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37th United States Congress
Capitol under const 1860.jpg
United States Capitol (1860)

Duration: March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1863

President of the Senate: Hannibal Hamlin
President pro tempore: Solomon Foot
Speaker of the House: Galusha A. Grow
Members: 50 Senators
183 Representatives
7 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Republican

Sessions
Special: March 4, 1861 – March 28, 1861
1st: July 4, 1861 – August 6, 1861
2nd: December 2, 1861 – July 17, 1862
3rd: December 1, 1862 – March 4, 1863
<36th 38th>

The Thirty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1861 to March 4, 1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Contents

President pro tempore Solomon Foot

Major events

Major legislation

States admitted and seceded and Territories organized

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States admitted

Territories organized

Secession

Congress did not accept secession. Most of the Representatives and Senators from states that attempted to secede left Congress; those who took part in the rebellion were expelled.

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Unionist Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 26 38 0 2 66 2
Begin 30 24 1 0 55 13
End 29 14 7 0 50 18
Final voting share 58.0% 28.0% 14.0% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 33 10 4 5 52 16

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Unionist Constitutional
Unionist
Independent
Democratic
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 116 83 0 0 7 32 238  ?
Begin 107 44 23 2 1 0 177 60
End 104 45 31 1 1 0 182 55
Final voting share 57.14% 24.73% 17.03% 0.55% 0.55% 0.00%
Beginning of the next Congress 85 72 9 0 0 17 183 1

Leadership

Senate

President of the Senate Hannibal Hamlin

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1866.

Alabama

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant

Arkansas

California

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

  • 1. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant

Georgia

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant

Missouri

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant

Tennessee

  • 1. Andrew Johnson (D), until March 4, 1862, vacant thereafter
  • 2. Vacant

Texas

Vermont

Virginia

Wisconsin

House of Representatives

Speaker of the House
Galusha A. Grow

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by their districts.

Alabama

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant
  • 4. Vacant
  • 5. Vacant
  • 6. Vacant
  • 7. Vacant

Arkansas

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant

California

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant
  • 4. Vacant
  • 5. Vacant
  • 6. Vacant
  • 7. Vacant
  • 8. Vacant

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant
  • 4. Vacant
  • 5. Vacant

Missouri

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant
  • 4. Vacant
  • 5. Vacant
  • 6. Vacant
  • 7. Vacant
  • 8. Vacant

Ohio

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant
  • 3. Vacant
  • 4. Vacant
  • 5. Vacant
  • 6. Vacant

Tennessee

Texas

  • 1. Vacant
  • 2. Vacant

Vermont

Virginia

Wisconsin

Non-voting members

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State (class) Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
Missouri (3) Vacant Did not take seat until after Congress commenced Waldo P. Johnson (D) March 17, 1861
Pennsylvania (1) Simon Cameron (R) Resigned March 4, 1861 to become Secretary of War. Successor was elected. David Wilmot (R) March 14, 1861
North Carolina (2) Thomas Bragg (D) Withdrew[7] March 6, 1861; expelled later in 1861. Vacant thereafter
Ohio (3) Salmon P. Chase (R) Resigned March 7, 1861 to become Secretary of the Treasury. Successor was elected. John Sherman (R) March 21, 1861
North Carolina (3) Thomas L. Clingman (D) Withdrew[7] March 28, 1861; expelled later in 1861. Vacant thereafter
Virginia (2) Robert M. T. Hunter (D) Withdrew[7] March 28, 1861 and later expelled for support of the rebellion. Successor was elected. John S. Carlile (U) July 9, 1861
Virginia (1) James M. Mason (D) Expelled March 28, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. Waitman T. Willey (U) July 9, 1861
Illinois (2) Stephen A. Douglas (D) Died June 3, 1861. Successor was appointed. Orville H. Browning (R) June 26, 1861
Illinois (2) Orville H. Browning (R) Retired January 12, 1863 upon election of a successor. William A. Richardson (D) January 30, 1863
Arkansas (2) William K. Sebastian (D) Expelled July 11, 1861 Vacant thereafter
Arkansas (3) Charles B. Mitchel (D)
Michigan (2) Kinsley S. Bingham (R) Died October 5, 1861. Successor was elected. Jacob M. Howard (R) January 17, 1862
Oregon (2) Edward D. Baker (R) Killed at Battle of Ball's Bluff October 21, 1861. Successor was appointed. Benjamin Stark (D) October 29, 1861
Kentucky (3) John C. Breckinridge (D) Expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. Garrett Davis (U) December 23, 1861
Missouri (1) Trusten Polk (D) Expelled January 10, 1862 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was appointed. John B. Henderson (U) January 17, 1862
Missouri (3) Waldo P. Johnson (D) Expelled January 10, 1862 for disloyalty to the government. Successor was appointed. Robert Wilson (U) January 17, 1862
Indiana (1) Jesse D. Bright (D) Expelled February 5, 1862 on charges of disloyalty. Successor was appointed. Joseph A. Wright (U) February 24, 1862
Tennessee (1) Andrew Johnson (D) Resigned March 4, 1862 Vacant thereafter
Rhode Island (1) James F. Simmons (R) Resigned August 15, 1862. Successor was elected. Samuel G. Arnold (R) December 1, 1862
New Jersey (1) John R. Thomson (D) Died September 12, 1862. Successor was appointed. Richard S. Field (R) November 21, 1862
Oregon (2) Benjamin Stark (D) Retired September 12, 1862 upon election of a successor. Benjamin F. Harding (D) September 12, 1862
Maryland (3) James Pearce (D) Died December 20, 1862. Successor was appointed. Thomas H. Hicks (U) December 29, 1862
Indiana (1) Joseph A. Wright (U) Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. David Turpie (D) January 14, 1863
New Jersey (1) Richard S. Field (R) Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. James W. Wall (D) January 14, 1863

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
Louisiana 1st Vacant Benjamin F. Flanders (U) December 3, 1862
Louisiana 2nd Vacant Michael Hahn (U) December 3, 1862
Tennessee 3rd Vacant Representative-elect George W. Bridges was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and held prisoner before he escaped. George W. Bridges (U) February 25, 1863
Virginia 1st Vacant Joseph E. Segar (U) March 15, 1862
Virginia 7th Vacant Charles H. Upton (U) May 23, 1861
Ohio 7th Thomas Corwin (R) Resigned March 12, 1861 to become Minister to Mexico Richard A. Harrison (U) July 4, 1861
Ohio 13th John Sherman (R) Resigned March 12, 1861 when elected U.S. Senator Samuel T. Worcester (R) July 4, 1861
Pennsylvania 12th George W. Scranton (R) Died March 24, 1861 Hendrick B. Wright (D) July 4, 1861
Massachusetts 3rd Charles F. Adams, Sr. (R) Resigned May 1, 1861 to become Ambassador to Great Britain Benjamin Thomas (U) June 11, 1861
Pennsylvania 2nd Edward Joy Morris (R) Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey Charles J. Biddle (D) July 2, 1861
Virginia 11th John S. Carlile (U) Resigned July 9, 1861 to become United States Senator from the loyal faction of Virginia Jacob B. Blair (U) December 2, 1861
Missouri 3rd John B. Clark (D) Expelled July 13, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union William A. Hall (D) January 20, 1862
Oregon At-large Andrew J. Thayer (D) Election was successfully contested July 30, 1861 George K. Shiel (D) July 30, 1861
Missouri 5th John W. Reid (D) Withdrew August 3, 1861 and then expelled December 2, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union Thomas L. Price (D) January 21, 1862
Iowa 1st Samuel Curtis (R) Resigned August 4, 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry James F. Wilson (R) October 8, 1861
Massachusetts 5th William Appleton (CU) Resigned September 27, 1861 due to failing health Samuel Hooper (R) December 2, 1861
Illinois 6th John A. McClernand (D) Resigned October 28, 1861 to accept a commission as brigadier general of volunteers for service in the Civil War Anthony L. Knapp (D) December 12, 1861
Kentucky 1st Henry C. Burnett (D) Expelled December 3, 1861 for support of secession Samuel L. Casey (U) March 10, 1862
Kentucky 2nd James S. Jackson (U) Resigned December 13, 1861 to enter the Union Army George H. Yeaman (U) December 1, 1862
Virginia 7th Charles H. Upton (U) Declared not entitled to seat February 27, 1862 Lewis McKenzie (U) February 16, 1863
Illinois 9th John A. Logan (D) Resigned April 2, 1862 to enter the Union Army William J. Allen (D) June 2, 1862
Pennsylvania 7th Thomas B. Cooper (D) Died April 4, 1862 John D. Stiles (D) June 3, 1862
Massachusetts 9th Goldsmith F. Bailey (R) Died May 8, 1862 Amasa Walker (R) December 1, 1862
Maine 2nd Charles W. Walton (R) Resigned May 26, 1862 to become associate justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court Thomas A. D. Fessenden (R) December 1, 1862
Missouri 1st Francis P. Blair, Jr. (R) Resigned July, 1862 to become colonel in Union Army Vacant Vacant for remainder of term
Wisconsin 2nd Luther Hanchett (R) Died November 24, 1862 Walter D. McIndoe (R) January 26, 1863
Illinois 5th William A. Richardson (D) Resigned January 29, 1863 after being elected to US Senate Vacant Vacant for remainder of term

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  1. ^ The text of Virginia's Ordinance of Secession.
  2. ^ Virginia did not turn over its military to the Confederate States until June 8, 1861 and the Constitution of the Confederate States was ratified on June 19, 1861.
  3. ^ The text of Arkansas' Ordinance of Secession.
  4. ^ The text of North Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
  5. ^ The text of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession.
  6. ^ The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. Tennessee voters approved the agreement on June 8, 1861.
  7. ^ a b c Withdrawal" meant that these senators announced they were withdrawing from the Senate due to their states' decisions to secede from the Union. Their seats were later declared vacant by the Senate, but some seats were actually unfilled since the beginning of this Congress on March 4, 1861.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links


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