32nd century BC: Wikis

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Millennium: 4th millennium BC
Centuries: 33rd century BC · 32nd century BC · 31st century BC
Decades: 3190s BC 3180s BC 3170s BC 3160s BC 3150s BC
3140s BC 3130s BC 3120s BC 3110s BC 3100s BC
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

Contents

Events

Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae, Europe's most complete Neolithic village.

Significant persons

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

  • 3102 BC—According to Hindu tradition, the Kali Yuga begins with the disappearance of Krishna, marking the end of the Dvapara Yuga, after which the epic heroes of the Mahabharata the Pandavas retire to the Himalayas.
  • 3114 BC—According to the most widely accepted correlations between the Western calendar and the calendar systems of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, the mythical starting point of the current Mesoamerican Long Count calendar cycle occurs in this year.[2] The Long Count calendar, used and refined most notably by the Maya civilization but also attested in some other (earlier) Mesoamerican cultures, consisted of a series of interlocked cycles or periods of day-counts, which mapped out a linear sequence of days from a notional starting point. The system originated sometime in the Mid- to Late Preclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology, during the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.[3] The starting point of the most commonly used highest-order cycle[4]—the b'ak'tun-cycle consisting of thirteen b'ak'tuns of 144,000 days each—was projected back to an earlier, mythical date. This date is equivalent to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar (or 6 September in the proleptic Julian calendar), using the correlation known as the "Goodman-Martinéz-Thompson (GMT) correlation". The GMT-correlation is worked out with the Long Count starting date equivalent to the Julian Day Number (JDN) equal to 584283, and is accepted by most Mayanist scholars as providing the best fit with the ethnohistorical data.[5] Two succeeding dates, the 12th and 13th of August (Gregorian) have also been supported, with the 13th (JDN = 584285, the "astronomical" or "Lounsbury" correlation) attracting significant support as according better with astronomical observational data.[6] Although it is still contended which of these three dates forms the actual starting base of the Long Count, the correlation to one of this triad of dates is definitively accepted by almost all contemporary Mayanists. All other earlier or later correlation proposals are now discounted.[5] The end of the thirteenth baktun is either on December 21 or 23 of 2012.
  • 3100 BC—the earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.

Notes

  1. ^ Cuneiform clay tablet translated for the first time
  2. ^ See Finley (2002), Houston (1989, pp.49–51), Miller and Taube (1993, pp.50–52), Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 et seq.), Voss (2006, p.138), Wagner (2006, pp.281–283). Note that Houston 1989 mistakenly writes "3113 BC" (when "-3113" is meant), and Miller and Taube 1993's mention of "2 August" is a (presumed) erratum.
  3. ^ Miller and Taube (1993, p.50), Schele and Freidel (1990)
  4. ^ Most commonly used in the Classic period Maya inscriptions; some other Maya calendar inscriptions of this period note even longer cycles, while later Postclassic-era inscriptions in Maya cities of northern Yucatán generally used an abbreviated form known as the Short Count. See Miller and Taube (1993, p.50); Voss (2006, p.138).
  5. ^ a b See survey by Finley (2002).
  6. ^ After a modified proposal championed by Floyd Lounsbury; sources that have used this 584285 correlation include Houston (1989, p.51), and in particular Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 et seq.). See also commentary by Finley (2002), who although making an assessment that the "[584285 correlation] is now more popular with Mayanists", expresses a personal preference for the 584283 correlation.

References

Finley, Michael (2002). "The Correlation Question". The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices. Maya Astronomy. http://members.shaw.ca/mjfinley/corr.html. Retrieved 2007-06-04.  
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6.  
Schele, Linda; and David Freidel (1990). A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-07456-1.  
Voss, Alexander (2006). "Astronomy and Mathematics". in Nikolai Grube (Ed.). Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest. Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.). Cologne: Könemann Press. pp. 130–143. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439.  
Wagner, Elizabeth (2006). "Maya Creation Myths and Cosmography". in Nikolai Grube (ed.). Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest. Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (Assistant Eds.). Cologne: Könemann Press. pp. 280–293. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439.  

Decades and years

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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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Contents

Events

Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae, Europe's most complete Neolithic village.

Significant persons

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

  • 3114 BC — According to the most widely-accepted correlations between the Western calendar and the calendar systems of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, the mythical starting point of the current Mesoamerican Long Count calendar cycle occurs in this year.[1] The Long Count calendar, used and refined most notably by the Maya civilization but also attested in some other (earlier) Mesoamerican cultures, consisted of a series of interlocked cycles or periods of day-counts, which mapped out a linear sequence of days from a notional starting point. The system originated sometime in the Mid– to Late Preclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology, during the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.[2] The starting point of the most commonly used highest-order cycle[3] Although it is still contended which of these three dates forms the actual starting base of the Long Count, the correlation to one of this triad of dates is definitively accepted by almost all contemporary Mayanists. All other earlier or later correlation proposals are now discounted.[4]
  • 3102 BCYear 0 of the Kali Yuga begins.
  • c. 3100 BC the earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.

Decades and years

Notes

  1. ^ See Finley (2002), Houston (1989, pp.49–51), Miller and Taube (1993, pp.50–52), Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 et seq.), Voss (2006, p.138), Wagner (2006, pp.281–283). Note that Houston 1989 mistakenly writes "3113 BC" (when "-3113" is meant), and Miller and Taube 1993's mention of "2 August" is a (presumed) erratum.
  2. ^ Miller and Taube (1993, p.50), Schele and Freidel (1990)
  3. ^ Most commonly used in the Classic period Maya inscriptions; some other Maya calendar; sources which have used this 584285 correlation include Houston (1989, p.51), and in particular Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 et seq.). See also commentary by Finley (2002), who although making an assessment that the "[584285 correlation] is now more popular with Mayanists", expresses a personal preference for the 584283 correlation.
  4. ^ See survey by Finley (2002).

References

  •    Finley, Michael (2002). The Correlation Question. The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices. Maya Astronomy. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  •    Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. 
  •    Schele, Linda; and David Freidel (1990). A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-07456-1. 
  •    Voss, Alexander (2006). "Astronomy and Mathematics", in Nikolai Grube (Ed.): Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest, Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.), Cologne: Könemann Press, pp.130–143. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439. 
  •    Wagner, Elizabeth (2006). "Maya Creation Myths and Cosmography", in Nikolai Grube (ed.): Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest, Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (Assistant Eds.), Cologne: Könemann Press, pp.280–293. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439. 


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