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Tour de France 2008 - Course Outline
Race details
Dates 5–27 July
Stages 21
Distance 3,559 km (2,211 mi)
Winning time 87h 52' 52"[1] (40.50 km/h/25.17 mph)
yellow jersey Winner Spain Carlos Sastre (Team CSC Saxo Bank)
Second Australia Cadel Evans (Silence-Lotto)
Third None[2]

green jersey Points Spain Óscar Freire (Rabobank)
polkadot jersey Mountains None[2]
white jersey Youth Luxembourg Andy Schleck (Team CSC Saxo Bank)
Team Team CSC Saxo Bank

The 2008 Tour de France was the 95th Tour de France. The event took place from 5–27 July 2008. Starting in the French city of Brest, the tour entered Italy on the 15th stage and returned to France during the 16th, heading for Paris, its regular final destination, which was reached in the 21st stage. The race was won by Carlos Sastre.

Unlike previous years, time bonuses were no longer awarded for intermediate sprints and for high placement on each stage. This altered the way the General Classification was awarded in comparison to previous seasons.



Long running disputes between the event organisers, the ASO and the UCI[3] reached a head when the race organisers insisted upon the right to invite, or exclude, whichever teams it chose for the event. Under UCI rules, any ProTour event must be open to all member teams of the UCI's top level. The ASO made it clear that, despite changes in team management and personnel, it intended to exclude Astana from the event as a result its involvement in the doping scandals that marred the 2007 Tour and its links to the 2006 Operación Puerto doping case. This meant that the champion (Alberto Contador) and third-place finisher (Levi Leipheimer) from 2007, both of whom had since signed with Astana, could not compete in the 2008 Tour.[4]

The ASO announced on 20 March 2008 that all ProTour teams except Astana would be invited, along with three "wildcard" teams: Agritubel, Barloworld, and Slipstream-Chipotle (subsequently renamed as Garmin-Chipotle-H30[5]). With each team consisting of nine riders, 180 riders started the Tour.

The 20 teams invited to the race were:[6]

Pre-race favourites

Because Astana was not invited to the 2008 Tour de France, the winner of the 2007 Tour de France, Alberto Contador, the 3rd place finisher Levi Leipheimer and the 2004 and 2006 Tour de France runner up Andreas Klöden did not compete. Ten days before the start of the tour, Contador picked Cadel Evans as the likely winner for 2008.[8] Shown in the table below are the riders that, according to the bookmakers[9] in the months before the start of the 2008 Tour de France, had a chance of winning the 2008 Tour better than or equal to 25/1. The odds shown are the odds in July 2008, directly before the start of the race. Thomas Dekker and Michael Rogers were also given odds in this range, but were not included in the Tour de France.

Pre-race favourites and their final results
Rider Team Notes Decimal Odds
July 2008
Final Standings (time)
Cadel Evans Silence-Lotto 2nd place 2007 Tour de France 3.25 2nd (+ 58")
Alejandro Valverde Caisse d'Epargne 6th place 2007 Tour de France 4.50 9th (+ 7' 12")
Denis Menchov Rabobank 5th place in 2006 Tour de France 7.00 4th (+ 2' 10")
Carlos Sastre Team CSC Saxo Bank 4th place in 2007 Tour de France 11.00 1st (87h 52' 52")
Damiano Cunego Lampre Best young rider 2006 Tour de France 11.00 Did not start stage 19
Andy Schleck Team CSC Saxo Bank 2nd place 2007 Giro d'Italia 13.00 12th (+ 11' 32")
Roman Kreuziger Liquigas 1st 2008 Tour de Suisse 21.00 13th (+ 12' 59")
Mauricio Soler Barloworld King of Mountains 2007 Tour de France 26.00 Did not finish stage 5
Samuel Sánchez Euskaltel-Euskadi 3rd place 2007 Vuelta a España 26.00 7th (+ 6' 25")
Stijn Devolder Quick Step Winner 2008 Ronde Van Vlaanderen 26.00 Did not finish stage 15
Haimar Zubeldia Euskaltel-Euskadi 5th in 2007 Tour de France 26.00 45th (+ 1h 27' 00")
Kim Kirchen Team Columbia 7th place 2007 Tour de France 34.00 8th (+ 6' 55")
Riccardo Riccò Saunier Duval-Scott 2nd place 2008 Giro d'Italia 34.00 Did not start stage 12
Did not finish
Finished in Top 5


In previous years, the Tour started with a prologue, followed by a week of flat stages. The flat stages were dominated by the sprinters' teams, and the yellow jersey was worn by a sprinter who had a good prologue. At the presentation of the Tour de France 2008 schedule, Tour Director Christian Prudhomme announced that the 2008 Tour would be different: "We have wanted a first week of racing with much more rhythm. With no prologue, an uphill finish that will suit different types of sprinters at the end of stage one, with a short time trial on stage four and the first mountain at Super-Besse only 48 hours later, we have decided to change the scenario."[10] The time bonuses at the end of each stage were removed, and there was 82 kilometres (51 mi) of time trials, less than usual.

The 2008 Tour de France was almost entirely in France, with only a small part in Italy.

Stage Route Distance Type Date Official page
1 Brest - Plumelec 197.5 km (122.7 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Saturday, July 5 link
2 Auray - Saint-Brieuc 164.5 km (102.2 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Sunday, July 6 link
3 Saint-Malo - Nantes 208.0 km (129.2 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Monday, July 7 link
4 Cholet 29.5 km (18.3 mi)
image page
Individual time trial Tuesday, July 8 link
5 Cholet - Châteauroux 232.0 km (144.2 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Wednesday, July 9 link
6 Aigurande - Super-Besse Sancy 195.5 km (121.5 mi) Mediummountainstage.svg Transition stage Thursday, July 10 link
7 Brioude - Aurillac 159.0 km (98.8 mi) Mediummountainstage.svg Transition stage Friday, July 11 link
8 Figeac - Toulouse 172.5 km (107.2 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Saturday, July 12 link
9 Toulouse - Bagnères-de-Bigorre 224.0 km (139.2 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain stage Sunday, July 13 link
10 Pau - Hautacam 156.0 km (96.9 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain stage Monday, July 14 link
Rest day Tuesday, July 15
11 Lannemezan - Foix 167.5 km (104.1 mi) Mediummountainstage.svg Transition stage Wednesday, July 16 link
12 Lavelanet - Narbonne 168.5 km (104.7 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Thursday, July 17 link
13 Narbonne - Nîmes 182.0 km (113.1 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Friday, July 18 link
14 Nîmes - Digne-les-Bains 194.5 km (120.9 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Saturday, July 19 link
15 Embrun[11] - Italy Prato Nevoso 183.0 km (113.7 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain stage Sunday, July 20 link
Rest day Monday, July 21
16 Italy Cuneo - Jausiers 157.0 km (97.6 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain stage Tuesday, July 22 link
17 Embrun - Alpe d'Huez 210.5 km (130.8 mi) Mountainstage.svg Mountain stage Wednesday, July 23 link
18 Bourg-d'Oisans - Saint-Étienne 196.5 km (122.1 mi) Mediummountainstage.svg Transition stage Thursday, July 24 link
19 Roanne - Montluçon 165.5 km (102.8 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Friday, July 25 link
20 Cérilly - Saint-Amand-Montrond 53.0 km (32.9 mi)
image page
Individual time trial Saturday, July 26 link
21 Étampes - Paris Champs-Élysées 143.0 km (88.9 mi) Plainstage.svg Flat stage Sunday, July 27 link
Total: 3,559.5 km (2,211.8 mi)

In the first week of the 2008 Tour de France, the stages were mostly flat. As traditionally in the Tour de France, this resulted in small breakaways of cyclists, and the sprinters' teams trying to get them back. In the first stage, the sprinters won, with Thor Hushovd winning the stage, but in the second stage, four cyclists managed to stay away. The fourth stage was a time trial, won by Stefan Schumacher, who took over the lead. In the fifth stage, the sprinters won the battle and Mark Cavendish won the stage.

The Massif Central mountains were visitied in stage six and seven. In stage six, all the breakaways were caught, and the favourites stayed together and finished together. In stage seven, the same scenario, only now Luis León Sánchez managed to stay a few seconds ahead and win the stage. The eighth stage was a sprinter stage, won by Cavendish. Then, from stage nine, the Pyrénées were climbed. Riccardo Riccò broke away from the bunch on the final climb, and won the stage. On stage 10, a group of four with some main contenders escaped, and Leonardo Piepoli won the stage. Stage eleven had easier climbs, and a group of four riders, not important for the overall classification, were allowed to break away and win 14 minutes.

Stages twelve to fourteen were flat stages, and were dominated by the sprinters. Mark Cavendish won another two stages, and Oscar Freire took his first. In the fifteenth stage, a group of four cyclists escaped and stayed away, a similar thing happened in stage sixteen. In the seventeenth stage, Carlos Sastre placed his decisive attack for the general classification, and also won the stage. The eighteenth and nineteenth stage again saw breakaways of cyclists not important for the general classification. The twentieth stage, a time trial, was won by Stefan Schumacher who had also won the first time trial. The last stage was a sprinters' stage, won by Gert Steegmans.

Jersey progress

Stage Winner General classification
Jersey yellow.svg
Maillot jaune
Mountains classification
Jersey polkadot.svg
Maillot à pois rouges
Points classification
Jersey green.svg
Maillot vert
Young rider classification
Jersey white.svg
Maillot blanc
Team classification
Jersey yellow number.svg
Classement par équipe
Combativity award
Jersey red number.svg
Prix de combativité
1 Alejandro Valverde Alejandro Valverde Thomas Voeckler Alejandro Valverde Riccardo Riccò Caisse d'Epargne Lilian Jegou
2 Thor Hushovd Kim Kirchen Sylvain Chavanel
3 Samuel Dumoulin Romain Feillu Romain Feillu Garmin-Chipotle-H30 William Frischkorn
4 Stefan Schumacher * Stefan Schumacher Thomas Lövkvist no award
5 Mark Cavendish Thor Hushovd Nicolas Vogondy
6 Riccardo Riccò * Kim Kirchen Sylvain Chavanel Kim Kirchen Sylvain Chavanel
7 Luis León Sánchez David de la Fuente Team CSC Saxo Bank Luis León Sánchez
8 Mark Cavendish Óscar Freire Laurent Lefevre
9 Riccardo Riccò * Kim Kirchen Andy Schleck Sebastian Lang
10 Leonardo Piepoli * Cadel Evans Riccardo Riccò Óscar Freire Riccardo Riccò Saunier Duval-Scott Rémy Di Gregorio
11 Kurt Asle Arvesen Team CSC Saxo Bank Amaël Moinard
12 Mark Cavendish Sebastian Lang Vincenzo Nibali Arnaud Gérard
13 Mark Cavendish Niki Terpstra
14 Óscar Freire José Ivan Gutierrez
15 Simon Gerrans Fränk Schleck Bernhard Kohl[2] Egoi Martinez
16 Cyril Dessel Andy Schleck Stefan Schumacher
17 Carlos Sastre Carlos Sastre Peter Velits
18 Marcus Burghardt Marcus Burghardt
19 Sylvain Chavanel Sylvain Chavanel
20 Stefan Schumacher * no award
21 Gert Steegmans Nicolas Vogondy
Final Carlos Sastre None[2] Óscar Freire Andy Schleck Team CSC Saxo Bank Sylvain Chavanel
Romain Feillu was the only French cyclist to wear the yellow jersey in the 2008 Tour de France; he wore it for one day after stage 3.
Jersey wearers when one rider is leading two or more competitions
Other notes

Race overview

General Classification

The battle for the general classification really started in the sixth stage, the first mountain stage. At the beginning of that stage, the main contenders were close to each other in the general classification. All the main contenders stayed together in that sixth stage, and Kirchen wore the yellow jersey after that stage. Stages seven to nine saw only little changes, but the classification was changed in the tenth stage, when Kirchen was dropped and Evans took over the lead, only one second ahead of Fränk Schleck. This situation did not change until the fifteenth stage, after which Fränk Schleck was leading, with Kohl, Evans, Menchov, Vandevelde and Sastre all within one minute. In the sixteenth stage, Vandevelde was dropped, and Menchov lost some time. In stage seventeen, Sastre rode away on his own, and he won two minutes over everybody else, and took the lead in the general classification. The only chance to win back time that remained for the other cyclists was the time trial in stage twenty. Although it caused some changes in the top of the classification, and a narrowing of his advantage, Sastre did not lose his lead, and the following day became the winner of the general classification.[14]

King of the Mountains

David de la Fuente took enough hilltop points in the first eight stages to take the lead in the mountains classification. In the ninth stage, stage winner Riccò won more and was coming in close, followed by Sebastian Lang, who was in an initial breakaway. In the tenth stage, Riccò won enough points to take over the lead. Nothing changed in stage 11. Before stage 12, Riccò was withdrawn from the race, together De La Fuente and the rest of his team mates. The lead in the mountain classification was therefore held by Sebastian Lang, with his team mate Kohl in second place. Kohl took over the lead in the fifteenth stage. In the last mountain stage, stage seventeen, Kohl secured his mountains classification win, with Sastre in second place, with the same points as third place Fränk Schleck, but ranked above him because he had reached tops first more often.

After the race finished, the news came that Kohl had used CERA, a doping agent. His results have been removed, but second-place finisher Sastre has not been retroactively awarded the jersey.

Points classification

Although Mark Cavendish won four stages, he never gained enough points to lead the points classification and pulled out of the competition after stage 14. Instead, Óscar Freire, who won one stage, took the lead after stage nine, and kept leading the points classification until the end of the race.

Other categories

The team classification in the 2008 Tour de France was won by Team CSC Saxo Bank, team of Carlos Sastre, Fränk Schleck and Andy Schleck. They had a margin of more than fifteen minutes over Ag2r-La Mondiale. Andy Schleck, in 11th place overall, was the highest placed rider who qualified for the young rider classification, and so won the white jersey. Sylvain Chavanel, who had won three daily combativity awards for his participation in breakaways, was given the supercombativity award.

Overall standings

General Classification

Rank Rider Team Time
1  Carlos Sastre (ESP)Sastre was awarded the final yellow jersey as general classification winner Team CSC Saxo Bank 87h 52' 52"
2  Cadel Evans (AUS) Silence-Lotto + 58"
3 None[2]
4  Denis Menchov (RUS) Rabobank + 2' 10"
5  Christian Vandevelde (USA) Garmin-Chipotle-H30 + 3' 05"
6  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Team CSC Saxo Bank + 4' 28"
7  Samuel Sánchez (ESP) Euskaltel-Euskadi + 6' 25"
8  Kim Kirchen (LUX) Team Columbia + 6' 55"
9  Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne + 7' 12"
10  Tadej Valjavec (SLO) Ag2r-La Mondiale + 9' 05"

Team classification


Rank Team Time
1 Team CSC Saxo Bank 263h 29' 57"
2 Ag2r-La Mondiale + 15' 35"
3 Rabobank + 1h 05' 26"
4 Euskaltel-Euskadi + 1h 16' 26"
5 Silence-Lotto + 1h 17' 15"
6 Caisse d'Epargne + 1h 20' 28"
7 Team Columbia + 1h 23' 00"
8 Lampre + 1h 26' 24"
9 Gerolsteiner + 1h 27' 40"
10 Crédit Agricole + 1h 37' 16"

King of the Mountains Classification


Rank Rider Team Points
1 None[2]
2  Carlos Sastre (ESP)Sastre was awarded the final yellow jersey as general classification winner Team CSC Saxo Bank 80
3  Fränk Schleck (LUX) Team CSC Saxo Bank 80
4  Thomas Voeckler (FRA) Bouygues Télécom 65
5  Sebastian Lang (GER) Gerolsteiner 62
6  Stefan Schumacher (GER) Gerolsteiner 61
7  John-Lee Augustyn (RSA) Barloworld 61
8  Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne 58
9  Rémy Di Gregorio (FRA) Française des Jeux 52
10  Egoi Martínez (ESP) Euskaltel-Euskadi 51

Points Classification


Rank Rider Team Points
1  Óscar Freire (ESP)Freire was awarded the final green jersey as points classification winner Rabobank 270
2  Thor Hushovd (NOR) Crédit Agricole 220
3  Erik Zabel (GER) Team Milram 217
4  Leonardo Duque (COL) Cofidis 181
5  Kim Kirchen (LUX) Team Columbia 155
6  Alejandro Valverde (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne 136
7  Robert Hunter (RSA) Barloworld 131
8  Robbie McEwen (AUS) Silence-Lotto 129
9  Julian Dean (NZL) Garmin-Chipotle-H30 119
10  Gerald Ciolek (GER) Team Columbia 116
Óscar Freire in the green jersey that he received for winning the points classification.

Young Riders' Classification


Rank Rider Team Time
1  Andy Schleck (LUX)Schleck was awarded the final white jersey as youth classification winner Team CSC Saxo Bank 88h 04' 24"
2  Roman Kreuziger (CZE) Liquigas + 1' 27"
3  Vincenzo Nibali (ITA) Liquigas + 17' 01"
4  Maxime Monfort (BEL) Cofidis + 24' 09"
5  Eduardo Gonzalo (ESP) Agritubel + 1h 08' 34"
6  Thomas Lövkvist (SWE) Team Columbia + 1h 13' 55"
7  John-Lee Augustyn (RSA) Barloworld + 1h 24' 49"
8  Peter Velits (SVK) Team Milram + 1h 38' 17"
9  Rémy Di Gregorio (FRA) Française des Jeux + 1h 38' 22"
10  Luis León Sánchez (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne + 1h 44' 07"
Graphical representation of nine prominent riders' time gaps throughout the 2008 race

Prize money

A total prize fund of approximately €3.25 million was awarded throughout the tour. In addition, each team received €51,243 towards expenses of participation, with an additional €1,600 per rider who completed the race, provided that at least seven did so.[15][16]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Notes
Individual Stages €8,000 €4,000 €2,000 €1,200 €830 Prizes down to 20th place (€200).
General Classification €450,000 €200,000 €100,000 €70,000 €50,000 All finishers earn at least €400. The wearer of the Yellow Jersey each day gets €350.
Overall Points Competition €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 Additional prize money down to 8th place (€2,000). The leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Intermediate Sprints €800 €450 €300 There are 45 such sprints during the tour.
King of the Mountains Competition €25,000 €15,000 €10,000 €4,000 €3,500 Additional prize money down to 8th place (€2,000). The leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Hors Category climbs €800 €450 €300 There are 8 HC cols during the tour. There are additional €5,000 prizes for the riders first over the Tourmalet (stage 10) and the Galibier (stage 17).
First category climbs €650 €400 €150 There are 4 such mountains during the tour.
Second category climbs €500 €250 There are 5 such climbs during the tour.
Third category climbs €300 There are 14 such climbs during the tour.
Fourth category climbs €200 There are 26 such climbs during the tour.
Young Riders' Competition €20,000 €15,000 €10,000 €5,000 The first young rider each day gets €500, and the leader of the ranking each day gets €300.
Combativity prize €20,000 A prize of €2,000 is awarded for each stage except time trials.
Team Competition €50,000 €30,000 €20,000 €12,000 €8,000 The team with the fastest time for its first three finishers each day gets €2,800.

By tradition, a team's winnings were pooled and shared among the riders and support team. Team CSC, the team of Tour winner Sastre, won the most prize money, more than €600,000. Saunier Duval's prize money was not awarded after the positive tests of Riccardo Riccò.[17]

Team CSC received €450,000 for the overall victory of Carlos Sastre.
Team name Prize money
1 Team CSC Saxo Bank €621,210
2 Silence-Lotto €233,450
3 Gerolsteiner €192,370
4 Rabobank €154,250
5 Team Columbia €113,450
6 Cofidis €91,460
7 Garmin-Chipotle €82,570
8 Ag2r-La Mondiale €71,060
9 Caisse d'Epargne €59,510
10 Crédit Agricole €55,450
11 Euskaltel-Euskadi €53,130
12 Liquigas €49,220
13 Française des Jeux €45,780
14 Team Milram €35,490
15 Agritubel €32,540
16 Quick Step €31,470
17 Bouygues Télécom €24,900
18 Barloworld €22,480
19 Lampre €9,840


Writing on the street during Tour de France 2008 at Alpe d'Huez, satirically saying that EPO is available in 500 meters.

On 26 May 2008, the 2007 green jersey (points) winner Tom Boonen tested positive for cocaine. Since this was outside competition, Boonen was not sanctioned by the UCI or WADA, but he was nevertheless barred from the 2008 Tour de France.[18][19]

Following protracted disagreement between the organisers of the Tour de France (ASO) and the UCI, the race was sanctioned by the French cycling federation (FFC), as was the 2008 Paris-Nice in March. Thus the FFC were in charge of the doping controls before and during the race, and rather than increasing the number of doping controls during the Tour, they applied a more targeted approach on suspect riders.[20] The anti-doping agency AFLD carried out approximately 60 random and targeted tests in the weeks leading up to the Tour. They took blood samples from all the 180 riders in a two-day period just before the first stage, and during the race took samples from up to 14 riders a day shortly after the stage was finished, 250 tests being run in total.[21] The Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI) also performed unannounced doping tests of riders at the finish of stage 15, which ended at the ski resort of Prato Nevoso, Italy.[22] On 3 July 2008, France enacted a law criminalizing using or trafficking in doping substances.[23]

On July 11 news broke that Spanish rider Manuel Beltrán tested positive for erythropoietin after the first stage of the tour. Blood abnormalities before the tour start had led AFLD to target the rider. Beltrán's team Liquigas withdrew him from the tour with immediate effect. French law enforcement authorities questioned Beltrán over possible offences and searched his hotel room, but he claimed his innocence. The B-Sample has not yet been tested.[24]

On July 13, prior to the ninth stage, it was revealed that AFLD had informed team doctors that five riders had unusually high hematocrit levels. The Italian press reported that Riccardo Riccò, who won the stage later that day, had been selected for testing several times during the first week, which led to a suspicion that he was among those whose teams had been notified. Riccò has for some time been known to have a naturally high hematocrit level of 51%, above the 50%-level which usually is taken to be an indicator of possible blood manipulation. Riccò stated that he has a license confirming that this is a natural, long-term condition, which he gave to the doping agencies before the start of the race,[25] but he later admitted to the offence at a hearing of the Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI).[26]

On July 16 Barloworld started the 11th stage without Moisés Dueñas, who had been withdrawn from the team after being tested positive for EPO at the end of the time trial fourth stage.[27] Barloworld Ltd, two days later, announced that they were withdrawing from sponsorship after this year's Tour de France,[28] but on October 28, they announced that they would sponsor the team for another year.[29]

Stefan Schumacher tested positive for MIRCERA following additional testing of his blood samples.

On July 17, shortly before the start of stage 12, Ricardo Riccò and the rest of the Saunier Duval-Scott team, withdrew from the race after the announcement that he had tested positive for MIRCERA, a new type of EPO, at the end of stage 4.[30][31] Leonardo Piepoli, winner of stage 10, was sacked by his team for "violation of the team's ethics code" the following day, though no positive test was reported at that time.[32] Almost 3 months later his tests came back positive for samples taken one day prior to the start of the Tour, on July 4, and also on July 15, on the rest day in Pau.[33]

On the last day of the race, but after the end of the stage, Dmitry Fofonov was announced to have tested positive for the banned stimulant heptaminol after Stage 18. He was asked for a medical exemption to use the stimulant, but did not produce one.[34] He was subsequently fired by his team Crédit Agricole.[35]

After the race ended, French cyclist Jimmy Casper was suspended from Agritubel because he tested positive after the stage to Super Besse for glucocorticoids, an asthma drug that is banned unless the user has a medical exemption for its use. Casper, an asthmatic, carried a therapeutic use exemptions (TUE) for the last twelve years but failed to renew this exemption. His authorisation expired on May 29 and was not renewed before the 2008 Tour de France.[36] The French cycling federation's disciplinary commission exonerated Casper.[37]

In late September it was announced that several Tour de France riders were to have their blood samples retested for traces of EPO. Pierre Bordry, the head of AFLD, claimed the testing involved riders who were already under scrutiny for suspicious urine samples. AFLD had suspicion that there was MIRCERA in some samples but the laboratory could not say definitively. The urine tests were somewhat unreliable at giving definitive results, so the AFLD decided to order the blood samples taken before and during the Tour for additional testing with a newly developed CERA blood test.[38][39]

As a result of this additional testing, both Leonardo Piepoli and Stefan Schumacher tested positive for the same substance which Riccò used, MIRCERA. The riders were declared positive by AFLD.[33]

On 13 October 2008, the AFLD announced that Bernhard Kohl, who finished in third place overall and winner of the climbers' competition, had also tested positive for MIRCERA on July 3 and 15, before and during the Tour de France.[40][41] Initial results were verified, and Kohl also confessed to doping. His third-place overall finish in the 2008 Tour and his first place in the King of the Mountains competition are considered vacancies in the Tour's official history.[2]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Jacques Augendre (2009). "Guide Historique" (in French). Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved 30 September 2009.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g The results of Austrian cyclist Bernhard Kohl have been removed, after Kohl tested positive and admitted the use of doping.Official history of the Tour, see pages 117 and 123 As of 27 July 2009, other cyclists have not been upgraded to the positions Kohl's removal has vacated.
  3. ^ History of UCI-Grand Tour disputes
  4. ^ Associated Press (2008-02-13). "Tour de France organizers exclude Astana team; Alberto Contador may not defend title". Retrieved 2008-08-15.  
  5. ^ VeloNews (18 June 2008). "Garmin is the new title sponsor of the Slipstream-Chipotle team". Press release. Retrieved 2008-06-18.  
  7. ^ renamed with effect from the date of commencement of the 2008 Tour de France, formerly known as Team High Road : Team Columbia & High Road Sports, Inc (15 June 2008). "Columbia Sportswear Announces Sponsorship". Press release. Retrieved 2008-06-17.  
  8. ^ "Contador rates Evans as Tour favourite". 2008-06-25.  
  9. ^ All odds taken from
  10. ^ Gregor Brown. "A Grand Tour with minimal transfers and mythical mountains". cyclingnews.  
  11. ^ The 15th stage was due to start at Digne-les-Bains but due to the risk of rock falls in the climb up the Col de Larche, the organisers decided to modify the itinerary. The stage took off from Embrun and head to Prato Nevoso facing the climb up the Col Agnel (2744 m).
  12. ^ - the world centre of cycling
  13. ^ AFP: Gerolsteiner's Schumacher, Piepoli test positive
  14. ^ a b c d e Official Tour de France standing
  15. ^ Rules and Stakes at Le
  16. ^ 2008 Rules and Stakes at Le (PDF)
  17. ^ "VeloNews 2008 Tour de France information".  
  18. ^ "Boonen participation in Tour de France to be decided: Ouick Step". 2008-06-11.  
  19. ^ "Former world champion Tom Boonen barred from Tour de France". 2008-06-11.  
  20. ^ "Tour de France under the control of FFC and AFLD". Retrieved 2008-07-30.  
  21. ^ "Andrew Hood's Tour de France Notebook - Sastre’s Tour: Can we dare to believe?". VeloNews. Retrieved 2008-07-30.  
  22. ^ "CONI surprises Schleck with doping control". Retrieved 2008-07-30.  
  23. ^ Law 2008-650 of 3 July 2008, amending the Sports Code
  24. ^ "Doping agency: Beltran positive for EPO". AP. Retrieved 2008-07-11.  
  25. ^ "Riccò makes it look easy on Col d'Aspin". Retrieved 2008-07-13.  
  26. ^ "Ricco criticises Tour drug tests". BBC Sport. 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-07-31.  
  27. ^ "11:02 - Official Statement From ASO". Retrieved 2008-07-16.  
  28. ^ Plug pulled on Team Barloworld
  29. ^ "The Team Barloworld cycling legend continues...".  
  30. ^ presents the 95th Tour de France
  31. ^ Doping once again roils the Tour de France - International Herald Tribune
  32. ^ BBC SPORT | Other sport... | Cycling | Spanish team sack Ricco & Piepoli
  33. ^ a b Piepoli and Schumacher Tour de France samples positive for MIRCERA -
  34. ^ Other Sports | Tour de France | Team CSC rider Carlos Sastre wins doping-scarred race | Seattle Times Newspaper
  35. ^ FOFONOV FIRED AFTER POSITIVE TEST | Sporting Life | Beijing Olympics, MotoGP, Athletics, World Rally Championship, Superbikes
  36. ^ BBC SPORT | Other sport... | Cycling | Fifth Tour rider fails drugs test
  37. ^ - the world centre of cycling
  38. ^ Tour riders to have blood samples retested -
  39. ^ Tour doping czar begins search for MIRCERA-type EPO - Yahoo Sports
  40. ^ "Kohl admits to failed doping test". BBC News. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  
  41. ^ Kohl a triché lui aussi, L'Equipe, 13 Oct 2008.

External links

2008 in Road Cycling

External links

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