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2S1 Gvozdika.jpg
2S1 "Gvozdika"
Type Self-propelled artillery
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Weight 16 tons (35,273 lbs)
Length 7.26 m (25 ft)
Width 2.85 m (9.35 ft)
Height 2.73 m (9 ft)
Crew 4

Armor 20 mm (.78 in)
2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer
Engine YaMZ-238N diesel
220 kW (300 hp)
500 km (310 mi)
Speed 60 km/h (37 mph)
30 km/h (18 mph)

The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика»; English: carnation) is a Soviet 122-mm self-propelled howitzer that resembles the PT-76 but is essentially a version of the MT-LB APC. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. Alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika ("Carnation"). The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of wider tracks are also available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infra-red night-vision capability.


Production history

The first prototype was ready in 1969. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). Designated the M1974 by the US Army. Manufactured in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian state factories.



former Soviet Union

  • MT-LBu - Bigger variant of the MT-LB, has the longer chassis and stronger engine of the 2S1.
  • UR-77 "Meteorit" (ustanovka razminirovaniya) - mine clearing vehicle with turret-like superstructure for two launch ramps. These are used to fire mine clearance hoses UZP-77 with rockets into a mine field after which the hoses are command detonated. This way, an area of 90 by 6 m can be cleared. The UR-77 is the successor for the BTR-50 based UR-67.
  • RKhM "Kashalot" (razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina) - chemical reconnaissance vehicle with detection, marking and alarm devices. This model has the hull shape and single rear door of the 2S1 but the short chassis and machine gun turret of the MT-LB. Former Western designator: ATV M1979/4.
    • RKhM-K - command version with additional signal equipment but without sensors or markers.


2S1 Gvozdika (under the name 2S1 Goździk) as well as other related vehicles like MT-LB and Opal were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola.

  • 2S1M Goździk - The vehicle with installed special amphibious kit, that increases vehicles amphibious capabilities.
  • 2S1T Goździk - The vehicle with digital TOPAZ fire control system from WB electronics. The the system consist of FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. Same system is used on other modern artillery systems in Polish Armed Forces like Krab, Dana-T or WR-40 Langusta.
  • Rak carrier (Rak is polish for crayfish) - new 120mm mortar turret with automatic feed system that is intended to be installed on existing 2S1 chassis, as well as wheeled KTO Rosomak.
  • LPG (LPG for Lekkie Podwozie Gąsiennicowe – lit. Light Tracked Chassis) - Chassis of surplus 2S1 Goździk converted to an Armored Personnel Carrier. The original gun turret was removed, upper part of the vehicle was redesigned, old engine was replaced with modern diesel engine from german company MTU. The vehicle will be used as command vehicle for Krab howitzer and Rak mortar units as well as medical and technical support vehicles.


  • Model 89 - Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.


  • Raad-1 (thunder) - Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.


  • BMP-23 (bojna mashina na pekhotata) - infantry fighting vehicle with 23mm gun 2A14 and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315hp engine.
    • BMP-23D - improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers.
    • BRM-23 - reconnaissance version. Prototype.
  • BMP-30 - similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2. Only 10 were built.


  • Abu Fatma - this appears to be a licence version.


Polish Land Forces "Gvozdika" in artillery range.

Former Operators

An Iraqi M-1974 122mm self-propelled howitzer lies stranded in the desert after being deserted by Iraqi forces during Operation Desert Storm.
Serbian 2S1 SPH captured by HVO during Bosnian War.

Combat history

See also


  • Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3.  

External links


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