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351st Operations Group
351st Bomb Group Badge.jpg
World War II 351st Bombardment Group Emblem
Active 1942-1945; 1947-1949; 1991-1995
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force

The 351st Operations Group (351 OG) is an inactive unit of the United States Air Force. Its last assignment was with to the 351st Missile Wing, being stationed at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri. It was inactivated on 31 July 1995.

During World War II, its predecessor unit, the 351st Bombardment Group was a VIII Bomber Command B-17 Flying Fortress unit in England. Assigned to RAF Polebrook in early 1943, the group's 504th Bomb Squadron made 54 consecutive missions on June 1943 to January 1944 without losses. Two members of the 351st Bombardment Group, Lt. Walter E. Truemper and S/Sgt. Archibald Mathies, were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor on a mission to Leipzig, Germany, 20 February 1944.

The 351st was the unit to which Captain Clark Gable was assigned. Gable flew five combat missions, including one to Germany, as an observer-gunner in B-17 Flying Fortresses between May 4 and September 23, 1943, earning the Air Medal and the Distinguished Flying Cross for his efforts.

Contents

History

For additional history and lineage, see 351st Missile Wing
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Lineage

  • Constituted as 351st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 25 Sep 1942
Activated on 1 Oct 1942
Inactivated on 28 Aug 1945.
  • Redesignated 351st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy)
Activated on 9 Apr 1947
Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949.
  • Redesignated 351st Operations Group and activated on 1 Sep 1991
Inactivated on 31 Jul 1995

Assignments

Attached to: 101st Provisional Combat Bombardment Wing, May 1943-13 Sep 1943

Components

  • 508th Bombardment (later Missile) Squadron (YB), 1 Oct 1942-28 Aug 1945; 15 Oct 1947-27 Jun 1949; 1 Sep 1991-31 Jul 1995
  • 509th Bombardment (later Missile) Squadron (RQ), 1 Oct 1942-28 Aug 1945; 9 May 1947-3 May 1948; 1 Sep 1991-31 Jul 1995
  • 510th Bombardment (later Missile) Squadron (TU), 1 Oct 1942-28 Aug 1945; 15 Sep 1947-3 May 1948; 1 Sep 1991-31 Jul 1995
  • 511th Bombardment Squadron (DS), 1 Oct 1942-28 Aug 1945; 15 Oct 1947-27 Jun 1949

Stations

Aircraft and missiles

Operational history

World War II

Boeing B-17G-85-BO Flying Fortress, Serial 43-38465 of the 510th Bomb Squadron. This aircraft survived the war and returned to USA on 8 June 1945
Douglas-Long Beach B-17G-30-DL Flying Fortress Serial 43-38116 of the 509th Bomb Squadron
Clark Gable next to a B-17 in Britain, 1943

Activated 1 October 1942 at Salt Lake City AB, Utah. The group established at Geiger Field in Washington in November 1942 where the Group was assembled for initial training, and the Second phase of training was conducted at Biggs Field, Texas, between December 1942 and March 1943. The unit then moved to Pueblo AAB, Colorado for preparation for overseas movement. the ground unit left Pueblo for New York on 12 April 1943. the aircraft began movement on 1 April 1943. In April-May 1943, the unit moved to RAF Polebrook England to serve in combat with Eighth Air Force. It was assigned to the 94th Combat Wing, also at Polebrook. The group tail code was a "Triangle J".

The 351st's first completed combat mission took place on 14 May 1943, when 18 B-17's targeted a German Luftwaffe airfield at Kortrijk, Belgium. As the war progressed, the 351st operated primarily against strategic objectives in Germany, striking such targets as ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, communications at Mayen, marshalling yards at Koblenz, a locomotive and tank factory at Hanover, industries at Berlin, bridges at Cologne, an armaments factory at Mannheim, and oil refineries at Hamburg.

The group also struck harbor facilities, submarine installations, airfields, V-weapon sites, and power plants in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Norway.

The 351st Received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for performance on 9 October 1943, when an aircraft factory in Germany was accurately bombed in spite of heavy flak and pressing enemy interceptors. It received another DUC for its part in the successful attack of 11 January 1944, on aircraft factories in central Germany. The group participated in the intensive air campaign against the German aircraft industry during "Big Week", 20–25 February 1944.

In addition to its strategic missions, the group often operated in support of ground forces and attacked interdictory targets. Bombed in support of the Battle of Normandy in June 1944 and the Saint-Lô breakthrough in July. The group hit enemy positions to cover the airborne attack on the Netherlands in September 1944 and subsequently struck front-line positions, communications, and airfields to help stop the German counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944-Jan 1945. The 351st later flew missions in support of Operation Varsity, the airborne assault across the Rhine in March 1945.

The 351st conducted routine 8th Air Force missions from RAF Polebrook until the end of the war. The unit completed 311 combat missions from Polebrook. The 351st lost 175 B-17's and their crews. The gunners in the Group fired off 2,776,028 rounds of ammunition and were credited with destroying 303 enemy aircraft.

Redeployed to the US in May and June 1945. the first aircraft left on 21 May 1945. the ground unit sailed for the US on 25 June 1945 aboard the Queen Elizabeth. Docked the US in July 1945, but the group inactivated on 28 August 1945.

Cold War

During the early years of the Cold War, the 351st Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) was part of the Air Force Reserve between 1947 and 1949.

Modern era

In the early 1990s, the 351st Operations Group was activated as a result of the implementation of the Objective Wing Plan. The 351st Missile Wing assigned its operational ICBM squadrons to the Group, and bestowed the lineage, honors, and history of the 351st Bombardment Group.

The missiles were taken off alert and the squadrons, along with the 351 OG were inactivated in 1995.

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  • Freeman, Roger A. (1978) Airfields of the Eighth: Then and Now. After the Battle ISBN 0900913096
  • Freeman, Roger A. (1991) The Mighty Eighth: The Colour Record. Cassell & Co. ISBN 0-304-35708-1
  • Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0892010924.

External links


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