3GPP Long Term Evolution: Wikis

  
  

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.LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the project name of a new high performance air interface for cellular mobile communication systems.^ Long Term Evolution in focus at 3GSM: News from Aeroflex Electronicstalk .
  • Long Term Evolution in focus at 3GSM: News from Aeroflex 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.electronicstalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The technology is known as Long Term Evolution (LTE).
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE): How To Join The Race For The Next Dominant Broadband Technology 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.istockanalyst.com [Source type: General]
  • (SNE) Long Term Evolution (LTE): How to Join the Race for the Next Dominant Broadband Technology | Stock Blog Hub 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.stockbloghub.com [Source type: News]

^ Well, the key here is in the name – Long Term Evolution.
  • Evolution – Long Term « Symbian Blog 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC blog.symbian.org [Source type: General]

.It is the last step toward the 4th generation (4G) of radio technologies designed to increase the capacity and speed of mobile telephone networks.^ LTE network evolution: The unified 4G mobile technology?
  • What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: LTE, LTE 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE) 3GPP 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LTE, the latest step toward the 4th generation (4G) of radio technologies, is designed to increase the capacity and speed of mobile networks.
  • Etisalat brings the Long Term Evolution (LTE) Mobile technology 4G technology to the Middle East - Hitekmag Magazine – Global online telecommunication magazine for online marketing 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.hitekmag.com [Source type: News]
  • MiddleEastEvents.com -Etisalat Brings The Long Term Evolution (LTE) Mobile Technology 4G Technology To The Middle East 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.middleeastevents.com [Source type: News]

^ A generic understanding of mobile networks.

.Where the current generation of mobile telecommunication networks are collectively known as 3G (for "third generation"), LTE is marketed as 4G. However, it does not fully comply with the IMT Advanced 4G requirements.^ LTE network evolution: The unified 4G mobile technology?
  • What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)? - Definition from Whatis.com - see also: LTE, LTE 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE) 3GPP 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LTE falls under 3G dubbed as 3.99G and LTE-Advanced is 4G compliant.
  • LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC blogial.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, with the current project, T-2 entered the mobile telecommunication market.
  • News stories about Long Term Evolution and 3Gpp 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.cellular-news.com [Source type: News]
  • News stories about 3Gpp and Long Term Evolution 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.cellular-news.com [Source type: News]

.Most major mobile carriers in the United States and several worldwide carriers announced plans to convert their networks to LTE beginning in 2009. The world's first publicly available LTE-service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo on the 14th of December 2009. LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) which was introduced in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8. Much of 3GPP Release 8 focuses on adopting 4G mobile communications technology, including an all-IP flat networking architecture.^ It will also help to clearly describe LTE's next generation network architecture.
  • AIRCOM : AIRCOM looks to Long Term Evolution 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.aircominternational.com [Source type: News]
  • Migration to 3G Long Term Evolution Training Programme 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.3g.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Fourth generation (4G) mobile telephony standards are being developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
  • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GPP LTE evolved from WCDMA is the most powerful candidate for the 4G mobile communications.
  • 4G Now: Korea Takes the Lead in 3GPP LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC 4g.telecomskorea.com [Source type: General]

.On August 18, 2009, the European Commission announced it will invest a total of €18 million into researching the deployment of LTE and 4G candidate system LTE Advanced.^ August 2009 08:18 GMT .
  • LTE - news tag - Softpedia 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC news.softpedia.com [Source type: News]

^ The LTE which was the most leading technology for 4G among various candidate technology was developed 3GPP made by the technology standard of GSM, WSDMA. In this homepage, we introduced the standard of LTE test developed in 3GPP, also rearranged the trend of LTE test standard.
  • �� YOUNGWOO TELECOM 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.ywtc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This project is focused on the technologies, research areas and challenges regarding LTE-Advanced and other next generation cellular systems that will enable the 4G and beyond family of standards.
  • Broadband Wireless Networking Lab 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.ece.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.While it is commonly seen as a mobile telephone or common carrier development, LTE is also endorsed by public safety agencies in the US[2] as the preferred technology for the new 700 MHz public-safety radio band.^ Public-safety groups support LTE at 700 MHz .
  • Public-safety groups support LTE at 700 MHz | Long Term Evolution - Urgent Communications article 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC urgentcomm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the U.S., the new spectrum in the 700 MHz range will probably be used by the carriers for LTE deployment.
  • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public safety communication over 3GPP LTE .
  • Public safety communication over 3GPP LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC epubl.ltu.se [Source type: Academic]

.Agencies in some areas have filed for waivers[3] hoping to use the 700 MHz[4] spectrum with other technologies in advance of the adoption of a nationwide standard.^ Cox’s 4G technology and service trials utilized the AWS and 700 MHz spectrum that it acquired in Federal Communication Commission auctions in 2006 and 2008.
  • Huawei Successfully Demonstrates Delivery of Voice Calling, High Definition Video Via 4G Wireless Technology for Cox Communications 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC eon.businesswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Stock Market Information | FinancialContent.com 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC finance.myfoxtampabay.com [Source type: News]
  • Optimum Online - Finance 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC finance.optonline.net [Source type: News]
  • Stock Market Information | Daily Herald | Marketplace 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC finance.dailyherald.com [Source type: News]
  • Daily News | Billing & OSS Magazine 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.businesswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Renewable Energy Financial News, Stocks, Companies, and Market Research - Renewable Energy World 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC finance.renewableenergyworld.com [Source type: News]

^ LTE radio systems are designed to provide both greater levels of radio spectrum efficiency through use of new radio transmission schemes and advanced multi-antenna technologies, and a more flexible utilization of radio spectrum through support of carrier bandwidths ranging from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz (subject to 3GPP ratification).

^ This project is focused on the technologies, research areas and challenges regarding LTE-Advanced and other next generation cellular systems that will enable the 4G and beyond family of standards.
  • Broadband Wireless Networking Lab 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.ece.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Overview

.The LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of at least 100 Mbps, an uplink of at least 50 Mbps and RAN round-trip times of less than 10 ms.^ Downlink Peak Data Rates (64QAM) .
  • Agilent | Understanding LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.agilent.co.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased peak data rates: 100Mbps downlink and 50Mbps uplink.
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC teck.in [Source type: General]

^ LTE provides downlink peak rates of at least 100 Mbps.
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.investmentu.com [Source type: General]
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE): How To Join The Race For The Next Dominant Broadband Technology 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.istockanalyst.com [Source type: General]
  • (SNE) Long Term Evolution (LTE): How to Join the Race for the Next Dominant Broadband Technology | Stock Blog Hub 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.stockbloghub.com [Source type: News]

.LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 20 MHz down to 1.4 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD).^ LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.
  • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ To allow the use of both new and existing frequency bands, LTE provides scalable bandwidth from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz in both the downlink and the uplink.
  • Agilent | Understanding LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.agilent.co.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LTE also supports flexible carrier bandwidth and both FDD (frequency division duplexing) and TDD (time division duplexing) on the same platform.
  • 4G Technology Long-Term Evolution Thriving In Asia | Daily Markets 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.dailymarkets.com [Source type: News]

.Part of the LTE standard is the System Architecture Evolution, a flat IP-based network architecture designed to replace the GPRS Core Network and ensure support for, and mobility between, some legacy or non-3GPP systems, for example GPRS and WiMax respectively.^ Link S4 denote mobility support between GPRS core and inter AS support.
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) & Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB) Technologies for Broadband Wireless Access 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.cse.wustl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The PGW is the mobility anchor point for intra-3GPP access system mobility and for mobility between 3GPP access systems and non-3GPP access systems.
  • The Shift from 3G to 4G | Wireless Week 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.wirelessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long Term Evolution (LTE): Based on standard through the 3GPP – Non Open standards.
  • DataTel Communications - Boise VoIP Phone Systems | Web Design - Optimization | Business Phone Lines | Internet Services | Idaho - Oregon - Washington - Utah - Part 2 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC datatelco.totallysales.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.The main advantages with LTE are high throughput, low latency, plug and play, FDD and TDD in the same platform, an improved end-user experience and a simple architecture resulting in low operating costs.^ The advantages with LTE are high throughput, low latency, plug and play, FDD and TDD in the same platform, improved end-user experience and simple architecture resulting in low Operating Expenditures (OPEX).
  • w2bi - Wireless to Business Integration 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.w2bi.com [Source type: News]

^ With LTE, the user experience will be even better.
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC teck.in [Source type: General]
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) – an introduction 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.ericsson.com [Source type: General]
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE) – An Introduction Whitepaper | Pricing in Next-Generation Networks 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC ping.isom.auckland.ac.nz [Source type: General]

^ High throughput Low latency Plug and play Improved end-user experience Low operating costs Seamless How does LTE work?
  • LTE - Long Term Evolution - Networks 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.wirelessinternet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.LTE will also support seamless passing to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, cdmaOne, W-CDMA (UMTS), and CDMA2000.^ GSM Association votes to support LTE .
  • Long Term Evolution -- Engadget Mobile 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC mobile.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Long Term Evolution -- Engadget 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LTE will also support seamless connection to existing networks, such as GSM, CDMA and WCDMA. .
  • w2bi - Wireless to Business Integration 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.w2bi.com [Source type: News]

^ Verizon dumps CDMA for GSM-based LTE in 4G networks .

Current state

.Much of the standard addresses upgrading 3G UMTS to 4G mobile communications technology, which is essentially a mobile broadband system with enhanced multimedia services built on top.^ Mobile broadband service .
  • 3GPP mobile broadband LetsGoMobile 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.letsgomobile.org [Source type: General]

^ G or 4G? Parsing the economics of mobile broadband .
  • 3G or 4G? Parsing the economics of mobile broadband 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC telephonyonline.com [Source type: News]

^ Much of the 3GPP Release 8 standard will be oriented towards upgrading UMTS to 4G mobile communications technology, and an all-IP flat architecture system.
  • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

The standard includes:
.
  • For every 20 MHz of spectrum, peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, and 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas.^ The standard includes: Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas for every 20 MHz of spectrum.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The upload rate per 20 MHz spectrum was 86.4 Mbps.
    • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Increased spectral efficiency at 2-4 times more than in 3GPP ( HSPA ) release 6 Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas for every 20 MHz of spectrum.
    • 3G South Africa - High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.3g.co.za [Source type: Academic]

    [6]
  • .
  • Peak upload rates of 86.4 Mbit/s for every 20 MHz of spectrum using a single antenna.^ Peak upload rates of 86.4 Mbit/s for every 20 MHz of spectrum.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The standard includes: Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas for every 20 MHz of spectrum.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The upload rate per 20 MHz spectrum was 86.4 Mbps.
    • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [6]
  • .
  • Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates.^ Peak data rate Mbps .
    • Agilent | Understanding LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.agilent.co.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Five different terminal classes that ranged from voice to high-speed data have been defined.
    • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Downlink Peak Data Rates (64QAM) .
    • Agilent | Understanding LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.agilent.co.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
  • At least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell.^ At least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In addition to this LTE was required to support at least 200 active users in every 5MHz cell.
    • 3G LTE Tutorial - 3GPP Long Term Evolution :: Radio-Electronics.Com 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.radio-electronics.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Bandwidth will be scalable, from 1.25 to 20 MHz.
    • Long Term Evolution - What's In It For You? 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC mobiledevdesign.com [Source type: General]

    .(Specifically, 200 active data clients)
  • Sub-5 ms latency for small IP packets
  • Increased spectrum flexibility, with supported spectrum slices as small as 1.5 MHz and as large as 20 MHz (W-CDMA requires 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems with roll-outs of the technology in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated amount of spectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.^ He has different amounts of spectrum in different countries, and so he has different technologies allocated for different spectrum bands.
    • Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In this way operation in spectrum allocations of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz can be supported.
    • Multiresolution with Hierarchical Modulations for Long Term Evolution of UMTS 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.hindawi.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At least 200 active data clients per 5 MHz cell was achieved as was sub-5 ms latency for “small” packets.
    • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) .Limiting sizes to 5 MHz also limited the amount of bandwidth per handset
  • In the 900 MHz frequency band to be used in rural areas, supporting an optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance.^ The 5 MHz chunks also limit the amount of bandwidth per handset.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The optimal cell size is 5 km (about 3 miles), a 30 km (about 18 miles) got a “reasonable” service level and, a 100 km (about 60 miles) cell had “acceptable” service.
    • Long term evolution - Hill2dot0 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC wiki.hill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance.
    • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    .In city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband.^ BT launches higher speed broadband .
    • Your Communication News - Alcatel-Lucent and LG Electronics Complete a Live Handoff of an End-to-End Data Call Between Long Term Evolution (LTE) and CDMA networks 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.yourcommunicationnews.com [Source type: General]
    • Your Communication News - Motorola Launches Long Term Evolution (LTE) Trial Network in the UK 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.yourcommunicationnews.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Gbps (estimated) Support for 3G HSDPA and 2G EDGE If an iPhone 3G is in range of a 3G cell tower, it uses the higher speed of HSDPA. However, it throttles down to the lower-speed EDGE (E) channel if a 3G HSDPA channel is not available.
    • bMighty.com | TechEncyclopedia 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC bmighty.informationweek.com [Source type: General]
    • ChannelWeb Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.crn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In most cases fixed mobile convergence (FMC) services allow the user or the network to take advantage of higher speed, cheaper local unlicensed access networks in local environments for lower value, high volume transactions.
    • Alcatel-Lucent to highlight future of mobile broadband with live demonstrations of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and European debut of the ng Connect 'LTE Connected Car' 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC fixed-mobile-convergence.tmcnet.com [Source type: News]

    .In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km or even less.
  • Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000)
  • Support for MBSFN (Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network).^ Verizon uses the CDMA standard that...
    • Long Term Evolution (LTE) - Mobile Computing Technology Reviews, Solutions, Management and Wireless Access 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC smartphone.searchmobilecomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is the natural evolution of 3GPP GSM, WCDMA, and 3GPP2 CDMA networks.
    • IPv6.com - 3GPP Long Term Evolution 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.ipv6.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A multi-protocol base station is defined as one that can support W-CDMA to LTE standards.
    • Getting base stations ready for LTE | Network Systems Designline 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.networksystemsdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Wireless Net DesignLine | Getting base stations ready for LTE 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.wirelessnetdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H-based TV broadcast.
  • PU2RC as a practical solution for MU-MIMO. The detailed procedure for the general MU-MIMO operation is handed to the next release, e.g., LTE-Advanced, where further discussions will be held.
.A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it transits from the existing UMTS circuit + packet switching combined network, to an all-IP flat architecture system.^ The SAE Architecture is an all IP based network.
  • LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC blogial.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Evolving to an all IP Network .
  • Reportlinker Adds the IMS Report Market Forecast 2009-2014 Report | SYS-CON MEDIA 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.sys-con.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large amount of the work is aimed at simplifying the architecture of the system, as it evolves from the existing hybrid (packet and circuit switching) network, to an all-IP flat architecture system.
  • Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

Timetable

.
  • In early 2008, LTE test equipment began shipping from several vendors, and at the Mobile World Congress 2008 in Barcelona Ericsson demonstrated the world’s first end-to-end mobile call enabled by LTE on a small handheld device.^ LTE mobile copyright 2008 .
    • Long Term Evolution: LTE mobile 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC ltemobile.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mobile World Congress 2010 .
    • Anite expands 3GPP portfolio with launch of SAS-Lite 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.mobileeurope.co.uk [Source type: News]
    • AIRCOM looks to Long Term Evolution 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.mobileeurope.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Aeroflex's Test Mobile Designed for 3GPP LTE ( 1 May 2008 ) .
    • Aeroflex's Test Mobile Designed for 3GPP LTE | WDD Asia - Wireless Design & Development 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.wirelessdesignasia.com [Source type: News]

    [7] .Motorola demonstrated a LTE RAN standard compliant eNodeB and LTE chipset at the same event.
  • In December 2008, the Rel-8 specification was frozen for new features meaning only essential clarifications and corrections were permitted.
  • In January 2009, the ASN.1 code was frozen.^ In each release, new features are added in the specifications.
    • Huawei - Expert’ s Forum--3GPP standard progress 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.huawei.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Standards development for LTE is continuing with 3GPP Release 9 (Rel-9) and targets the completion of the specification by December 2009.
    • LTE, Long Term Evolution, Technology, 3G Americas 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.3gamericas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have also started Rel-10 specification, the main feature of which is LTE-Advanced.
    • Huawei - Expert’ s Forum--3GPP standard progress 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.huawei.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Rel-8 standard was complete enough that hardware designers had been designing chipsets, test equipment and base stations for some time.^ Design is completed for quite some time, I just have to do the documentation.
    • Welcome at Herberts Webpage - Servertime: Tuesday, 26-Jan-2010 09:33:49 CET 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC long-term-evolution.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The largest wireless network equipment vendors and operators worldwide depend on complete testing solutions that PRISMA provides and maintains.
    • Nortel: News Releases: Nortel Evolved EDGE Technology Delivers Mobile Broadband, Builds Bridge to 4G 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC products.nortel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Devices based on the LTE/SAE standards from March 2009 are being used for these tests and the test reports will be based on a generally accepted range of procedures.
    • http://lstiforum.com/media/press.html?listNum=174 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC lstiforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    LTE standards development continues with 3GPP Release 9 which was frozen in December 2009. Updates to all 3GPP specifications are made every quarter and can be found at the 3GPP web site.
  • On December 14, 2009, the world's first publicly available LTE service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo.
  • On February 10, 2010, AT&T U.S. announced its rollout of LTE service in 2011

An "All IP Network" (AIPN)

.Next generation networks are based upon Internet Protocol (IP).^ The second is the convergence to all IP (Internet Protocol) based services in communication networks.
  • ICC 2008:Tutorials for IEEE ICC 2008(Total: 25 half-day tutorials) 1 February 2010 12:39 UTC www.ieee-icc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bell goes all-IP with next-generation network .

^ LTE is also designed with a full Internet Protocol (IP) network infrastructure.
  • What Is Long Term Evolution. A Basic Explanation of LTE 26 January 2010 2:35 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: General]

.See, for example, the Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN).^ The NGMN Alliance continues to drive the realisation of the global mobile society .
  • * / */ This website is powered by TYPO3 - inspiring people to share! TYPO3 is a free open source Content Management Framework initially created by Kasper Skaarhoj and licensed under GNU/GPL. TYPO3 is copyright 1998-2008 of Kasper Skaarhoj. Extensions are copyright of their respective owners. Information and contribution at http://typo3.com/ and http://typo3.org/--> next generation mobile networks: Archive</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ngmn.org/nc/de/news/newsarchive/browse/4.html?tx_ttnews%5BpS%5D=1262701600&cHash=d1e6a521b7">www.ngmn.org</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="46"><a href="#citable__46"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Technical Working Group (TWG) of the NGMN Alliance addresses all technical aspects of next generation mobile networks, devices/terminals and services, including standardisation, industrialisation and testing aspects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> * <DOMAIN> / <EMAIL> */ This website is powered by TYPO3 - inspiring people to share! TYPO3 is a free open source Content Management Framework initially created by Kasper Skaarhoj and licensed under GNU/GPL. TYPO3 is copyright 1998-2008 of Kasper Skaarhoj. Extensions are copyright of their respective owners. Information and contribution at http://typo3.com/ and http://typo3.org/--> <base href="http://www.ngmn.org/" /> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="typo3temp/stylesheet_a8953d8532.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="fileadmin/templates/css/screen.css" /> <script src="typo3conf/ext/t3mootools/res/mootoolsv1.11.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <script src="typo3conf/ext/rgaccordion/res/rgaccordion1.js" type="text/javascript"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="fileadmin/templates/sub/sub01.css" /> <link rel="shortcut icon" href="fileadmin/templates/images/favicon.ico" /><script src="fileadmin/scripts/own.js" type="text/javascript"></script><!--[if ie]><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen" href="fileadmin/templates/css/screen-ie.css" /><![endif]--><!--[if lt ie 7]><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen" href="fileadmin/templates/css/screen-ie-6.css" /><![endif]--><!--[if lt IE 7.]><script defer type="text/javascript" src="fileadmin/templates/js/pngfix.js"></script><![endif]--><meta name="robots" content="index,follow" /><meta http-equiv="content-language" content="de" /><meta name="revisit-after" content="after 7 days" /><meta name="DC.Language" scheme="NISOZ39.50" content="de" /><link rel="schema.dc" href="http://purl.org/metadata/dublin_core_elements" /> <title>next generation mobile networks: Technical WG</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ngmn.org/workprogramme/twg.html">www.ngmn.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="46"><a href="#citable__46"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Starent Network’s multimedia core platform will enable Cricket to enhance its current offering of mobile applications such as text messaging, picture messaging and games, and to prepare for the next-generation of multimedia applications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> November 2007 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2007/11/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__106" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="106">In 2004, 3GPP proposed IP as the future for next generation networks and began feasibility studies into All IP Networks (AIPN).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 2004, 3GPP proposed Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as the future for next generation networks and began feasibility studies into All IP Networks (AIPN).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This study includes the vision of an all-IP network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>E-UTRA - Study on minimization of drive-tests in next generation networks .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tech Invite -- 3GPP Specifications -- 36 Series: LTE (Evolved UTRA) and LTE-Advanced radio technology</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tech-invite.com/Ti-3gpp-standards-36.html">www.tech-invite.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__130" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="130">Proposals developed included recommendations for 3GPP Release 7 (2005),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> which are the foundation of higher level protocols such as LTE. These recommendations are part of the 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE is being developed in Releases 8 and 9 of the 3GPP specifications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Agilent | Understanding LTE</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.agilent.co.jp/about/newsroom/tmnews/background/lte/index.html">www.agilent.co.jp</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE core specifications were then included in release 8.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3G LTE Tutorial - 3GPP Long Term Evolution :: Radio-Electronics.Com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/3g-lte-basics.php">www.radio-electronics.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE Advanced - 3GPP Release 10 2.7.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE – GSM Long Term Evolution </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abiresearch.com/research/1003359-LTE+%96+GSM+Long+Term+Evolution">www.abiresearch.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Some aspects of All-IP networks, however, were already defined as early as release 4.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_E_UTRAN_Air_Interface">E-UTRAN Air Interface</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__0" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="0">Release 8's air interface, <a href="/E-UTRA" title="E-UTRA">E-UTRA</a> (Evolved <a href="/UTRAN" title="UTRAN" class="mw-redirect">UTRAN</a>, the E- prefix being common to the evolved equivalents of older <a href="/UMTS" title="UMTS" class="mw-redirect">UMTS</a> components) would be used by UMTS operators deploying their own wireless networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Radio The Release 8 air interface, E-UTRA (Evolved UTRA, the E- prefix being common to the evolved equivalents of older UMTS components) would be used by UMTS operators deploying their own wireless networks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>U.S., said it would use LTE for its 4G wireless network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>More carriers, handset makers endorse LTE | News Blog - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9918583-7.html">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="0"><a href="#citable__0"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The largest wireless network equipment vendors and operators worldwide depend on complete testing solutions that PRISMA provides and maintains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Nortel: News Releases: Nortel Evolved EDGE Technology Delivers Mobile Broadband, Builds Bridge to 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://products.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-8055&oid=100235997&locale=en-US&lcid=-1">products.nortel.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__43" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="43">It's important to note that Release 8 is intended not just for use over E-UTRA, but is also intended for use over any other <a href="/Internet_Protocol" title="Internet Protocol">IP</a> network, including <a href="/WiMAX" title="WiMAX">WiMAX</a> and <a href="/WiFi" title="WiFi" class="mw-redirect">WiFi</a>, and even wired networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE or WiMax, the other 4G network?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> 4G LTE SAE HSPA Long Term Evolution Ultra High Speed </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://cellularlte.com/">cellularlte.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It's important to note that Release 8 is intended for use over any IP network, including WiMAX and WiFi, and even wired networks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="43"><a href="#citable__43"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Femtocells may be stymied by handsets that can't make best use of them, even though an industry agreement has been signed which should make the indoor base stations a fundamental part of future wireless networks including WiMax and LTE .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lte 3gpp articles - Techworld.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://search.techworld.com/tag/lte-3gpp">search.techworld.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__112" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="112">The proposed E-UTRAN system uses <a href="/OFDMA" title="OFDMA" class="mw-redirect">OFDMA</a> for the downlink (tower to handset) and <a href="/Single_Carrier_FDMA_(SC-FDMA)" title="Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)" class="mw-redirect">Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)</a> for the uplink and employs <a href="/MIMO" title="MIMO">MIMO</a> with up to four antennas per station.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The access schemes differ between the uplink and downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access is used in the downlink; while SC-FDMA(Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the uplink.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3G LTE Tutorial - 3GPP Long Term Evolution :: Radio-Electronics.Com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/3g-lte-basics.php">www.radio-electronics.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The uplink transmission uses the SC-FDMA (Single Carrrier FDMA) scheme.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This book provides a technical overview of Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> New Air Interface for 3G Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/Dec2008/A_New_Air_Interface_for_3G_Long_Term_Evolution_3G.htm">www.3g.co.uk</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">The channel coding scheme for transport blocks is <a href="/Turbo_coding" title="Turbo coding" class="mw-redirect">turbo coding</a> and a contention-free quadratic <a href="/Permutation_polynomial" title="Permutation polynomial">permutation polynomial</a> (QPP) turbo code internal interleaver.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The channel coding scheme for transport blocks is turbo coding couple with a contention-free quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) turbo code internal interleaver.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CRC Code Block Segmentation/ De-segmentation Channel coding (Turbo, Viterbi, Reed Muller) Rate matching and De-matching Code Block Concatenation/De-concatenation Channel Interleaver/De-interleaver Scrambler / Descrambler Transform Precoding/Decoding Mapping to/Demapping from physical resources Demodulation Reference signal generation Modulation (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Aricent - LTE (Long term Evolution)</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://old.aricent.com/en/service/equipment/equipment_services_expertise/long_term_evolution_lte.html">old.aricent.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The new interleaving function covers longer code blocks and it is simpler to implement than the contemporary 3G interleaving.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> 3G Long Term Evolution Baseband Processing with Application-Specific Processors</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdmb/2009/503130.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__127" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="127">The use of Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (<a href="/OFDM" title="OFDM" class="mw-redirect">OFDM</a>), a system where the available spectrum is divided into many thin carriers, each on a different frequency, each carrying a part of the signal, enables E-UTRAN to be much more flexible in its use of spectrum than the older <a href="/Code_Division_Multiple_Access" title="Code Division Multiple Access" class="mw-redirect">CDMA</a> based systems that dominated <a href="/3G" title="3G">3G</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ( OFDM ) is used on the downlink to maximize the data rates in the assigned spectrum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long term evolution - Hill2dot0</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hill.com/wiki/index.php?title=Long_term_evolution">wiki.hill.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The use of OFDM, a system where the available spectrum is divided into many thin carriers, each on a different frequency, each carrying a part of the signal, enables E-UTRA to be much more flexible in its use of spectrum than the older CDMA based systems that dominated 3G. CDMA networks require large blocks of spectrum to be allocated to each carrier, to maintain high chip rates, and thus maximize efficiency.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="127"><a href="#citable__127"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Frequency diversity by spreading the carriers all over the used spectrum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__62" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="62">CDMA networks require large blocks of spectrum to be allocated to each carrier, to maintain high chip rates, and thus maximize efficiency.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The access network will require the allocation of additional spectrum for mobile services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long term evolution - Hill2dot0</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hill.com/wiki/index.php?title=Long_term_evolution">wiki.hill.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While FDD requires paired spectrum (one carrier for downlink and one for uplink), TDD employs unpaired or shared spectrum using time slots to manage interference.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>dBusinessNews :: Daily Business News Delivered to Your Desktop</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://sacramento.dbusinessnews.com/viewnews.php?article=bwire/20100120006158r1.xml">sacramento.dbusinessnews.com</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title>Continuous Computing Extends Trillium LTE Portfolio With TDD eNodeB Support and Suite of Advanced LTE MAC Schedulers - news from Boston.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://finance.boston.com/boston/?GUID=11548164&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">finance.boston.com</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title> Business - cbs2chicago.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://business.cbs2chicago.com/cbslocal.cbs2chicago/?GUID=11548164&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">business.cbs2chicago.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="62"><a href="#citable__62"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Convergence into LTE In time, GSM and CDMA carriers are expected to converge their networks into the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard supported by both 3GPP and 3GPP2.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3GPP Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=3GPP&i=37093,00.asp">www.pcmag.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>3GPP Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=3G2&i=37093,00.asp">www.pcmag.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__122" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="122">Building radios capable of coping with different chip rates (and spectrum bandwidths) is more complex than creating radios that only send and receive one size of carrier, so generally CDMA based systems standardize both.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Building radios capable of coping with different chip rates (and spectrum bandwidths) is more complex than creating radios that only send and receive one size of carrier, so generally CDMA based systems standardize both.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, LTC3 has an array of built-in standard benefits created to provide a high-quality base on which to build the exact coverage the client needs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prudential Financial - Long Term Care</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.fm-inc.com/pru/ltc/index.htm">www.fm-inc.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="122"><a href="#citable__122"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>How long will carriers upgrade their existing WCDMA/CDMA systems?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Research and Markets: Long Term Evolution 2009 - The Role of LTE in Mobile Wireless Networks through 2015</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20090729005456&newsLang=en">www.businesswire.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__58" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="58">Standardizing on a fixed spectrum slice has consequences for the operators deploying the system: too narrow a spectrum slice would mean the efficiency and maximum bandwidth per handset suffers; too wide a spectrum slice, and there are deployment issues for operators short on spectrum.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>L O N G T E R M E V O L U T I O N Standardizing on a fixed spectrum slice has consequences for the operators deploying the system: too narrow a spectrum slice would mean the efficiency and maximum bandwidth per handset suffers; too wide a spectrum slice implies deployment issues and spectrum cramming with legacy systems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>WG-1 aims to study some of the issues which are of common interest to BWCI members, both in the short and long-term in the 3GPP standardisation process.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Centre of Excellence in Wireless Technology (CEWiT), India - WG-1: 3GPP Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cewit.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=74&Itemid=125">www.cewit.org.in</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="58"><a href="#citable__58"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"We're confident that a growing number of device manufacturers will support TDtv as mobile operators begin to accelerate wide-area deployments of TDtv systems."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>NextWave Wireless Announces 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Roadmap - 3G Mobile Broadband Networks, Mobile TV, MBMS, WCDMA | IPWireless</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ipwireless.com/news/pressreleases/press021208">www.ipwireless.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98">This became a major issue with the US roll-out of UMTS over <a href="/W-CDMA" title="W-CDMA" class="mw-redirect">W-CDMA</a>, where W-CDMA's 5 MHz requirement often left no room in some markets for operators to co-deploy it with existing GSM standards.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This became a major issue in the US roll-out of UMTS over W-CDMA, where W- CDMA's 5 MHz requirement often left no room in some markets for operators to co-deploy it with existing GSM standards.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>GPP recently reported LTE's peak theoretical downlink throughput rates of up to 326 Mbps in 2X20 MHz with 4X4 MIMO. Based upon some vendors' UMTS/HSPA infrastructure being deployed in 2007, operators may be able to migrate to LTE through a straightforward upgrade.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>White Paper on 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.3g.co.uk/PR/July2007/4905.htm">www.3g.co.uk</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What better reason for operators around the world to spend years in planning and billions in acquiring spectrum, radio infrastructure and cell towers - and even more years and billions in deploying and rolling out the technology.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Heart of the Matter - Bytemobile Blog » long term evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.bytemobile.com/blog/tag/long-term-evolution/">www.bytemobile.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__44" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="44">LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE also supports frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Furthermore, 802.16 already supports FDD (although the WiMAX Forum still has to define a profile for it), and LTE is being developed with both FDD and TDD modes (though FDD is expected to be the main market).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Unstrung - Jonestown - WiMax's Long-Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.unstrung.com/blog.asp?blog_sectionid=244&doc_id=159248">www.unstrung.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__16" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="16">While FDD makes use of paired spectra for UL and DL transmission separated by a duplex frequency gap, TDD is alternating using the same spectral resources used for UL and DL, separated by guard time<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE also supports frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Technically, two versions of LTE will coexist: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) LTE and Time Division Duplex (TDD) LTE. These are a compromise technology hangover - FDD follows on from W-CDMA, and TDD from TD-SCDMA. A key issue for the industry is to produce chipsets that can handle both forms, so that a single handset can automatically switch between them and be used globally.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>WiMax: What's Working Now</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alvarion.com/index.php/en/news-a-events/press-coverage/271-wimax-whats-working-now">www.alvarion.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While FDD requires paired spectrum (one carrier for downlink and one for uplink), TDD employs unpaired or shared spectrum using time slots to manage interference.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Continuous Computing Extends Trillium LTE Portfolio With TDD eNodeB Support and Suite of Advanced LTE MAC Schedulers - news from Boston.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://finance.boston.com/boston/?GUID=11548164&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">finance.boston.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__21" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="21">Each mode has its own frame structure within LTE and these are aligned with each other meaning that similar hardware can be used in the base stations and terminals to allow for economy of scale.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Downlink LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Each mode has its own frame structure within LTE and these are aligned with each other meaning that similar hardware can be used in the base stations and terminals to allow for economy of scale.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="21"><a href="#citable__21"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nokia Siemens Networks ships LTE base station hardware .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) | Nokia Siemens Networks</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/portfolio/products/radio-access/long-term-evolution-lte">www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__53" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="53">The TDD mode in LTE is aligned with TD-SCDMA as well allowing for coexistence.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The TDD mode in LTE is aligned with TD-SCDMA as well allowing for coexistence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our WiMAX expertise and investment means we are also well positioned for LTE TDD. Q: Which LTE Network elements will be released by Motorola, and when will they be available for sale?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>FAQs - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_faq">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__48" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="48">Ericsson demonstrated at the MWC 2008 in Barcelona for the first time in the world both LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>First LTE base station appears - and also runs WiMax .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lte 3gpp articles - Techworld.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://search.techworld.com/tag/lte-3gpp">search.techworld.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>MWC: LTE on the brain at GSM World .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://connectedplanetonline.com/topics/lte-news/">connectedplanetonline.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Downlink">Downlink</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__7" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="7">LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Downlink LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE uses OFDM on the downlink and is targeted for deployment around 2009.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Getting base stations ready for LTE | Network Systems Designline</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.networksystemsdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199200099">www.networksystemsdesignline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="7"><a href="#citable__7"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Getting base stations ready for LTE .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Getting base stations ready for LTE | Network Systems Designline</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.networksystemsdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199200099">www.networksystemsdesignline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__41" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="41">OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost- efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE has ambitious requirements for data rate, capacity, spectrum efficiency, and latency.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Alan Spicer Marine Telecom Blog » 2009 » July » 19</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blog.marinetelecom.net/2009/07/19/">blog.marinetelecom.net</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE radio systems are designed to provide both greater levels of radio spectrum efficiency through use of new radio transmission schemes and advanced multi-antenna technologies, and a more flexible utilization of radio spectrum through support of carrier bandwidths ranging from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz (subject to 3GPP ratification).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Broadband Wireless News</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.convergedigest.com/Wireless/broadbandwirelessarticle.asp?ID=23185">www.convergedigest.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> It is a well-established technology, for example in standards such as IEEE 802.11a/g, 802.16, HIPERLAN-2, DVB and DAB.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">In the time domain there is a radio frame that is 10 ms long and consists of 10 sub frames of 1 ms each.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Each Frame consists of 10 sub-frames containing 14 OFDM Symbols.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Frame is of 10 ms duration and each sub frame is 1 ms in duration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is a well-established technology, for example in standards such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g, 802.16, HIPERLAN-2, DVB and DAB. 20 L O N G T E R M E V O L U T I O N In the time domain you have a radio frame that is 10 ms long and consists of 10 sub frames of 1 ms each.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Every sub frame consists of 2 slots where each slot is 0.5 ms. The subcarrier spacing in the frequency domain is 15 kHz. <a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">Twelve of these subcarriers together (per slot) is called a resource block so one resource block is 180 kHz.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Twelve of these subcarriers together (per slot) is called a resource block so one resource block is 180 kHz.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>An RB is 180 kHz wide and lasts for one 0.5 ms timeslot.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3GPP Long Term Evolution: System Overview, Product Development, and Test Challenges</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.commsdesign.com/article/printableArticle.jhtml?articleID=208808525">www.commsdesign.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li><li> <em><c_title> | RF DesignLine</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=208803287">www.rfdesignline.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Figure 5 illustrates the time and frequency division of the physical resource blocks (PRBs) considering that there are three sectors per cell.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Multiresolution with Hierarchical Modulations for Long Term Evolution of UMTS</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/240140.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">6 Resource blocks fit in a carrier of 1.4 MHz and 100 resource blocks fit in a carrier of 20 MHz.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Resource blocks fit in a carrier of 1.4 MHz and 100 resource blocks fit in a carrier of 20 MHz.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To meet the demand for ever-higher data rates, LTE offers a 100 Mbps download rate and 50 Mbps upload rate for every 20 MHz of spectrum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Agilent | Understanding LTE</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.agilent.co.jp/about/newsroom/tmnews/background/lte/index.html">www.agilent.co.jp</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In LTE the data is sent in resource blocks with each of them encompassing 12 sub-carries in a single time slot.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__4" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="4">In the downlink there are three main physical channels.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Downlink control signaling on the Physical Downlink Control Channel ( PDCCH ) is used to convey the scheduling decisions to individual UEs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The LTE downlink physical channels consist of , Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) - consumes 3 ODFM symbols per sub-frame.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) - consumes 3 ODFM symbols.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__118" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="118">The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) is used for all the data transmission, the Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is used for broadcast transmission using a Single Frequency Network, and the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) is used to send most important system information within the cell<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This was all done within a single cell organism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Human Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.onelife.com/evolve/manev.html">www.onelife.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Multicast Control Channel (MCCH): Groups within the network get common information.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="118"><a href="#citable__118"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Broadcast multicast transmission method and system .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>IPR Database</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ccsa.org.cn/english/tc/wireless/ipr.html">www.ccsa.org.cn</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__31" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="31">Supported modulation formats on the PDSCH are <a href="/QPSK" title="QPSK" class="mw-redirect">QPSK</a>, <a href="/16QAM" title="16QAM" class="mw-redirect">16QAM</a> and <a href="/64QAM" title="64QAM" class="mw-redirect">64QAM</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Supported modulation formats on the uplink data channels are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. If virtual MIMO / Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is introduced the data rate in the uplink direction can be increased depending on the number of antennas at the base station.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Multi-user MIMO is supported in both UL and DL.The modulation schemes supported in the downlink and uplink are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Each subcarrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM) at a low symbol rate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> | RF DesignLine</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=208803287">www.rfdesignline.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__69" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="69">For <a href="/MIMO" title="MIMO">MIMO</a> operation, a distinction is made between single user MIMO, for enhancing one user's data throughput, and multi user <a href="/MIMO" title="MIMO">MIMO</a> for enhancing the cell throughput.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Supported modulation formats on the downlink data channels are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. For MIMO operation, a distinction is made between single user MIMO, for enhancing one user's data throughput, and multi user MIMO for enhancing the cell throughput.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These data streams can belong to one single user (single user MIMO / SU-MIMO) or to different users (multi user MIMO / MU-MIMO).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="69"><a href="#citable__69"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE meets and in some cases exceeds the targets for peak data rates, cell edge user throughput and spectrum efficiency, as well as VoIP and Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) performance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Uplink">Uplink</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">In the uplink, for the Physical Uplink Shared channel (PUSCH) only, LTE uses a pre-coded version of OFDM called <a href="/SC-FDMA" title="SC-FDMA" class="mw-redirect">Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) Thus, the LTE uplink transmission scheme for FDD and TDD mode is based on SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) with cyclic prefix.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Uplink physical channel .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) is used on the uplink since the uplink data rate requirements are less than the downlink.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long term evolution - Hill2dot0</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hill.com/wiki/index.php?title=Long_term_evolution">wiki.hill.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">This is to compensate for a drawback with normal OFDM, which has a very high <a href="/Crest_factor" title="Crest factor">peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This reduces the overall peak to average power ratio.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is to compensate for a drawback with normal OFDM, which has a very high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because the signals are spectrally correct, they emulate real-world signals (such as having the proper bandwidth, peak-to-average ratio and spectral shape).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Software test suite rolls for 3GPP LTE products</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800472389_480300_NP_db1fbf8f.HTM">www.eetasia.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__141" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="141">High PAPR requires expensive and inefficient power amplifiers with high requirements on linearity, which increases the cost of the terminal and drains the battery faster.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>High PAPR requires expensive and inefficient power amplifiers with high requirements on linearity, which increases the cost of the terminal and drains the battery faster.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>GPP's high-level requirements for LTE include reduced cost per bit, better service provisioning, flexible use of new and existing frequency bands, simplified network architecture with open interfaces, and an allowance for reasonable power consumption by terminals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> | RF DesignLine</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rfdesignline.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=208803287">www.rfdesignline.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="141"><a href="#citable__141"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A low-cost high-performance RF power sensor for 1MHz to 6 GHz    (part of the RF-Powermeter mentioned above) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Welcome at Herberts Webpage - Servertime: Tuesday, 26-Jan-2010 09:33:49 CET</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://long-term-evolution.com/">long-term-evolution.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__27" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="27">SC-FDMA solves this problem by grouping together the resource blocks in a way that reduces the need for linearity, and so power consumption, in the power amplifier.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>SC-FDMA solves this problem by grouping together the resource blocks in such a way that reduces the need for linearity, and so power consumption, in the power amplifier.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There are lots of ways of solving this problem.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> InfoQ: DSL Evolution </c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.infoq.com/articles/dsl-evolution">www.infoq.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="27"><a href="#citable__27"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition to individual long-term care insurance, Prudential also provides group long-term care insurance, providing producers with a single resource for all of their client needs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Prudential Long-Term Care Product Simplifies Decisions</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.prweb.com/releases/PruLTC/Evolution/prweb2202514.htm">www.prweb.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">A low PAPR also improves coverage and the cell-edge performance.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A low PAPR also improves coverage and the cell-edge performance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Further, LTE-A MIMO technologies are also designed with the aim of improving cell average throughput as well as cell edge performance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Broadband Wireless Networking Lab</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/ltea/projectdescription.html">www.ece.gatech.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Additionally, the question of when a terminal is eligible for coordinated transmission needs to be addressed since the tradeoff between cell average throughput and cell edge performance has to be optimized.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Broadband Wireless Networking Lab</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/ltea/projectdescription.html">www.ece.gatech.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__78" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="78">In the uplink there are three physical channels.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Uplink physical channel .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Figure 5 illustrates the time and frequency division of the physical resource blocks (PRBs) considering that there are three sectors per cell.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Multiresolution with Hierarchical Modulations for Long Term Evolution of UMTS</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/240140.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PUSCH and PUCCH User data is carried on the Physical Uplink Shared Channel ( PUSCH ) that is determined by the transmission bandwidth NTx and the frequency hopping pattern k0.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__88" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="88">While the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is only used for initial access and when the UE is not uplink synchronized<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup>, all the data is sent on the Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Uplink physical channel .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While FDD requires paired spectrum (one carrier for downlink and one for uplink), TDD employs unpaired or shared spectrum using time slots to manage interference.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Continuous Computing Extends Trillium LTE Portfolio With TDD eNodeB Support and Suite of Advanced LTE MAC Schedulers - news from Boston.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://finance.boston.com/boston/?GUID=11548164&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">finance.boston.com</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title> Business - cbs2chicago.com</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://business.cbs2chicago.com/cbslocal.cbs2chicago/?GUID=11548164&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">business.cbs2chicago.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>GPP LTE is specified to enable downlink/uplink peak data rates above 100/50 Mbps in initial deployment configurations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Trials of super-fast mobile broadband on track for success</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.physorg.com/news113665358.html">www.physorg.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">If there is no data to be transmitted on Uplink for an UE, control information would be transmitted on the Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Uplink physical channel .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HSC Technical Wiki | Main / Long Term Evolution browse</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.hsc.com/Main/LTE">wiki.hsc.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Common Control Channel (CCCH): transmits control information of the network to the device.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Physical Uplink Control Channel ( PUCCH ) carries uplink control information, e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/hamdani2/lte-long-term-evolution">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Supported modulation formats on the uplink data channel are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__123" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="123">If virtual MIMO / Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is introduced the data rate in the uplink direction can be increased depending on the number of antennas at the base station.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Supported modulation formats on the uplink data channels are QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM. If virtual MIMO / Spatial division multiple access (SDMA) is introduced the data rate in the uplink direction can be increased depending on the number of antennas at the base station.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Additionally, LTE supports SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access) and beamforming.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Broadband Wireless Networking Lab</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/ltea/projectdescription.html">www.ece.gatech.edu</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="123"><a href="#citable__123"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Uplink Peak Data Rates (single antenna) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Agilent | Understanding LTE</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.agilent.co.jp/about/newsroom/tmnews/background/lte/index.html">www.agilent.co.jp</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__77" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="77">With this technology more than one mobile can reuse the same resources.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With this technology more than one mobile can reuse the same resources.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Source: FierceWireless Mobile players have invested more than $3 billion in the packet core space during the past six months alone.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE watch</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ltewatch.blogspot.com/">ltewatch.blogspot.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="77"><a href="#citable__77"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The technology can potentially offer downlink speeds of 100 Mbit/s, with a roadmap to more than 300 Mbit/s using 4x4 MIMO. For operators, LTE offers a migration path to an all-IP mobile broadband network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Unstrung - Handhelds - LTE Specs on Track - Telecom News Analysis</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.unstrung.com/document.asp?doc_id=143778">www.unstrung.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated1_15_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated1-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> l</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Frequency_bands_and_channel_bandwidths">Frequency bands and channel bandwidths</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">From Tables 5.5-1 "E-UTRA Operating Bands" and 5.6.1-1 "E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth" of 3GPP TS 36.101 (Release 8.4.0),<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> the following table lists the specified frequency bands of LTE and the channel bandwidths each listed band supports:</div> <table class="sortable collapsible wikitable" border="1" align="center"> <tr> <th>E-UTRA<br /> Operating Band</th> <th>Uplink (UL)<br /> Operating Band<br /> BS Receive<br /> UE Transmit</th> <th>Downlink (DL)<br /> Operating Band<br /> BS Transmit<br /> UE Receive</th> <th>Duplex Mode</th> <th class="unsortable">Channel<br /> Bandwidths (MHz)</th> <th>Alias</th> <th>Region(s)</th> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">001</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_I">I</span> (1)</td> <td><span style="display:none">017</span> 1920 MHz to 1980 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">017</span> 2110 MHz to 2170 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td>UMTS IMT, "2100"</td> <td>Japan, Europe, Asia</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">002</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_II">II</span> (2)</td> <td><span style="display:none">012</span> 1850 MHz to 1910 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">012</span> 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td><a href="/Personal_Communications_Service" title="Personal Communications Service">PCS</a>, "1900"</td> <td>Canada, United States, Latin America</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">003</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_III">III</span> (3)</td> <td><span style="display:none">010</span> 1710 MHz to 1785 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">010</span> 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td><a href="/Digital_Cellular_System" title="Digital Cellular System" class="mw-redirect">DCS 1800</a>, "1800"</td> <td>Finland,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> Hong Kong<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">004</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_IV">IV</span> (4)</td> <td><span style="display:none">009</span> 1710 MHz to 1755 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">013</span> 2110 MHz to 2155 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td><a href="/Advanced_Wireless_Services" title="Advanced Wireless Services">AWS</a>, "1.7/2.1 GHz"</td> <td>Canada, US, Latin America</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">005</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_V">V</span> (5)</td> <td><span style="display:none">005</span> 824 MHz to 849 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">005</span> 869 MHz to 894 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td>Cellular 850, UMTS850</td> <td>Canada, US, Australia</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">006</span> <span>VI</span> (6)</td> <td><span style="display:none">006</span> 830 MHz to 840 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">006</span> 875 MHz to 885 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10</td> <td>UMTS800</td> <td>Japan</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">007</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_VII">VII</span> (7)</td> <td><span style="display:none">021</span> 2500 MHz to 2570 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">021</span> 2620 MHz to 2690 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td>IMT-E, "2.6 GHz"</td> <td>EU</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">008</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_VIII">VIII</span> (8)</td> <td><span style="display:none">007</span>880 MHz to 915 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">007</span>925 MHz to 960 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td><a href="/GSM" title="GSM">GSM</a>, UMTS900, EGSM900</td> <td>EU, Latin America</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">009</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_IX">IX</span> (9)</td> <td><span style="display:none">012</span> 1749.9 MHz to 1784.9 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">011</span> 1844.9 MHz to 1879.9 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td>UMTS1700</td> <td>Canada, US, Japan</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">010</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_X">X</span> (10)</td> <td><span style="display:none">011</span> 1710 MHz to 1770 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">013</span> 2110 MHz to 2170 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td><a href="/UMTS" title="UMTS" class="mw-redirect">UMTS</a>,<a href="/IMT_2000" title="IMT 2000" class="mw-redirect">IMT 2000</a></td> <td>Brazil, Uruguay, Ecuador, Peru</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">011</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XI">XI</span> (11)</td> <td><span style="display:none">008</span> 1427.9 MHz to 1452.9 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">008</span> 1475.9 MHz to 1500.9 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td><a href="/Personal_Digital_Cellular" title="Personal Digital Cellular">PDC</a></td> <td>Japan (Softbank, KDDI, DoCoMo)<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">012</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XII">XII</span> (12)</td> <td><span style="display:none">001</span> 698 MHz to 716 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">001</span> 728 MHz to 746 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">013</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XIII">XIII</span> (13)</td> <td><span style="display:none">003</span> 777 MHz to 787 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">003</span> 746 MHz to 756 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td>Verizon's <a href="/United_States_2008_wireless_spectrum_auction" title="United States 2008 wireless spectrum auction">700 MHz Block C</a></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">014</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XIV">XIV</span> (14)</td> <td><span style="display:none">004</span> 788 MHz to 798 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">004</span> 758 MHz to 768 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td><a href="/United_States_2008_wireless_spectrum_auction" title="United States 2008 wireless spectrum auction">700 MHz Block D</a></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">017</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XVII">XVII</span> (17)</td> <td><span style="display:none">002</span> 704 MHz to 716 MHz</td> <td><span style="display:none">002</span> 734 MHz to 746 MHz</td> <td>FDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10</td> <td>AT&T's <a href="/United_States_2008_wireless_spectrum_auction" title="United States 2008 wireless spectrum auction">700 MHz Block B</a></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">033</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXIII">XXXIII</span> (33)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">016</span> 1900 MHz to 1920 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">034</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXIV">XXXIV</span> (34)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">020</span> 2010 MHz to 2025 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">035</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXV">XXXV</span> (35)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">014</span> 1850 MHz to 1910 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">036</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXVI">XXXVI</span> (36)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">019</span> 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">037</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXVII">XXXVII</span> (37)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">017</span> 1910 MHz to 1930 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">038</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXVIII">XXXVIII</span> (38)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">023</span> 2570 MHz to 2620 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>5, 10</td> <td></td> <td>EU</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">039</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XXXIX">XXXIX</span> (39)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">015</span> 1880 MHz to 1920 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>5, 10, 15, 20</td> <td></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td><span style="display:none">040</span> <span id="wikipedia_LTE_Band_XL">XL</span> (40)</td> <td colspan="2"><span style="display:none">021</span> 2300 MHz to 2400 MHz</td> <td>TDD</td> <td>10, 15, 20</td> <td>IMT-2000</td> <td>China</td> </tr> </table> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Technology_Demos">Technology Demos</span></h2> <a name="citable__124" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="124"><ul> <li>In September 2006, Siemens Networks (today <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a>) showed in collaboration with Nomor Research the first live emulation of a LTE network to the media and investors.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>AT&T plans to upgrade its 3G network to High Speed Packet Access 7.2 first, and it will begin rolling out its LTE network in 2011.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Nortel Sells LTE Packet Assets To Hitachi -- Wireless Business -- InformationWeek</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pheedcontent.com/click.phdo?i=1c917002839b5f19010dba6b73061638">www.pheedcontent.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Today, specifications for LTE are encapsulated in 3GPP Release 8, the newest set of standards that defines the technical evolution of 3GPP mobile network systems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="124"><a href="#citable__124"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>According to the company, it will roll out the first LTE network in the US, and it is als...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__51" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="51">As live applications two users streaming an HD-TV video in the downlink and playing an interactive game in the uplink have been demonstrated.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This secure application allows the tipster and the investigator to have two-way dialog while always keeping the user ’ s identity completely anonymous.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola set up shop at Mobile World Congress 2009 and demonstrated LTE's high quality video streaming capabilities and a whole lot more.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="51"><a href="#citable__51"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It will enhance more demanding applications such as interactive TV, mobile video blogging, advanced games and professional services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25"><li>The first presentation of an LTE demonstrator with <a href="/HDTV" title="HDTV" class="mw-redirect">HDTV</a> streaming (>30 Mbit/s), video supervision and Mobile <a href="/Internet_Protocol" title="Internet Protocol">IP</a>-based handover between the LTE radio demonstrator and the commercially available <a href="/HSDPA" title="HSDPA" class="mw-redirect">HSDPA</a> radio system was shown during the <a href="/International_Telecommunication_Union" title="International Telecommunication Union">ITU</a> trade fair in <a href="/Hong_Kong" title="Hong Kong">Hong Kong</a> in December 2006 by <a href="/Siemens" title="Siemens">Siemens</a> Communication Department.</li> <li>In February 2007, <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> demonstrated for the first time in the world LTE with bit rates up to 144 Mbit/s<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In September 2007, <a href="/NTT_docomo" title="NTT docomo">NTT docomo</a> demonstrated LTE data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Q: This is your first time at Mobile World Congress, right?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mobile Broadcasting System streams, stores, and forwards video.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Motorola Long-Term Evolution LTE to Accelerate Delivery of Personal Media Experienc</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.thomasnet.com/companystory/812822">news.thomasnet.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2007.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__89" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="89"><li>In November 2007, <a href="/Infineon" title="Infineon" class="mw-redirect">Infineon</a> presented the world’s first RF transceiver named SMARTi LTE supporting LTE functionality in a single-chip RF silicon processed in CMOS <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>At the February 2008 <a href="/Mobile_World_Congress" title="Mobile World Congress">Mobile World Congress</a>: <ul> <li><a href="/Huawei" title="Huawei">Huawei</a> demonstrated Long Term Evolution ("LTE") applications by means of multiplex HDTV services and mutual gaming that has transmission speeds of 100 Mbps.</li> <li><a href="/Motorola" title="Motorola">Motorola</a> demonstrated how LTE can accelerate the delivery of personal media experience with HD video demo streaming, HD video blogging, Online gaming and VoIP over LTE running a RAN standard compliant LTE network & LTE chipset.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Samsung host this new Java service, which was demonstrated in February at the GSMA Mobile World Congress.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>(NYSE:MOT) will demonstrate the ability of Long Term Evolution (LTE) to accelerate the delivery of personal media experiences at Mobile World Congress 2008.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Motorola Long-Term Evolution LTE to Accelerate Delivery of Personal Media Experienc</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.thomasnet.com/companystory/812822">news.thomasnet.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="89"><a href="#citable__89"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Evolution of global regulatory networks during a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Evolution of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 Concentration and Cell Shape during a Long-Term Experiment with Escherichia coli -- Philippe et al. 191 (3): 909 -- The Journal of Bacteriology</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/191/3/909">jb.asm.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__32" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="32"><li><a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> EMP (now <a href="/ST-Ericsson" title="ST-Ericsson">ST-Ericsson</a>) demonstrated the world’s first end-to-end LTE call on handheld<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ericsson_com_6_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ericsson.com-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> Ericsson demonstrated LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</li> <li><a href="/Freescale_Semiconductor" title="Freescale Semiconductor">Freescale Semiconductor</a> demonstrated streaming HD video with peak data rates of 96 Mbit/s downlink and 86 Mbit/s uplink.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE supports both FDD and TDD mode.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Increased peak data rates: 100Mbps downlink and 50Mbps uplink.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Downlink LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__75" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="75"><li><a href="/NXP_Semiconductors" title="NXP Semiconductors">NXP Semiconductors</a> (now a part of <a href="/ST-Ericsson" title="ST-Ericsson">ST-Ericsson</a>) demonstrated a multi-mode LTE modem as the basis for a <a href="/Software-defined_radio" title="Software-defined radio">software-defined radio</a> system for use in cellphones.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, it should be possible to upgrade existing radio base stations to LTE using plug-in units, so they become both dual mode and dual band.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) – The 4G Mobile Broadband Standrard</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://teck.in/long-term-evolution-lte-the-4g-mobile-broadband-standrard.html">teck.in</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>PowerDesk for Mac, a new desktop management software for Graphics eXpansion Modules (GXMs) used with Apple Mac systems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> HotHardware News Archive</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://hothardware.com/news.aspx?Date=12/1/2008">hothardware.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His research interests are in the areas of systems, software, protocols and security for dynamic spectrum access networks, integrated public wireless networks, and multi-hop all-wireless mesh networks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>WCNC 2008</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ieee-wcnc.org/2008/tutorialsFull.html">www.ieee-wcnc.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__139" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="139"><li><a href="/PicoChip" title="PicoChip">picoChip</a> and Mimoon demonstrated a base station reference design.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson demonstrated at the MWC 2008 in Barcelona for the first time in the world both LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The rate for user is thus (21) Here we have used the subscript to denote base station coordination and the notation instead of to refer to a single user rather than the sum of users.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Relay Architectures for 3GPP LTE-Advanced</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/618787.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__95" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="95">This runs on a common hardware platform (multi-mode / <a href="/Software_defined_radio" title="Software defined radio" class="mw-redirect">software defined radio</a>) with their WiMAX architecture.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The design complexity or difficulty of designing implementations of such algorithms calls for flexible software-based solutions, that is, software defined radio (SDR).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> 3G Long Term Evolution Baseband Processing with Application-Specific Processors</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdmb/2009/503130.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It outlines requirements for a software platform for supporting such an architecture, and, as an example, reviews the BusinessObjects“ Data Services XI Release 3 platform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Data Retention - KnowledgeStorm Data Integration Results for Long Term Data Retention </c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dataintegration.knowledgestorm.com/search/keyword/ksdataintegration/Long%20Term%20Data%20Retention/DirectSSkw/Long%20Term%20Data%20Retention">dataintegration.knowledgestorm.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="95"><a href="#citable__95"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>M. Woh, S. Seo, H. Lee, et al., “ The next generation challenge for software defined radio ,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation (SAMOS '07) , vol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> 3G Long Term Evolution Baseband Processing with Application-Specific Processors</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdmb/2009/503130.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__92" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="92"></ul> </li> <li>In April 2008, Motorola demonstrated the first EV-DO to LTE hand-off - handing over a streaming video from LTE to a commercial EV-DO network and back to LTE.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In April 2008, <a href="/LG_Electronics" title="LG Electronics">LG Electronics</a> and <a href="/Nortel" title="Nortel">Nortel</a> demonstrated LTE data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola's Stephane Daeuble demonstrates how high definition video and VoIP calls can be handed off between LTE and CDMA networks with low latency and high quality of the content.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mobile phone carrier Verizon Wireless announced on Thursday that handset vendor Motorola was present at the International 2010 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas to demonstrate wireless HD video streaming on LTE. The demonstration is being made over Verizon's pre-commercial LTE network with 4G LTE data card...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola's Stephane Daeuble demonstrates how high definition video and VoIP calls can be handed off between LTE and CDMA networks with low latency and little effect on the quality of the content.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__40" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="40"><li>In April 2008 Ericsson unveiled its M700 mobile platform, the world’s first commercially available LTE-capable platform, with peak data rates of up to 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and up to 50 Mbit/s in the uplink.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mbps Downlink 50 Mbps Uplink .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>4G wireless technology developments - DolceraWiki</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dolcera.com/wiki/index.php?title=4G_wireless_technology_developments">www.dolcera.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson , LTE. 2008.12 release 8 LTE 3GPP. 2008.04 Ericsson M700.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE. Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mforum.ru/analit/LTE.htm">www.mforum.ru</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="40"><a href="#citable__40"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These technologies enhance the capabilities of the existing WCDMA/HSPA networks to offer higher data rates beyond 100 Mbps.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Powell's Books - WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE by Harri (edt) Holma</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.powells.com/partner/719/biblio/9780470319338">www.powells.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__17" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="17">The first products based on M700 will be data devices such as laptop modems, Expresscards and USB modems for notebooks, as well other small-form modems suitable for consumer electronic devices.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The deployment of laptops and other consumer devices that fea...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>New initiative embeds WiMAX, HSPA and LTE data cards into consumer electronics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="17"><a href="#citable__17"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The 3G handset allows consumers to conveniently share content, access services and information as well as conduct payments and ticketing with one tap of the device.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__93" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="93">Commercial release is set for 2009, with products based on the platform expected in 2010.</li> <li>In November 2008 <a href="/Motorola" title="Motorola">Motorola</a> demonstrated industry first over-the-air LTE session in 700 MHz spectrum<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup>.</li> <li>Researchers at <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a> and <a href="/Fraunhofer_Society" title="Fraunhofer Society">Heinrich Hertz Institut</a> have demonstrated LTE with 100 Mbit/s Uplink transfer speeds.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Verizon Wireless plans to launch its LTE network in the 700 MHz spectrum in the 2010 timeframe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sweden's Ericsson says it will have an LTE-capable platform for commercial release in 2009 and will deliver mobile products based on the platform in 2010.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola continues to drive the development of LTE with the industry first Over-the-Air LTE session in the 700MHz spectrum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_autogenerated1_15_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated1-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8"><li>At the February 2009 <a href="/Mobile_World_Congress" title="Mobile World Congress">Mobile World Congress</a>: <ul> <li><a href="/Huawei" title="Huawei">Huawei</a> demonstrated the world' s first unified frequency-division duplex and time-division duplex (FDD/TDD) long-term evolution (LTE) solution.</li> <li><a href="/Aricent" title="Aricent">Aricent</a> gave a demonstration of LTE eNodeB layer2 stacks.</li> <li><a href="/Setcom" title="Setcom">Setcom</a> Streaming a Video <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li><a href="/Infineon" title="Infineon" class="mw-redirect">Infineon</a> demonstrated a single-chip 65 nm <a href="/CMOS" title="CMOS">CMOS</a> RF transceiver providing 2G/3G/LTE functionality<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>Launch of ng Connect program, a multi-industry consortium founded by <a href="/Alcatel-Lucent" title="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent</a> to identify and develop wireless broadband applications.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Q: This is your first time at Mobile World Congress, right?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term evolution (LTE) , MobileOne (M1.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE. Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mforum.ru/analit/LTE.htm">www.mforum.ru</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson announced on Wednesday the signing of its first Long Term Evolution (LTE) agreement.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__39" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="39"><li><a href="/Motorola" title="Motorola">Motorola</a> provided LTE drive tour on the streets of Barcelona to demonstrate LTE system performance in a real-life metropolitan RF environment <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> </li> <li>In May 2009 <a href="/Setcom" title="Setcom">Setcom</a> Streaming HD Video at GSMA MWC and LTE World Summit</li> <li>In July 2009 <a href="/Nujira" title="Nujira">Nujira</a> demonstrated efficiencies of more than 60% for an 880 MHz LTE Power Amplifier<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In August 2009, <a href="/Nortel" title="Nortel">Nortel</a> and <a href="/LG_Electronics" title="LG Electronics">LG Electronics</a> demonstrated the first successful handoff between CDMA and LTE networks in a standards-compliant manner <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In August 2009, <a href="/Alcatel-Lucent" title="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent</a> receives FCC certification for LTE base stations for the 700 MHz spectrum band.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the first phase, the base station transmits while the relay receives (the mobile may or may not receive), and in the second phase the relay transmits while the mobile receives.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Relay Architectures for 3GPP LTE-Advanced</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/618787.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE Networks to Use the 2,600 MHz Band .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson demonstrated at the MWC 2008 in Barcelona for the first time in the world both LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__24" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="24"><li>In September 2009, <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a> demonstrated world's first LTE call on standards-compliant commercial software.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Alcatel-Lucent announced recently that it managed to successfully complete the first LTE data call in the world on the 800 MHz "European Digital Dividend" (EDD) spectrum band.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola's recent efforts at developing a Time Division-enabled LTE platform continued to progress with the announcement of the first commercial TD-LTE trials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Starent's robust feature rich multimedia core into the Motorola LTE ecosystem enhances Motorola’s world-class LTE network solution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__12" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="12"><li>In October 2009, <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> and <a href="/Samsung" title="Samsung" class="mw-redirect">Samsung</a> demonstrated interoperability between the first ever commercial LTE device and the live network in Stockholm, Sweden.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"The device shall be assigned an IPv6 address whenever it attaches to the LTE network."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>IPv6 and LTE, the Not So Long Term Evolution?</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.circleid.com/posts/20090529_ipv6_lte_not_so_long_term_evolution/">www.circleid.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Motorola's recent efforts at developing a Time Division-enabled LTE platform continued to progress with the announcement of the first commercial TD-LTE trials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson demonstrated at the MWC 2008 in Barcelona for the first time in the world both LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__56" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="56"><li>In October 2009, <a href="/Alcatel-Lucent" title="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent</a>'s Bell Labs, Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, the Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz Institut and antenna supplier Kathrein conducted live field tests of a technology called Coordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP) aimed at increasing the data transmission speeds of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 3G networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A complete description of long term evolution including lte advanced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The two companies also stated that the field testing for Long-term Evolution (LTE) was conducted using 4x4 MIMO. The testing site for the LTE technology was the Specia...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="56"><a href="#citable__56"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE - Long Term Evolution is one of the latest communication technology that is currently being tested and deployed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__138" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="138"><li>In November 2009, <a href="/Alcatel-Lucent" title="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent</a> completed first live LTE call using 800 MHz spectrum band set aside as part of the European Digital Dividend (EDD).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Alcatel-Lucent announced recently that it managed to successfully complete the first LTE data call in the world on the 800 MHz "European Digital Dividend" (EDD) spectrum band.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE Networks to Use the 2,600 MHz Band .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Report: US 700 MHz Spectrum and Auction 73 Results, with Conclusions and Observations This comprehensive report follows the auction in the US by the FCC of spectrum in the 700 MHz band.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Information Papers</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers.php4">www.gsacom.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__22" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="22"><li>In November 2009, <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a> and <a href="/LG" title="LG" class="mw-redirect">LG</a> completed first end-to-end interoperability testing of LTE.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>On December 14, 2009, the first commercial LTE deployment was opened in <a href="/Stockholm" title="Stockholm">Stockholm</a> and <a href="/Oslo" title="Oslo">Oslo</a> by the Swedish-Finnish network operator <a href="/TeliaSonera" title="TeliaSonera">TeliaSonera</a> and its Norwegian brandname <a href="/NetCom_(Norway)" title="NetCom (Norway)">NetCom (Norway)</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>WCDMA networks have been commercially launched in 132 countries (December 4, 2009).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Information Papers</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers.php4">www.gsacom.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such an open-standard solution allows easy compatibility and complete interworking with all Evolved Packet Core (EPC) solutions, enabling service providers to combine best-of-breed products for a world-class LTE network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Nation's Restaurant News</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://finance.nrn.com/nrn/?GUID=11151485&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">finance.nrn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Infrastructure telecommunications provider Nokia Siemens Networks has announced today that it is conducting end-to-end LTE interoperability testing with four of the world’s leading mobile phone vendors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">The offered modem device was manufactured by <a href="/Samsung" title="Samsung" class="mw-redirect">Samsung</a> (dongle GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure by <a href="/Huawei" title="Huawei">Huawei</a> (in Oslo) and <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> (in Stockholm).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This same rationale is likely what prompted Google to offer its initial Android devices on T-Mobile's GSM network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first 4G networks in the world based on the LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology have been fired up in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Just like we did with EV-DO, we will initially offer the service for PC cards and dongle devices.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> TeliaSonera incorrectly branded the service "<a href="/4G" title="4G">4G</a>".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup>. <a name="citable__97" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="97">An introductory test showed a <a href="/TCP" title="TCP">TCP</a> <a href="/Goodput" title="Goodput">goodput</a> of 42.8 Mbit/s downstreams and 5.3 Mbit/s upstreams in the Stockholm network.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>IP network architecture Supports flat, centralized and mixed topologies Data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream Source More infromation .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>4G wireless technology developments - DolceraWiki</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.dolcera.com/wiki/index.php?title=4G_wireless_technology_developments">www.dolcera.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I assume well see data rates of 2 to 3 Mbit/s downstream and perhaps half those rates upstream.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Internet Evolution - Alan Reiter - Wireless Internet's Future: LTE Rules, WiMax Survives</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=526&doc_id=150821&">www.internetevolution.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__104" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="104"><li>In December 2009, <a href="/ST-Ericsson" title="ST-Ericsson">ST-Ericsson</a> and <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> first to achieve LTE and HSPA mobility with a multimode device.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sweden's Ericsson says it will have an LTE-capable platform for commercial release in 2009 and will deliver mobile products based on the platform in 2010.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>More information Evolution to LTE - Overview presentation (December 2009) [1.8 MB] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Information Papers</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers.php4">www.gsacom.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="104"><a href="#citable__104"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ericsson demonstrated at the MWC 2008 in Barcelona for the first time in the world both LTE FDD and TDD mode on the same base station platform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82"><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In January 2010, <a href="/Alcatel-Lucent" title="Alcatel-Lucent">Alcatel-Lucent</a> and <a href="/LG" title="LG" class="mw-redirect">LG</a> complete a live handoff of an end-to-end data call between Long Term Evolution (LTE) and CDMA networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A complete description of long term evolution including lte advanced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A complete description of long term evolution inclu more .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term evolution (LTE) , MobileOne (M1.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE. Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mforum.ru/analit/LTE.htm">www.mforum.ru</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102"><li>In February 2010, <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a> and <a href="/Vodafone_Italy" title="Vodafone Italy">Vodafone Italy</a> complete the first LTE call in Italy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nokia LTE 2010 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE. Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mforum.ru/analit/LTE.htm">www.mforum.ru</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Verizon Wireless plans to launch its LTE network in the 700 MHz spectrum in the 2010 timeframe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In another milestone in its LTE development efforts, Motorola recently completed the first ever handoff between the CDMA/EV-DO Rev-A and LTE platforms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The test was undertaken with commercial hardware and software. <a name="citable__57" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="57">During the call a throughput of about 70 Mbit/s downlink and 19 Mbit/s uplink have been reached.</li> <li>In February 2010, <a href="/Nokia_Siemens_Networks" title="Nokia Siemens Networks">Nokia Siemens Networks</a> and <a href="/Movistar" title="Movistar">Movistar</a> test the LTE in <a href="/Mobile_World_Congress" title="Mobile World Congress">Mobile World Congress</a> 2010 in Barcelona, Spain, with both indoor and outdoor demonstrations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nokia LTE 2010 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE. Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.mforum.ru/analit/LTE.htm">www.mforum.ru</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Note also that and have information about both the uplink and downlink signal.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Relay Architectures for 3GPP LTE-Advanced</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/618787.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE uses new multiple access schemes on the air interface: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) in downlink and SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) in uplink.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Alan Spicer Marine Telecom Blog » Cellular Voice and Internet</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blog.marinetelecom.net/category/cellular/">blog.marinetelecom.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Carrier_adoption">Carrier adoption</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Most carriers supporting GSM or HSUPA networks can be expected to upgrade their networks to LTE at some stage:</div> <a name="citable__87" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="87"><ul> <li><a href="/AT%26T_Mobility" title="AT&T Mobility">AT&T Mobility</a> has stated that they intend on upgrading to LTE as their 4G technology in 2011, but will introduce <a href="/HSUPA" title="HSUPA" class="mw-redirect">HSUPA</a> and <a href="/HSPA%2B" title="HSPA+" class="mw-redirect">HSPA+</a> as bridge standards.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="87"><a href="#citable__87"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"WiMax drives the hype for 4G [fourth-generation wireless technology], but LTE will be the dominant standard," Gartner analyst Phillip Redman wrote in an April report.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> WiMax vs. Long Term Evolution: Let the battle begin</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9085202">www.computerworld.com</a> [Source type: News]</li><li> <em><c_title>WiMax vs. Long Term Evolution: Let the battle begin - PC World</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pcworld.idg.com.au/article/216224/wimax_vs_long_term_evolution_let_battle_begin">www.pcworld.idg.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title> WiMax vs. Long Term Evolution: Let the battle begin</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9085202/WiMax_vs._Long_Term_Evolution_Let_the_battle_begin">www.computerworld.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="87"><a href="#citable__87"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Much of the 3GPP Release 8 standard will be oriented towards upgrading UMTS to 4G mobile communications technology, and an all-IP flat architecture system.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="87"><a href="#citable__87"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Carriers, such as AT&T and Telstra in Australia, are upgrading their existing 3G wireless networks with faster versions of HSPA to give them additional speed until they can upgrade to LTE. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__45" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="45"><li><a href="/TeliaSonera" title="TeliaSonera">TeliaSonera</a> has started network built up in Stockholm and Oslo, and will follow up in Copenhagen when a license in Denmark has been bought/granted.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="45"><a href="#citable__45"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Terminal equipment on the limited network measurement method and device start-up .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>IPR Database</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ccsa.org.cn/english/tc/wireless/ipr.html">www.ccsa.org.cn</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The networks are still only for testing. <a name="citable__125" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="125">There are no indications of a public live date.</li> <li>In January 2009 <a href="/TeliaSonera" title="TeliaSonera">TeliaSonera</a> signed a contract for an LTE network with <a href="/Huawei" title="Huawei">Huawei</a> covering Oslo, Norway.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>TeliaSonera in Sweden and Norway has signed on.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There are currently two major technologies that are in contention as the foundation of next generation wireless networks: WiMax and LTE or Long Term Evolution.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A COMPREHENSIVE 6-MONTH DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAMME covering all aspects of Long Term Evolution (LTE) from the services it can deliver to the details of network planning .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Diploma in LTE 2010-WEB</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/23837437/Diploma-in-LTE-2010-WEB">www.scribd.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__114" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="114">Under the agreement, Huawei will provide an end-to-end LTE solution including LTE base stations, core network and OSS (Operating Support System).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such an open-standard solution allows easy compatibility and complete interworking with all Evolved Packet Core (EPC) solutions, enabling service providers to combine best-of-breed products for a world-class LTE network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Nation's Restaurant News</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://finance.nrn.com/nrn/?GUID=11151485&Page=MEDIAVIEWER">finance.nrn.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The stated aim of the collaboration is to "co-operate for the production of a complete set of globally applicable Technical Specifications for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on the evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies supported by 3GPP partners (i.e., UTRA both FDD and TDD modes)" .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) & Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB) Technologies for Broadband Wireless Access</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-08/ftp/lte/index.html">www.cse.wustl.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="114"><a href="#citable__114"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE providing end to end IP service will improve the mobile services and will bring in the concept of singularity to the mobile devices.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> LTE - Long Term Evolution : Blogial</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogial.com/2009/09/20/lte-long-term-evolution/">blogial.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__29" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="29">The Huawei contract was cancelled in January 2010 and a new contract was signed with <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a>.</li> <li>In January 2009 Ericsson and TeliaSonera announced the signing of a commercial LTE network.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Network equipment vendors and chip suppliers say commercial products won't be available until at least the end of 2009.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With earlier launches of new mobile-network standards, handset availability has been a limiting factor for the commercial launch of the service.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="29"><a href="#citable__29"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>WCDMA networks have been commercially launched in 132 countries (December 4, 2009).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Information Papers</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers.php4">www.gsacom.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__121" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="121">The roll-out of the 4G mobile broadband network will offer the highest data rates ever realized, with the best interactivity and quality.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These technologies enhance the capabilities of the existing WCDMA/HSPA networks to offer higher data rates beyond 100 Mbps.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Powell's Books - WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE by Harri (edt) Holma</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.powells.com/partner/719/biblio/9780470319338">www.powells.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The increased global demand for mobile data has significantly strained the networks and technologies upon which they are built.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This same rationale is likely what prompted Google to offer its initial Android devices on T-Mobile's GSM network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__6" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="6">This network will cover Sweden’s capital Stockholm and the contract is Ericsson’s first for commercial deployment of LTE.</li> <li><a href="/T-Mobile" title="T-Mobile">T-Mobile</a>, <a href="/Vodafone" title="Vodafone">Vodafone</a>, <a href="/France_T%C3%A9l%C3%A9com" title="France Télécom">France Télécom</a> and <a href="/Telecom_Italia_Mobile" title="Telecom Italia Mobile">Telecom Italia Mobile</a> have also announced or talked publicly about their commitment to LTE.</li> <li>In August 2009 Telefónica selected six countries to field-test LTE in the succeeding months: Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe, and Brazil and Argentina in Latin America.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>TeliaSonera may have signed the first LTE contracts but may not be the first telco with a commercial LTE network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>iTWire - TeliaSonera claims "first 4G network" - but it isn't</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itwire.com/content/view/22685/1095/">www.itwire.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Carriers Committed to LTE in 24 Countries .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>LTE - news tag - Softpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.softpedia.com/newsTag/LTE">news.softpedia.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By Contributor Wireless and Mobile News on November 29, 2007 11:56 AM Verizon today announced plans to develop and deploy its fourth generation mobile broadband network using LTE - Long Term Evolution - the technology developed within the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards organization.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> November 2007 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2007/11/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54"><li>On <a href="/November_24th" title="November 24th" class="mw-redirect">November 24th</a>, <a href="/2009" title="2009">2009</a> <a href="/Telecom_Italia" title="Telecom Italia">Telecom Italia</a> announced <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></a></sup> the first outdoor pre-commercial experimentation in the world, deployed in <a href="/Torino" title="Torino" class="mw-redirect">Torino</a> and totally integrated into the <a href="/2G" title="2G">2G</a>/<a href="/3G" title="3G">3G</a> network currently in service.</li> <li>The Dutch telecom provider <a href="/KPN" title="KPN">KPN</a> announced that it will use LTE for its 4G network.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>WCDMA is deployed in 70% of all commercial 3G networks globally.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Information Papers</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gsacom.com/gsm_3g/info_papers.php4">www.gsacom.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Future Services over 4G Networks 5.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) & Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB) Technologies for Broadband Wireless Access</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-08/ftp/lte/index.html">www.cse.wustl.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Future services over 4G networks .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution (LTE) & Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB) Technologies for Broadband Wireless Access</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-08/ftp/lte/index.html">www.cse.wustl.edu</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__26" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="26"><li>AlMadar Aljadeed, the biggest Libyan mobile phone operator, has announced that it will be adopting the LTE technology passing straight from 2G technology to 4G.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>The Belgian telecom provider <a href="/Telenet_(Belgium)" title="Telenet (Belgium)">Telenet</a> has announced that it will be testing LTE on specific locations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, the support of the multi-antenna technology known as MIMO (multiple input multiple output) is mandatory for LTE. All these features call for a lot of testing.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>4G Webinar MWC (Rohde & Schwarz International - Technologies - Cellular - LTE (Long Term Evolution))</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/ad/EAE8C66291AB4D2AC125769000415A3A">www.rohde-schwarz.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As more and more consumers demand a completely mobile wireless experience, LTE can help providers lower costs and streamline technology while still providing a seamless end user experience.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="26"><a href="#citable__26"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the present document does cover mobile and portable equipment that is intended to be operated in a fixed location while connected to the AC mains.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tech Invite -- 3GPP Specifications -- 36 Series: LTE (Evolved UTRA) and LTE-Advanced radio technology</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tech-invite.com/Ti-3gpp-standards-36.html">www.tech-invite.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup> The Belgian telecom provider <a href="/Belgacom" title="Belgacom">Belgacom</a> will be preparing their network for LTE. <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup>.</li> <li>On March 18, 2010 Australian telecommunications carrier <a href="/Telstra" title="Telstra">Telstra</a> announced LTE trials lasting six months involving <a href="/Motorola" title="Motorola">Motorola</a>, <a href="/Nokia" title="Nokia">Nokia</a>, <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> and <a href="/Siemens" title="Siemens">Siemens</a> beginning in May 2010 <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__86" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="86">Despite initial development of the rival <a href="/Ultra_Mobile_Broadband" title="Ultra Mobile Broadband">UMB</a> standard, which was designed as an upgrade path for <a href="/CDMA2000" title="CDMA2000">CDMA</a> networks, most operators of networks based upon the latter system have also announced their intent to migrate to LTE, resulting in discontinuation of UMB development.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By Contributor Wireless and Mobile News on November 29, 2007 11:56 AM Verizon today announced plans to develop and deploy its fourth generation mobile broadband network using LTE - Long Term Evolution - the technology developed within the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards organization.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> November 2007 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2007/11/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="86"><a href="#citable__86"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I think that when this initiative was announced most people thought that Verizon was creating an environment where users could bring any handset to the Verizon network.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <a name="citable__10" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="10"><ul> <li><a href="/Verizon_Wireless" title="Verizon Wireless">Verizon Wireless</a> completed its first test LTE data calls in August 2009 and plans to deploy LTE beginning in 2010 with system-wide deployment completed in 2013.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li><a href="/Bell_Mobility" title="Bell Mobility">Bell Mobility</a> has stated their intention to use LTE as a future upgrade to their HSDPA network.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Verizon Wireless plans to launch its LTE network in the 700 MHz spectrum in the 2010 timeframe.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> April 2008 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2008/04/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Legacy monitoring systems are not designed with the flexibility and scalability to provide a complete network view with the data, reports and alarms required to proactively manage multi-technology, multi-protocol networks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Monitoring LTE Networks</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tekelec.com/resource-center/?docID=1186&rdid=656">www.tekelec.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="10"><a href="#citable__10"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__140" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="140"><li><a href="/Telus_Mobility" title="Telus Mobility" class="mw-redirect">Telus Mobility</a> has announced that it will adopt LTE as its 4G wireless standard.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The consensus among analysts -- with which I agree -- is that LTE will become the most widely used 4G wireless Internet protocol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Internet Evolution - Alan Reiter - Wireless Internet's Future: LTE Rules, WiMax Survives</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=526&doc_id=150821&">www.internetevolution.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE or Long Term Evolution is a 4G wireless technology and is considered the next in line in the GSM evolution path after UMTS/HSPDA 3G technologies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Alan Spicer Marine Telecom Blog » Cellular Voice and Internet</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blog.marinetelecom.net/category/cellular/">blog.marinetelecom.net</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="140"><a href="#citable__140"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The mobile communication industry and standardisation organisations have therefore started to work on 4G access technologies such as LTE Advanced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <a name="citable__103" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="103"><li><a href="/MetroPCS" title="MetroPCS">MetroPCS</a> recently announced that it would be using LTE for its upcoming 4G network.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Perhaps it would be possible to employ strict separation into domain names that should be used by the new clients and networks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RFC 5448 - Improved Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for 3rd Generation Authentication and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA\x27)</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/5448">tools.ietf.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The consensus among analysts -- with which I agree -- is that LTE will become the most widely used 4G wireless Internet protocol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Internet Evolution - Alan Reiter - Wireless Internet's Future: LTE Rules, WiMax Survives</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.internetevolution.com/author.asp?section_id=526&doc_id=150821&">www.internetevolution.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="103"><a href="#citable__103"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These operators want to use LTE to increase capacity and peak rates on their existing mobile networks."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>The newly formed <a href="/China_Telecom" title="China Telecom">China Telecom</a>/<a href="/China_Unicom" title="China Unicom">China Unicom</a><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> and Japan's <a href="/KDDI" title="KDDI">KDDI</a><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup> have announced they have chosen LTE as their 4G network technology.</li> </ul> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__99" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="99">Some newcomers to the mobile phone market are or will be using LTE for their networks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Today, specifications for LTE are encapsulated in 3GPP Release 8, the newest set of standards that defines the technical evolution of 3GPP mobile network systems.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE's seamless integration with existing CDMA and legacy networks allowing operators to offer a media-rich, always on, mobile broadband connection.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="99"><a href="#citable__99"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>South Korea's LG has announced that its first LTE mobile phones will likely reach the market in 2010.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <a name="citable__49" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="49"><ul> <li><a href="/Cox_Communications" title="Cox Communications">Cox Communications</a> has its first tower for wireless LTE network build-out.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"And LTE was not when we began building our network."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>H. Zhang and H. Dai, “Cochannel interference mitigation and cooperative processing in downlink multicell multiuser MIMO networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , vol.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Relay Architectures for 3GPP LTE-Advanced</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/618787.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Network World examines Motorola's first 700Mhz system test, highlighting the platform's potential impact on the wireless space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__15" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="15">Wireless services should launch late 2009.</li> <li>The Irish telco <a href="/Digiweb" title="Digiweb">Digiweb</a> is currently operating a 4G service in the Dublin area.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>WiMax is further along in terms of deployments with several operators throughout the world using it to provide fixed wireless broadband services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For operators and service providers, LTE supports high throughput, low latency wireless traffic that seamlessly integrates with legacy technologies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="15"><a href="#citable__15"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is believed that LBS is bringing huge revenue opportunities for wireless network operators and service providers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ICC 2008:Tutorials for IEEE ICC 2008(Total: 25 half-day tutorials)</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ieee-icc.org/2008/tutorials.html">www.ieee-icc.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__73" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="73">It shall be noted though that Digiweb employs <a href="/Flash-OFDM" title="Flash-OFDM" class="mw-redirect">Flash-OFDM</a> technology and not LTE.</li> <li><a href="/Zain" title="Zain">Zain</a> KSA Telecom Company has announced its plans to "build the largest 4G network in the globe" when it signed on Sunday Feb.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"And LTE was not when we began building our network."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution posts - Wireless - CNET News</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://news.cnet.com/wireless/?keyword=Long+Term+Evolution">news.cnet.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By Contributor Wireless and Mobile News on November 29, 2007 11:56 AM Verizon today announced plans to develop and deploy its fourth generation mobile broadband network using LTE - Long Term Evolution - the technology developed within the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards organization.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> November 2007 Archives </c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.wirelessandmobilenews.com/2007/11/">www.wirelessandmobilenews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="73"><a href="#citable__73"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Our expertise covers both mobile and fixed telecoms, the 3GSM family of technologies (including 2G, 3G & LTE), TETRA, CDMA, services and applications, radio and core networks, industry insights and overviews.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Diploma in LTE 2010-WEB</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/23837437/Diploma-in-LTE-2010-WEB">www.scribd.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90">14 2010, at its HQ office, an agreement with three global giants in the provision of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE): <a href="/Motorola" title="Motorola">Motorola</a>, <a href="/Ericsson" title="Ericsson">Ericsson</a> and <a href="/Huawei" title="Huawei">Huawei</a>.The agreement covered the implementation of phase one of the 4G LTE covering 4 major cities: Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam and Al-Khobar.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A complete description of long term evolution including lte advanced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>TD-LTE (Time Division – Long Term Evolution) will be used in China Mobile’s 4G mobile communication network which is an upgraded version of 3rd generation system known as the TD-SCDMA. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Long Term Evolution</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wirelessfederation.com/news/tag/long-term-evolution/">wirelessfederation.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G Contact Us Refer a Friend Motorola Long Term Evolution - LTE NEWS Q&A RESOURCES HOME Hello, you are viewing a stripped-down version of this site as you have Javascript turned off, and may not have Adobe Flash Player 9 or above installed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Know More - Motorola Long Term Evolution 4G</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ap2.motorola.com/content/LTE_knowmore">ap2.motorola.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/E-UTRA" title="E-UTRA">E-UTRA</a></li> <li><a href="/System_Architecture_Evolution" title="System Architecture Evolution">System Architecture Evolution</a></li> <li><a href="/WiMax" title="WiMax" class="mw-redirect">WiMax</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References">References</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count:2; column-count:2;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.betanews.com/article/European-Commission-pumps-a18-million-into-LTE-research/1250618141" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.betanews.com/article/European-Commission-pumps-a18-million-into-LTE-research/1250618141</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.npstc.org/documents/Press_Release_NPSTC_Endorses_LTE_Standard_090610.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.npstc.org/documents/Press_Release_NPSTC_Endorses_LTE_Standard_090610.pdf</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2009/db0814/DA-09-1819A1.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2009/db0814/DA-09-1819A1.pdf</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_3"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/public-safety-spectrum/700-MHz/" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/public-safety-spectrum/700-MHz/</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_EricssonWhitePaper_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-EricssonWhitePaper_4-0">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book"><a href="http://www.ericsson.com/technology/whitepapers/lte_overview.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>LTE – an introduction</em></a>. Ericsson. 2009<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.ericsson.com/technology/whitepapers/lte_overview.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.ericsson.com/technology/whitepapers/lte_overview.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=LTE+%E2%80%93+an+introduction&rft.date=2009&rft.pub=Ericsson&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ericsson.com%2Ftechnology%2Fwhitepapers%2Flte_overview.pdf&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:3GPP_Long_Term_Evolution"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Agilent_5">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Agilent_5-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Agilent_5-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Rumney, Moray. <a href="http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989-7898EN.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"3GPP LTE: Introducing Single-Carrier FDMA"</a>. <em>Agilent Technologies</em><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989-7898EN.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989-7898EN.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=3GPP+LTE%3A+Introducing+Single-Carrier+FDMA&rft.jtitle=Agilent+Technologies&rft.aulast=Rumney&rft.aufirst=Moray&rft.au=Rumney%2C%26%2332%3BMoray&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcp.literature.agilent.com%2Flitweb%2Fpdf%2F5989-7898EN.pdf&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:3GPP_Long_Term_Evolution"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_ericsson_com_6">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ericsson.com_6-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ericsson.com_6-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="http://www.ericsson.com/ericsson/press/releases/20080210-1190029.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Ericsson to make World-first demonstration of end-to-end LTE call on handheld devices at Mobile World Congress, Barcelona</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.ngmn.org" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.ngmn.org</a> Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_8"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/22978.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP TR 22.978 All-IP network (AIPN) feasibility study</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_9"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.3gpp.org/specs/WorkItem-info/WI--31067.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP Work Item 31067</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.3gpp.org/Highlights/LTE/LTE.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP LTE - 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Retrieved 2009-08-18</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Verizon+Completes+LTE+Data+Calls&rft.jtitle=WirelessWeek&rft.aulast=Berg&rft.aufirst=Andrew&rft.au=Berg%2C%26%2332%3BAndrew&rft.date=2009-08-17&rft.pub=Advantage+Business+Media&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wirelessweek.com%2FNews-Verizon-LTE-Data-Calls-081709.aspx&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:3GPP_Long_Term_Evolution"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_61"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.bce.ca/en/news/releases/bm/2008/10/10/74991.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Bell announces strategic 3G wireless network investment, maximizing consumer choice in mobile data and confirming its path forward to 4G LTE wireless</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_62"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.reportonbusiness.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20080808.wtelus0808/BNStory/Business/home" class="external text" rel="nofollow">reportonbusiness.com: Wireless sales propel Telus results</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_63"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.informationweek.com/news/mobility/wifiwimax/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210003630" class="external text" rel="nofollow">MetroPCS Chooses LTE For 4G Wireless Network</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_64"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.telecomasia.net/article.php?id_article=9140&id_sector=12" class="external text" rel="nofollow">CDMA operators will choose LTE, says ZTE</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_65"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.foxbusiness.com/story/markets/industries/telecom/japans-kddi-selects-lte-core-generation-mobile-broadband-solution-hitachi/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Japan's KDDI Selects LTE Core as Next-Generation Mobile Broadband Solution from Hitachi and Nortel</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_66"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-66">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.fiercebroadbandwireless.com/story/cox-goes-lte-ready-cdma-700-mhz-band/2009-03-30" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Cox goes with LTE-ready CDMA</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_67"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.sa.zain.com/autoforms/portal/home/corporate/press-releases/largest4gnetwork?AF_language=en" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Zain KSA builds the largest 4G network in the globe</a></li> </ol> </div> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.7layers.com/News/20100204-LTE-Test-Case-validated-7Layers.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">World’s first LTE test cases validated by 7 layers!</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2> <a name="citable__101" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="101"><ul> <li>Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld, Per Beming, "<a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/0123745381" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband</a>", 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-12-374538-5</li> <li>Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, and Matthew Baker, "<a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/0470697164" class="external text" rel="nofollow">LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution - From Theory to Practice</a>", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-69716-0</li> <li>Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson, "<a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/1420072102" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Long Term Evolution: 3GPP LTE Radio And Cellular Technology</a>", Crc Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-420-07210-5</li> <li>F. Khan, "<a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521882214" class="external text" rel="nofollow">LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband - Air Interface Technologies and Performance</a>", Cambridge University Press, 2009</li> <li>Mustafa Ergen, "<a href="http://www.amazon.com/dp/0387681892" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Mobile Broadband - Including WiMAX and LTE</a>", Springer, NY, 2009</li> <li>H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, "Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution," <em>IEEE Commun.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LTE physical layer framework for performance verification,” 3GPP, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France, February 2007, http://www.3gpp.org/ .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Multiresolution with Hierarchical Modulations for Long Term Evolution of UMTS</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hindawi.com/journals/wcn/2009/240140.html">www.hindawi.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Comments (12) Posted by: Josh Jacquot February 9, 2009, 12:07 PM Categories: 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR February 6, 2009 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR Long-Term Road Tests Blog on Edmunds' Inside Line</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.insideline.com/roadtests/Vehicles/2008-mitsubishi-lancer-evoluti/">blogs.insideline.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Comments (5) Posted by: Josh Sadlier August 4, 2009, 12:56 PM Categories: 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution GSR , 2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR July 23, 2009 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR Long-Term Road Tests Blog on Edmunds' Inside Line</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.insideline.com/roadtests/Vehicles/2008-mitsubishi-lancer-evoluti/">blogs.insideline.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Mag.</em>, vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp. 38–45</li> <li>E. Dahlman, H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, Y. Jading, J. Karlsson, M. Lundevall, and S. Parkvall, "The 3G Long-Term Evolution - Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation," <em>IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) 2006 Spring</em>, Melbourne, Australia, May 2006</li> <li>K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, <em>Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: From OFDM and MC-CDMA to LTE and WiMAX</em>, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-99821-2</li> <li>Agilent Technologies, "<a href="http://www.agilent.com/find/ltebook" class="external text" rel="nofollow">LTE and the Evolution to 4G Wireless: Design and Measurement Challenges</a>", John Wiley & Sons, 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-68261-6</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/article/lte" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP LTE homepage</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjrk11sNtbA" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Video demonstration of LTE on a commercially available network (Telia in Sweden)</a></li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_3GPP_Projects_and_Presentations">3GPP Projects and Presentations</span></h3> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/36.300/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP TS 36.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/specs/WorkItem-info/WI--31067.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP AIPN Workitem</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/PCG/PCG_16/PCG%20Beijing%20Workshop%20Presentations/3GPP%20Beijing%20workshop%20Courau%20TSG%20RAN%20Chairman.ppt" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"3GPP Evolution: LTE and SAE" by Francois Courau at Alcatel (Chairman of 3GPP TSG RAN)</a></li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Specifications">Specifications</span></h3> <ul> <li>3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP); <a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25913.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)</a></li> <li>3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP); Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; <a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved UTRA</a></li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Industry_reaction">Industry reaction</span></h3> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.3gamericas.org/English/pdfs/wp_UMTS_Rel7_Beyond_FINAL.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA - 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond" by 3G Americas</a></li> <li><a href="http://business.motorola.com/experiencelte/lte-experience.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Experience LTE by Motorola</a></li> <li><a href="http://news.vzw.com/LTE/Dick_Lynch_MWC_Final.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Verizon Wireless Global LTE Deployment Plans</a></li> </ul> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Whitepapers_and_other_information">Whitepapers and other information</span></h3> <a name="citable__96" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="96"><ul> <li><a href="http://www.rysavy.com/Articles/2007_09_Rysavy_3GAmericas.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband Innovation</a> (PDF)</li> <li><a href="http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/NR/rdonlyres/4B75329B-3750-4BBB-8320-7113613AAB64/0/LTE_measurement_A4_1302.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"LTE performance for initial deployments" by Nokia Siemens Networks</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.ericsson.com/technology/whitepapers/broadband/LTE_introduction.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Long Term Evolution (LTE): An Introduction – Ericsson White Paper</a> <a href="http://www.ericsson.com/technology/research_papers/wireless_access/doc/the_3g_long_term_evolution_radio_interface.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"The Long Term Evolution of 3G" on Ericsson Review, no.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is likely that LTE will be deployed in the FDD portion of this band due to its benefits as compared to HSPA/ HSPA+.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long Term Evolution Lte Ebook</c_title></em> <c_date>1 February 2010 12:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/sunsecrets/long-term-evolution-lte-ebook-1919285">www.slideshare.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR Long-Term Road Tests Blog on Edmunds' Inside Line E-mail the Editor in Chief .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>2008 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X MR Long-Term Road Tests Blog on Edmunds' Inside Line</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.insideline.com/roadtests/Vehicles/2008-mitsubishi-lancer-evoluti/">blogs.insideline.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="96"><a href="#citable__96"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Paper cited in: U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging: Long-Term Care in Western Europe and Canada: Implications for the United States .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Long-Term Care in International Perspective</c_title></em> <c_date>26 January 2010 2:35 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/intpersp.htm">aspe.hhs.gov</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> 2, 2005</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.signal.uu.se/Research/PCCWIP/Tunisia/WIP05_EAB.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"3G Long-Term Evolution" by Dr. Erik Dahlman at Ericsson Research</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.calit2.net/events/pdfs/S3G_Stefan_Parkvall.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Long-Term 3G Evolution - Radio Access" by Dr. Stefan Parkvall at Ericsson Research</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/itg/fg524/Meetings/2006-09-29-Ulm/01-3GPP_LTE-SAE_Overview_Sep06.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"3GPP Long-Term Evolution / System Architecture Evolution: Overview" by Ulrich Barth at Alcatel</a></li> <li>Dahlman, Parkvall, Skold and Beming, 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2007</li> <li>H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, "Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, March 2006, pp. 38–45</li> <li><a href="http://www.krnet.or.kr/board/include/download.asp?no=30&db=program&fileno=2" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"3GPP LTE & 3GPP2 LTE Standardization" by Dr. Lee, HyeonWoo at Samsung Electronics</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.nomor-research.com/home/technology/3gpp-newsletter/2007-11--lte-time-division-duplex" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Nomor Research Newsletter: Overview LTE Time Division Duplex</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.comnets.uni-bremen.de/typo3site/uploads/media/ITG-FA52-Schopp-Bremen-Nov-2006.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Trends in Mobile Network Architectures" by Dr. Michael Schopp at Siemens Networks</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.freescale.com/files/wireless_comm/doc/white_paper/3GPPEVOLUTIONWP.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Overview of the 3GPP LTE Physical Layer" by James Zyren and Dr. Wes McCoy, Freescale Semiconductor</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.ericsson.com/broadband/facts_opinions/index_industry_news.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">“Growing momentum brings LTE closer to becoming a commercial reality”</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/lte-long-term-evolution/3g-lte-basics.php" class="external text" rel="nofollow">3GPP LTE - series of pages looking at different aspects of 3G LTE</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/appnote/1MA111.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">LTE technology introduction</a></li> <li><a href="http://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/enrich/en/v3i2/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Alcatel-Lucent's online magazine on 4G/LTE</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.steepestascent.com/content/default.asp?page=s2_10" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Steepest Ascent LTE Toolbox & LTE Blockset</a></li> </ul> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Mobile_telephony" title="Mobile telephony">Mobile telephony</a> and <a href="/Mobile_telecommunications" title="Mobile telecommunications">mobile telecommunications</a> standards</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/0G" title="0G" class="mw-redirect">0G</a> (<a href="/Radio_telephone" title="Radio telephone" class="mw-redirect">radio telephones</a>)</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Mobile_Telephone_System" title="Mobile Telephone System">MTS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/MTD_(mobile_network)" title="MTD (mobile network)">MTA<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> MTB<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> MTC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Improved_Mobile_Telephone_Service" title="Improved Mobile Telephone Service">IMTS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/MTD_(mobile_network)" title="MTD (mobile network)">MTD</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Advanced_Mobile_Telephone_System" title="Advanced Mobile Telephone System">AMTS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/OLT_(mobile_network)" title="OLT (mobile network)">OLT</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Autoradiopuhelin" title="Autoradiopuhelin">Autoradiopuhelin</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/1G" title="1G">1G</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Nordic_Mobile_Telephone" title="Nordic Mobile Telephone">NMT</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Advanced_Mobile_Phone_System" title="Advanced Mobile Phone System">AMPS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hicap" title="Hicap">Hicap</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mobitex" title="Mobitex">Mobitex</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/DataTAC" title="DataTAC">DataTAC</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Total_Access_Communication_System" title="Total Access Communication System">TACS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/ETACS" title="ETACS" class="mw-redirect">ETACS</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/2G" title="2G">2G</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/GSM" title="GSM">GSM</a>/<a href="/3GPP" title="3GPP">3GPP</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/GSM" title="GSM">GSM</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Circuit_Switched_Data" title="Circuit Switched Data">CSD</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP2" title="3GPP2" class="mw-redirect">3GPP2</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/CdmaOne" title="CdmaOne" class="mw-redirect">CdmaOne</a> (<a href="/IS-95" title="IS-95">IS-95</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Digital_AMPS" title="Digital AMPS">D-AMPS</a> (<a href="/IS-54" title="IS-54" class="mw-redirect">IS-54</a> and <a href="/IS-136" title="IS-136" class="mw-redirect">IS-136</a>) <strong>·</strong> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Cellular_digital_packet_data" title="Cellular digital packet data">CDPD</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Integrated_Digital_Enhanced_Network" title="Integrated Digital Enhanced Network">iDEN</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Personal_Digital_Cellular" title="Personal Digital Cellular">PDC</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Personal_Handy-phone_System" title="Personal Handy-phone System">PHS</a></span></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/3G" title="3G">2G transitional<br /> (2.5G, 2.75G)</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/GSM" title="GSM">GSM</a>/<a href="/3GPP" title="3GPP">3GPP</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/High-Speed_Circuit-Switched_Data" title="High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data">HSCSD</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/General_Packet_Radio_Service" title="General Packet Radio Service">GPRS</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Enhanced_Data_Rates_for_GSM_Evolution" title="Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution">EDGE</a>/EGPRS</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP2" title="3GPP2" class="mw-redirect">3GPP2</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/CDMA2000" title="CDMA2000">CDMA2000 1xRTT</a> (IS-2000)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/WiDEN" title="WiDEN">WiDEN</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/3G" title="3G">3G (IMT-2000)</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP" title="3GPP">3GPP</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Universal_Mobile_Telecommunications_System" title="Universal Mobile Telecommunications System">UMTS</a> (<a href="/UTRAN" title="UTRAN" class="mw-redirect">UTRAN</a>) <strong>·</strong> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/W-CDMA_(UMTS)" title="W-CDMA (UMTS)">WCDMA-FDD</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/UMTS" title="UMTS" class="mw-redirect">WCDMA-TDD</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/TD-SCDMA" title="TD-SCDMA">UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-SCDMA)</a></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP2" title="3GPP2" class="mw-redirect">3GPP2</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/1xEV-DO" title="1xEV-DO" class="mw-redirect">CDMA2000 1xEV-DO</a> (IS-856)</div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/4G" title="4G">3G transitional<br /> (3.5G, 3.9G)</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP" title="3GPP">3GPP</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/High-Speed_Downlink_Packet_Access" title="High-Speed Downlink Packet Access">HSDPA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/High-Speed_Uplink_Packet_Access" title="High-Speed Uplink Packet Access">HSUPA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Evolved_HSPA" title="Evolved HSPA">HSPA+</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">LTE</strong> (<a href="/E-UTRA" title="E-UTRA">E-UTRA</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP2" title="3GPP2" class="mw-redirect">3GPP2</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Evolution-Data_Optimized" title="Evolution-Data Optimized">EV-DO Rev. A</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Evolution-Data_Optimized" title="Evolution-Data Optimized">EV-DO Rev. B</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Mobile_WiMAX" title="Mobile WiMAX" class="mw-redirect">Mobile WiMAX</a> (<a href="/IEEE_802.16e-2005" title="IEEE 802.16e-2005" class="mw-redirect">IEEE 802.16e-2005</a>) <strong>·</strong> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Orthogonal_frequency-division_multiplexing" title="Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing">Flash-OFDM</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/IEEE_802.20" title="IEEE 802.20">IEEE 802.20</a></span></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/4G" title="4G">4G (IMT-Advanced)</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/3GPP" title="3GPP">3GPP</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/LTE_Advanced" title="LTE Advanced">LTE Advanced</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/WiMAX" title="WiMAX">WiMAX</a> family</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/IEEE_802.16m" title="IEEE 802.16m" class="mw-redirect">IEEE 802.16m</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Related articles</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/History_of_mobile_phones" title="History of mobile phones">History</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cellular_network" title="Cellular network">Cellular network theory</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_mobile_phone_standards" title="List of mobile phone standards">List of standards</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Comparison_of_mobile_phone_standards" title="Comparison of mobile phone standards">Comparison of standards</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Spectral_efficiency" title="Spectral efficiency">Spectral efficiency comparison table</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cellular_frequencies" title="Cellular frequencies">Cellular frequencies</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/GSM_frequency_bands" title="GSM frequency bands">GSM frequency bands</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/UMTS_frequency_bands" title="UMTS frequency bands">UMTS frequency bands</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mobile_broadband" title="Mobile broadband">Mobile broadband</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Universal_Mobile_Telecommunications_System" title="Category:Universal Mobile Telecommunications System">Universal Mobile Telecommunications System</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Internet_Protocol" title="Category:Internet Protocol">Internet Protocol</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_with_dead_external_links" title="Category:All articles with dead external links">All articles with dead external links</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_dead_external_links_from_September_2009" title="Category:Articles with dead external links from September 2009">Articles with dead external links from September 2009</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 22, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on 3GPP Long Term Evolution, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm</A>">Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved UTRA</a> - 3GPP specification: 25.814</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ericsson.com/technology/research_papers/wireless_access/doc/the_3g_long_term_evolution_radio_interface.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.ericsson.com/technology/research_papers/wireless_access/doc/the_3g_long_term_evolution_radio_interface.pdf>http://www.ericsson.com/technology/research_papers/wireless_access/doc/the_3g_long_term_evolution_radio_interface.pdf</A>">"The Long Term Evolution of 3G" on Ericsson Review, no. 2, 2005</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25913.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25913.htm>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25913.htm</A>">Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)</a> - 3GPP specification: 25.913</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.signal.uu.se/Research/PCCWIP/Tunisia/WIP05_EAB.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.signal.uu.se/Research/PCCWIP/Tunisia/WIP05_EAB.pdf>http://www.signal.uu.se/Research/PCCWIP/Tunisia/WIP05_EAB.pdf</A>">"3G Long-Term Evolution" by Dr. Erik Dahlman at Ericsson Research</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.krnet.or.kr/board/include/download.asp?no=30&db=program&fileno=2" title="<A HREF=http://www.krnet.or.kr/board/include/download.asp?no=30&db=program&fileno=2>http://www.krnet.or.kr/board/include/download.asp?no=30&db=program&fileno=2</A>">"3GPP LTE & 3GPP2 LTE Standardization" by Dr. Lee, HyeonWoo at Samsung Electronics</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.calit2.net/events/pdfs/S3G_Stefan_Parkvall.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.calit2.net/events/pdfs/S3G_Stefan_Parkvall.pdf>http://www.calit2.net/events/pdfs/S3G_Stefan_Parkvall.pdf</A>">"Long-Term 3G Evolution - Radio Access" by Dr. Stefan Parkvall at Ericsson Research</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/itg/fg524/Meetings/2006-09-29-Ulm/01-3GPP_LTE-SAE_Overview_Sep06.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/itg/fg524/Meetings/2006-09-29-Ulm/01-3GPP_LTE-SAE_Overview_Sep06.pdf>http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/itg/fg524/Meetings/2006-09-29-Ulm/01-3GPP_LTE-SAE_Overview_Sep06.pdf</A>">"3GPP Long-Term Evolution / System Architecture Evolution: Overview" by Ulrich Barth at Alcatel</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/PCG/PCG_16/PCG%20Beijing%20Workshop%20Presentations/3GPP%20Beijing%20workshop%20Courau%20TSG%20RAN%20Chairman.ppt" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/PCG/PCG_16/PCG%20Beijing%20Workshop%20Presentations/3GPP%20Beijing%20workshop%20Courau%20TSG%20RAN%20Chairman.ppt>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/PCG/PCG_16/PCG%20Beijing%20Workshop%20Presentations/3GPP%20Beijing%20workshop%20Courau%20TSG%20RAN%20Chairman.ppt</A>">"3GPP Evolution: LTE and SAE" by Francois Courau at Alcatel (Chariman of 3GPP TSG RAN)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>99%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/22978.htm" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/22978.htm>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/22978.htm</A>">3GPP TR 22.978 All-IP network (AIPN) feasibility study</a> - 3GPP specification: 22.978</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>80%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/presentations/Presentations_3GPP-LTEv2.ppt" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/presentations/Presentations_3GPP-LTEv2.ppt>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/presentations/Presentations_3GPP-LTEv2.ppt</A>">3GPP LTE presentation Kyoto May 22rd 2007</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>77%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.comnets.uni-bremen.de/typo3site/uploads/media/ITG-FA52-Schopp-Bremen-Nov-2006.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.comnets.uni-bremen.de/typo3site/uploads/media/ITG-FA52-Schopp-Bremen-Nov-2006.pdf>http://www.comnets.uni-bremen.de/typo3site/uploads/media/ITG-FA52-Schopp-Bremen-Nov-2006.pdf</A>">"Trends in Mobile Network Architectures" by Dr. Michael Schopp at Siemens Networks</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>70%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www2.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-8055&oid=100214455" title="Nortel will perform the industry's first demonstration of a <B>3GPP</B> LTE (<B>Long</B> <B>Term</B> <B>Evolution</B>) implementation with Collaborative MIMO (also known as Uplink Multi-user MIMO) at 3GSM.<br><br><A HREF=http://www2.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-8055&oid=100214455>http://www2.nortel.com/go/news_detail.jsp?cat_id=-8055&oid=100214455</A>">Nortel 3G World Congress Press Release</a> - Nortel: News Releases: At 3GSM World Congress Nortel Challenges the Industry to Deliver 4G "Lifestyle"</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>64%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/36.300" title="<A HREF=http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/36.300>http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/36.300</A>">3GPP TS 36.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description</a> - Index of /ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/36.300</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/20cdb8b6-9ead-11dc-b4e4-0000779fd2ac.html" title="Verizon is backing the <B>Long</B> <B>Term</B> <B>Evolution</B> standard, which is being developed by suppliers including Ericsson, Sony-Ericsson, Alcatel-Lucent, Motorola, Nokia-Siemens and Nortel, dubbed the Third Generation Partnership Project.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/20cdb8b6-9ead-11dc-b4e4-0000779fd2ac.html>http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/20cdb8b6-9ead-11dc-b4e4-0000779fd2ac.html</A>">Verizon set to begin trials of 4G network</a> - FT.com / Companies / Technology - Verizon set to begin trials of 4G network</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de" title="<A HREF=http://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de>http://www.hhi.fraunhofer.de</A>">Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institut</a> - Heinrich Hertz Institute - Start page</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/4G">4G</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/E-UTRA">E-UTRA</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/WiMAX">WiMAX</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Universal_Mobile_Telecommunications_System">Universal Mobile Telecommunications System</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Comparison_of_mobile_phone_standards">Comparison of mobile phone standards</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Evolved_HSPA">Evolved HSPA</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Evolution-Data_Optimized">Evolution-Data Optimized</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Advanced_Mobile_Phone_System">Advanced Mobile Phone System</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ultra_Mobile_Broadband">Ultra Mobile Broadband</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/High-Speed_Downlink_Packet_Access">High-Speed Downlink Packet Access</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> 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