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US-Census-2010Logo.svg

The Twenty-third United States Census, known as Census 2010, will be the next national census in the United States. National Census Day is April 1, 2010 and is the date used as a point of reference in filling out the form.[1]

Contents

Introduction

As required by the United States Constitution, the US census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 United States Census was the previous census completed.

On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.[2]

Census forms were delivered beginning March 15, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1 as the point of reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."

Major changes

The Census Bureau website states it will no longer use a long form for the 2010 Census.[3] In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 Census will use only a short form asking ten basic questions, including name, sex, age, date of birth, race, and homeownership status.[3]

Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.[4] The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a yearly basis rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years.[5]

Cost

The Government Accountability Office estimated in 2004 that the cost of the 2010 Census would be over $11 billion.[6] In a detailed report to Congress, it called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues.[7]

Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract includes systems, facilities, and staffing.[citation needed] Information technology will be about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census.[8] This will be the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability.[9] Unlike the 2000 census, an Internet response option will not be offered.[3][4]

Same-sex marriage

In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would count same-sex married couples. However, technical problems with current Census software may affect whether they are included in the census as "married" or whether they will be listed as "unmarried partners."[10] As of January 1, 2010 (2010 -01-01), the District of Columbia and five states – Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire – allow marriages between partners of any sex combination to be performed by the state. In addition, 18,000 same-sex couples in California were married in 2008.[11] Also, New York, Maryland and Virginia recognize marriages between partners of the same sex performed in other states to be legal. Same-sex couples who aren't legally able to marry will be counted as "married" if they self-identify that way.

Marketing

In April 2009, the Census Bureau announced that it intended to work with community organizations in an effort to count all illegal immigrants in the United States for the census.[12] In September 2009, after undercover exposé videos of questionable activities by staff of one of these community organizations were made public, the partnership of ACORN in the 2010 United States Census was terminated.[13]

2012 election

Likely changes in U.S. Representatives[14]
State Change New
Texas !B9986137056388 4 36
Arizona !C 1 9
Florida !C 1 26
Georgia !C 1 14
Nevada !C 1 4
South Carolina !C 1 7
Utah !C 1 4
Washington[15] !C 1 10
Illinois !I 1 18
Iowa !I 1 4
Louisiana !I 1 6
Massachusetts !I 1 9
Michigan !I 1 14
Minnesota !I 1 7
New Jersey !I 1 12
New York !I 1 28
Pennsylvania !I 1 18
Ohio !J0006931471805 2 16

The results of the 2010 census will determine the number of seats each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this will also affect the number of votes that states receive in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.

Projections

One projection for changes in representation in the House of Representatives based on 2000-2009 growth rate from the Census Bureau's population estimates is in the tables to the right.[14]

Further analysis is in United_States_presidential_election,_2012

Controversy

On September 12, 2009, census worker Bill Sparkman, 51, was found hanged in Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky with the word "fed" written on his chest.[16][17] His death was later ruled a suicide made to look like a murder in order not to nullify his life insurance.[18]

Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argue that the Census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, will skew political clout and result in misleading demographic and population data.[19]

The term "Negro" is used in the questionnaire (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Some older African Americans still identify with the term, while others find it outdated and offensive. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin stated that, "Many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included".[20][21] The word was also used in the 2000 Census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro."[22]

Some Libertarians, such as Bob Barr[23] feel that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the scope intended by the authors of the U.S. Constitution. The text of the Constitution concerning the census, in Article I, Section 2 states: "The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct." Because the Constitution specifically authorizes an "Enumeration" (counting), some feel that the federal government has no authority to force citizens to answer questions beyond that which establishes the number of people living in the household. The 2010 census contains ten questions: about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions are intended to be answered by each individual in the household. Current federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form.[24] Another controversy includes various objections to the counting of persons who are illegally in the United States.[25][26]

References

  1. ^ Key Dates. United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ D'oro, Rachel (January 2010). "Remote Alaska village is first eyed in census". Noorvik, Alaska: The Associated Press. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2010889077_apusalaskacensuslaunch.html. 
  3. ^ a b c "About the Census Form". 2010 Census. United States Census. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/how/about-the-form.php. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  4. ^ a b Castro, Daniel (February 2008). "e-Census Unplugged: Why Americans Should Be Able to Complete the Census Online". Washington, D.C.: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. http://www.itif.org/files/eCensusUnplugged.pdf. 
  5. ^ http://2010.census.gov/2010census/about_2010_census/007622.html
  6. ^ Budget of the United States Government, FY 2006
  7. ^ "2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon (GAO-04-37)" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office. 2004-01-15. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-04-37. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  8. ^ Sternstein, Aliya (2005-06-13). "Preparing for a decennial task". Federal Computer Week (Falls Church, Virginia: 1105 Media). http://fcw.com/articles/2005/06/13/preparing-for-a-decennial-task.aspx. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  9. ^ http://download.harris.com/app/public_download.asp?fid=1454
  10. ^ http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2009/07/08/technical-issues-mean-2010-us-census-may-not-count-gay-married-couples/
  11. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may/27/local/me-gay-marriage27
  12. ^ Ballasy, Nicholas (2009-04-02). "Census Bureau: We’ll Work with 'Community Organizations' to Count All Illegal Aliens in 2010". Cybercast News Service. http://www.cnsnews.com/public/content/article.aspx?RsrcID=46021. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  13. ^ Sherman, Jake (September 12, 2009). "Census Bureau Cuts Its Ties With Acorn". The Wall Street Journal (online.wsj.com): pp. A4. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125271412822705239.html. Retrieved September 20, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "Congressional Apportionment: 2010 Projections Based Upon State Estimates as of July 1, 2009". Clark H. Bensen. 2009-12-23. http://www.polidata.org/news.htm#20091223. Retrieved 2009-12-26. 
  15. ^ Lornet Turnbull (Dec. 23, 2009). "Washington is on track to add seat in U.S. House". The Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/politics/2010582738_census24m.html. 
  16. ^ Online Conspiracy Theorists Latch Onto Census GPS Units, Kevin Poulson, Wired.com, September 24, 2009.
  17. ^ F.B.I. Is Investigating the Death of a Federal Census Field Worker, Associated Press, New York Times, September 24, 2009.
  18. ^ Police: Census worker made death look like homicide to get money, Bill Estep, Lexington Herald-Leader, November 25, 2009.
  19. ^ Lotke, Eric; Wagner, Peter (Spring 2004). "Prisoners of the Census: Electoral and Financial Consequences of Counting Prisoners Where They Go, Not Where They Come From". Pace Law Review (White Plains, New York: Pace Law School) 24 (2): 587–607. ISSN 0272-2410. http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/lawrev/9/.  Originally presented at Prison Reform Revisited: a symposium held at Pace University School of Law and the New York State Judicial Institute, Oct. 16–18, 2003. Research supported by grants from the Soros Justice Fellowship Program of the Open Society Institute. Retrieved on 2010-01-02.
  20. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau interactive form, Question 9.". http://2010.census.gov/2010census/how/interactive-form.php. Retrieved January 8, 2010.. 
  21. ^ McFadden, Katie; McShane, Larry (January 6, 2010). "Use of word Negro on 2010 census forms raises memories of Jim Crow". NYDailyNews.com. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2010/01/06/2010-01-06_census_negro_issue_use_of_word_on_forms_raises_hackles_memories_of_jim_crow.html. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Should the Census Be Asking People if They Are Negro?". Time. January 23, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1955923,00.html. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Census goes too far with children". Atlanta Journal Constitution. http://blogs.ajc.com/bob-barr-blog/2009/09/08/census-goes-too-far-with-children/. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  24. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on the National Census
  25. ^ "Our Unconstitutional Census". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204908604574332950796281832.html. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  26. ^ "Census 2010: Latino Pastors Urge Census Boycott". Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/federal-eye/2009/04/census_2010_latino_pastors_urg.html. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 

External links


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