sings for 'peace without borders'". AP. Mar 11, 2008.  . Accessed 2009-07-12. Archived 2009-07-23.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message