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20 cent
Value 0.2 euro
Mass 5.74 g
Diameter 22.25 mm
Thickness 2.14 mm
Edge plane but with seven broad indentations consistent with Spanish flower shape of the coin
Composition Nordic gold
Years of minting 2002–present
Obverse
Obverse
Design Map of Europe with the denomination shown in Latin characters
Designer Luc Luycx
Design date 2007
Reverse
Reverse
Design 24 variations, see below.
Designer Various
Design date Various

20 cent euro coins (€0.20) have a value of one fifth of a euro and are composed of an alloy called nordic gold in the Spanish flower shape. All coins have a common reverse side and country-specific national sides. The coin has been used since 2002, with the present common side design dating from 2007.

Contents

History

The coin dates from 2002, when euro coins and banknotes were introduced in the 12 member eurozone and its related territories. The common side was designed by Luc Luycx, a Belgian artist who won a Europe-wide competition to design the new coins. The design of the 10 to 50 cent coins were intended to show separate states of the European Union (EU), as opposed to the one and two euro coins showing the 15 states as one and the 1 to 5 cent coins showing the EU's place in the world.

The national sides, then 15 (eurozone + Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican who could mint their own) were each designed according to national competitions, though to specifications which applied to all coins such as the requirement of including twelve stars (see euro coins for more). National designs were not allowed to change until the end of 2008, unless a monarch (who's portrait usually appears on the coins) dies or abdicates. This happened in Monaco and the Vatican City resulting in three new designs in circulation (the Vatican had an interim design until the new Pope was selected). National designs have seen some changes due to new rules stating that national designs should include the name of the issuing country (Finland and Belgium both do not show their name, and hence have made minor changes).

As the EU's membership has since expanded in 2004 and 2007, with further expansions envisaged, the common face of all euro coins from the value of 10 cent and above were redesigned in 2007 to show a new map. This map showed Europe, not just the EU, as one continuous landmass, however Cyprus was moved west as the map cut off after the Bosporus (which was seen as excluding Turkey for political reasons). The redesign in 2007, rather than in 2004, was due to the fact that 2007 saw the first enlargement of the eurozone; the entry of Slovenia. Hence, the Slovenian design was added to the designs in circulation. Two more designs were added in 2008 with the entry of Cyprus and Malta and another one in 2009 with Slovakia.

Design

Edge of all 20 cent coins

The coins are composed of an alloy called nordic gold, with a diameter of 22.25 mm, a 2.14 mm thickness and a mass of 5.74 grams. The coins' edges are smooth with seven indentations from the coin's "Spanish flower" shape. The coins have been used from 2002, though some are dated 1999 which is the year the euro was created as a currency, but not put into general circulation.

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Obverse (common) side

Common side of all 20 cent coins minted before 2007

The obverse (used from 2007 onwards) was designed by Luc Luycx and displays a map of Europe on the left. The map does not include Iceland and cuts off on the right through Russia (exactly, at a line from the Kandalaksha Gulf to the Bosphorus (Cyprus is moved westward under Crete in order to include it and Malta is shown as disproportionally large so that it shows up). The map is flat and level with most of the coin and the sea is shown as an indentation. Six fine lines cut through the sea, breaking when passing through the map, and at their ends at the top and bottom are twelve stars (reflective of the flag of Europe). To the right, in raised lettering, is "20 Euro Cent" with the '20' being shown much larger than the words. The designers initials, LL, appear next to the 0 in 20.

Luc Luycx designed the original coin, which was much the same except the design was only of the then 15 members and shown with gaps between the states and raised rather than with an indented sea.

Reverse (national) sides

The reverse side of the coin depends on the issuing country. All have to include twelve stars (in most cases a circle around the edge), the engravers initials and the year of issue. New designs also have to include the name or initials of the issuing country. The side cannot repeat the denomination of the coin unless the issuing country uses an alphabet other than Latin (currently, Greece and Austria are the only such countries, hence they engrave "20 ΑΕΠΤΑ" and "20 EURO CENT" upon their coins respectively).

Description Image
 Austria:
The Austrian design features the Belvedere Palace, an example of baroque architecture, symbolising national freedom and sovereignty due to the fact it was at Belvedere where the 1955 treaty re-establishing Austrian sovereignty was signed. The words "euro cent" appear at the top, with the denomination, followed by a hatched Austrian flag and the date, appears below (but within the circle).
Eurocoin.at.020.gif
 Belgium:
The Belgian design was chosen by a panel of leading Belgian officials, artisans and experts in numismatics. They chose an effigy of King Albert II designed by Jan Alfons Keustermans, Director of the Municipal Academy of Fine Arts of Turnhout. To the right hand side among the stars was the kings monogram, a letter "A", underneath a crown. The year was lower down, also among the stars. The 2008 redesign included the letters BE (standing for Belgium) beneath the monogram, which was moved out of the stars into the centre circle but still to the right of the King's portrait. The date was also moved out and placed beneath the effigy and included two symbols either side (left: signature mark of the master of the mint, right: mint mark).
Eur.be.020.gif
1st Series (2002–2007)
20 cent BE 2008.jpg
2nd Series (2008–)
 Cyprus:
The Cypriot design features a Kyrenia ship, a 4th century trading vessel symbolising the the seafaring and trading history of Cyprus. It includes, in a semicircle to the top right, the name of Cyprus in Greek and Turkish (ΚΥΠΡΟΣ and KIBRIS) each side of the date. It has been used since Cyprus adopted the euro in 2008. It was chosen in a public vote and the exact design was created by Erik Maell and Tatiana Soteropoulos.
Eurocoin.cy.020.gif
 Finland:
The Finnish design depicts the heraldic lion of Finland found on the Coat of arms of Finland. It is a reproduction of a design by the sculptor Heikki Häiväoja and has been used by previous Finnish coins such as the 1 markka between 1964 and 2001. The first series included the initial of the mint master of the Mint of Finland, Raimo Makkonen (an M), on the bottom left side of the lion and the date to the left. When the coins were redesign to meet the new design requirements, the initial was replaced by the mint's mint mark and moved the to the left, with the letters FI (for Finland) sitting in the bottom right.
020.fin.01.jpg
1st Series (2002–2006)
20 cent FI 2007.jpg
2nd Series (2007–)
 France:
The French design by Laurent Jorio depicts a sower in a field with a rising sun behind her. The image is taken from the previous one French franc coin designed by Louis Oscar Roty. Oscar Roty's art nouveau design reset the global trend, breaking from traditional static portraits to a full body, strident figure sowing the seeds of good fortune. For the euro coins, Jorio added hatching each side representing the French flag with the year to the left and the letters RF (République française) to the right.
Eur.fr.020.gif
 Germany:
The German design depicts the Brandenburg Gate as a symbol of the reunification of Germany and Europe. The year and mint mark is shown at the bottom and the image was designed by Reinhard Heinsdorff.
Eur.de.020.gif
 Greece:
The Greek design is a portrait of Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831), diplomat and politician who was the first Governor (head of state) of Greece following their war of independence. His name in Greek is shown to the bottom left of the portrait and to the right is the denomination in Greek with the year to the left. It was designed by Georgios Stamatopoulos.
20 euro cents Greece.jpg
 Ireland:
The Irish design shows an Irish harp (the Clàrsach) used as a national symbol (for example, on the Official Seal of the President of Ireland). Vertically on the left hand side is the word "Éire" (Ireland in the Irish language) and on the right hand side is the date. The harp motif was designed by Jarlath Hayes.
Eurocoin.ie.020.gif
 Italy:
The Italian design is a depiction of the futurist sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccioni. Boccioni, a leading futurist painter and sculptor from Reggio Calabria, created the scultpure in 1913 and it is considered a masterpiece of futurism. The coin was chosen through a televised contest involving a public phone in vote. The interpretation for the coin was engraved by Maria Angela Cassol and it includes the interconnected letters IR (Repubblica Italiana), the year is shown to the top right and the mint mark are shown to the bottom right of the statue.
Eur.it.020.gif
 Luxembourg:
The Luxembourgian design contains a stylised effigy of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg designed by Yvette Gastauer-Claire in consultation with the government and monarchy of Luxembourg. The name Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourg in Luxembourgish) and the year is written round the outer left side of the coin.
Eur.lu.020.gif
 Malta:
The Maltese design depicts the Coat of arms of Malta, which includes the Maltese flag and a mural crown of fortifications symbolising a city state. Shield of the arms is bound by an olive branch and a palm branch as Maltese symbols of peace, tied at their base by a ribbon reading “Repubblika ta’ Malta” (Republic of Malta). The name Malta sits round the upper left inner edge and the year in a similar fashion on the right. The arms were the second most popular in a public vote and was designed by Noel Galea Bason. It has been used since Malta switched to the euro in 2008.
20 cents Euro coin Mt.gif
 Monaco:
The first Monegasque design contained the seal of Monaco with the name MONACO was written across the top of the coin's outer circle and the year across the bottom of the outer circle with the mint marks. Upon the death of Prince Rainier III in 2005, and the accession of Prince Albert II the seal was replaced with the monogram of Prince Albert II and the name Monaco and the year were brought within the inner circle.
Monaco 20cents serie1.jpg
1st Series (2002–2005)
Monaco-20cents 2.png
2nd Series (2006-)
 Netherlands:
The Dutch design displays a stylised profile of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands surrounded by the twelve stars and other dots, with the inscription “Beatrix Queen of The Netherlands” in Dutch around the edge. The date and mint marks are located at the bottom.
Eurocoin.nl.020.gif
 Portugal:
The Portuguese design shows the royal seal of 1142 surrounded by the country's castles and five escutcheona with silver bezants set in relation to the surrounding European stars which is supposed to symbolise dialogue, exchange of values and dynamics in the building of Europe. Between the castles are the numbers of the year towards the bottom and the letters of the name Portugal between the upper icons. The stars are inset on a ridge.
Eurocoin.pt.020.gif
 San Marino:
The Sammarinese design features Saint Marinus who founded the city state, which is the world's oldest surviving republic, in the year 301 after fleeing persecution for his Christian beliefs in what is now Croatia. The image is based on a canvas from the Guercino school. In a semicircle to his left are the words San Marino, and in a similar fashion to his right is the date with the mint marks between the stars to the bottom right.
Eurocoin.sm.020.gif
 Slovakia:
The Slovak design depicts Bratislava Castle, with the national emblem in the bottom left of the picture. Below the image is the date and curving just above the circling stars is the name SLOVENSKO (Slovakia). The coin came into use in 2009 when Slovakia adopted the euro and it was designed by Ján Černaj and Pavol Károly, chosen by a public competition and vote in 2005.
20 cents Euro coin Sk.gif
 Slovenia:
The Slovenian design depicts a pair of Lipizzaner horses. The moral claim over the prestigious animals had been fought over between Slovenia and its neighbours. Slovenia considers them part of their culture and their home town, Lipica (Lipizza in its original Italian), has been in Slovenia since the second world war. In 2005, the Lipica stud farm celebrated its 425th anniversary. In a semicircle above that are two lines of text, the outer one reading SLOVENIJA (Slovenia) between the twelve stars and the inner one reading "Lipicanec",Lipizzaner in Slovenian. The design came into use in 2007 when Slovenia adopted the euro and it was designed by Miljenko Licul, Maja Licul and Janez Boljka.
Si20ct.jpg
 Spain:
The Spanish design has an effigy of Miguel de Cervantes, the father of Spanish literature. His name and a quill is shown to the left, the name España (Spain) above it and the mint mark below. The date is shown at the bottom of the coin. The top right four stars are indented on a raised area, inverting the effect of the rest of the coin.
Eurocoin.es.020.gif
1st Series (1999–2009)
20 cent coin Es serie 2.jpg
2nd Series (2010-)
 Vatican City:
The Vatican design has changed two times. The first displayed an effigy of Pope John Paul II. The name CITTA DEL VATICANO (Vatican City) was written to his left, the date and mint mark below and the stars grouped together on his right. Following the death of John Paul II in 2005, a new coin was issued during the Sede vacante until a new Pope was chosen. This contained the insignia of the Apostolic Chamber and the coat of arms of the Cardinal Chamberlain. When Pope Benedict XVI was elected, his effigy appeared on the coins, with the name of the city now above his head with the year and mint mark in the middle to his right.
20 cent coin Va serie 1.png
1st Series (2002–2005)
20 cent coin Va serie 2.png
2nd Series (2005–2006)
20 cent coin Va serie 3.png
3rd Series (2006–)

Planned designs

Austria, Germany and Greece will also at some point need to update their designs to comply with guidelines stating they must include the issuing state's name or initial, and not repeat the denomination of the coin.

In addition, there are several EU states that have not yet adopted the euro, some of them have already agreed upon their coin designs however it is not know exactly when they will adopt the currency, and hence these are not yet minted. See enlargement of the Eurozone for expected entry dates of these countries.

References

External links


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