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3rd Marine Division
3RDMARDIV.png
3rd Marine Division insignia
Active 16 September 1942 - 28 December 1945

7 January 1952 - present

Country United States
Branch USMC
Type Infantry division
Role Locate close with and destroy the enemy
Part of III Marine Expeditionary Force
Garrison/HQ Camp Courtney[1]
Nickname Fighting Third
Motto Fidelity, Valor, Honor
Engagements World War II
* Battle of Bougainville
* Battle of Guam
* Battle of Iwo Jima
Vietnam War
Operation Enduring Freedom
Commanders
Current
commander
Brigadier General James B. Laster
Notable
commanders
MajGen Charles D. Barrett,
MajGen Graves B. Erskine

The 3rd Marine Division is an infantry division in the United States Marine Corps based at Camp Courtney, Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Okinawa, Japan. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps, and together with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing (1stMAW) and the 3rd Marine Logistics Group (3rd MLG) forms the III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF). The division was first formed and fought during World War II and since then most notably saw combat during four years of continuous combat in the Vietnam War.

Contents

Subordinate units

History

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World War II

The 3rd Marine Division was officially activated on 16 September 1942 at Camp Elliott, San Diego, California. Most of the original members of the division were drawn from the cadre staff of the 2nd Marine Division[2]. The division was initially built around the 9th Marine Regiment, commanded by Colonel Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. who later became the 20th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Major General Charles D. Barrett was the first Commanding General of the Division.

The division echeloned into Auckland, New Zealand between January and March 1943. In June of that year they moved onto Guadalcanal for additional training. 27 September 1943 saw the division land as part of the Battle of Bougainville and fight on the island until their last unit to arrive, the 21st Marine Regiment, embarked on 9 January 1944. During the course of the battle the division had approximately 400 Marines killed.[3]

They returned to Guadalcanal in January, 1944 to rest, refit and train. The next operation the division took part in was the Battle of Guam. From 21 July 1944 until the last day of organized fighting on 10 August, the division fought through the jungles on the island of Guam. During these 21 days of fighting, the Division captured over 60 square miles (160 km2) of territory and killed over 5,000 enemy soldiers.[4] The next two months saw continuous mopping up operations in which the Marines continued to engage left over Japanese forces. At the end of the battle the Division had sustained 677 Marines killed, 3,626 wounded and 9 missing.[5]

The Division remained on the island of Guam for training purposes until they embarked as part of the landing force for the Battle of Iwo Jima. The 3rd Marine Division was initially in reserve for the battle[6] however they were committed one regiment at a time as the initial regiments that landed needed to be relieved. The 21st Marines came ashore on 20 February[6] followed by the 9th Marines and a reinforcement BN. of the 3rd Marines on 25 February.[7] The Marines of these two infantry regiments, supported by the artillery of the 12th Marine Regiment and tanks of the 3rd Tank Battalion, fought on Iwo Jima until the end of organized resistance on 16 March and the subsequent mopping up operations for the next month. All elements of the Division were back on Guam by 17 April 1945.[8] The fighting on Iwo Jima would cost the 3rd Marine Division 1,131 killed in action and another 4,438 wounded.[9]

After the return to Guam, the Division began preparing for the invasion of Japan. This however never took place as Japan surrendered in August 1945. The Division was deactivated on 28 December 1945.[10]

Korean War

The Division was reactivated on 7 January 1952 at Camp Pendleton, California. Immediately after its activation and still in its organizational state, the Division began intensive combat training, including new tactics and maneuvers based on lessons learned in Korean War. During the remaining part of 1952 elements of the Division participated in numerous exercises and training problems, including vertical envelopment (helicopter landing), airborne operations and attack, and defense against atomic weapons and missiles.

In August 1953 the Division arrived in Japan to support the 1st Marine Division in the defense of the Far Eastern area. In March 1956 the Division moved to Okinawa and remained there in a readiness posture until 1965.

Vietnam War

On 6 May 1965, the 3rd Marine Division opened the Marine Compound at the Da Nang Air Base, Vietnam. By the end of 1965 the Division had all its regiments ( 3rd Marines, 4th Marines and 9th Marines ) on the ground. In October 1966, then commanding general Lew Walt was ordered to establish strong points just south of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The division moved its headquarters from Da Nang to Phu Bai in late 1966. At the some time the division was also building outposts along the southern half of the DMZ at Con Thien, Gio Linh, Cam Lo and Dong Ha. THis area would come to be known as Leatherneck Square. In late 1967 the headquarters moved again from Phu Bai to Dong Ha in the Quang Tri Province. More outpost were opened. Camp Carroll, Rockpile, Ca Lu and Khe Sanh. The two main enemy divisions the Marines fought were the 324B NVA Division and the 320th NVA Division. Some of the major operations in 1967 and early 1968 in this area were Operation Prairie IV, Operation Hickory, Operation Cimarron, Operation Buffalo, Operation Kingfisher and Operation Kentucky. Nearly 8,000 NVA were killed during this time period. The Marines suffered over 1400 killed and over 9,000 wounded. There were five Medal of Honors awarded and nearly 40 Navy Cross given during this period of time. On November 14, 1967 the Division commander was killed when his helicopter was hit by ground fire northwest of Hue. [11] For Meritorious Service in the Republic of Vietnam the Division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation in 1967 and the Meritorious Unit Commendation in 1968. 3rd Marine Division departed South Vietnam in November 1969 with more then 20+ Marines receiving the Medal of Honor. The division moved to Camp Courtney, Okinawa, where it is presently located.

Unit awards

A unit citation or commendation is an award bestowed upon an organization for the action cited. Members of the unit who participated in said actions are allowed to wear on their uniforms the appropriate ribbon of the awarded unit citation. 3d Marine Division has been awarded the following:

Streamer Award Year(s) Additional Info
PUC 1B.PNG Presidential Unit Citation Streamer with one Bronze Star 1945, 1965–1967 Iwo Jima, Vietnam
Navy Unit Commendation Streamer.jpg Navy Unit Commendation Streamer with one Bronze Star 1945, 2002–2003 Iwo Jima, Western Pacific
Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine) Streamer.jpg Meritorious Unit Commendation Streamer 2004–2005 Indonesia Tsunami Relief
APC 4B.PNG Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Streamer with four Bronze Stars
Bougainville, Northern Solomons, Guam, Iwo Jima
Streamer WWII V.PNG World War II Victory Streamer 1942–1945 Pacific War
NDS 3B.PNG National Defense Service Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1950–1954, 1961–1974, 1990–1995, 2001–present Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, War on Terrorism
Korean Service Streamer.jpg Korean Service Streamer

Vietnam Service Streamer.jpg Vietnam Service Streamer with two Silver and one Bronze Stars April 1965 - May 1969, March - May 1975 Quang Tri, Quang Nam, Thua Thien, Evacuation Operations in Vietnam and Cambodia
Streamer gwotE.PNG Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Streamer

GWOT Streamer.jpg Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer 2001 – present
VMUA PALM.PNG Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm Streamer

Structure 3rd Marine Division

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cordero, Jeffrey (26 September 2008). "3rd Marine Division celebrates 66th birthday". U.S. Marines in Japan (United States Marine Corps). http://www.okinawa.usmc.mil/public%20affairs%20info/Archive%20News%20Pages/2008/080926-div.html. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  2. ^ Rottman (2002): 134
  3. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 80
  4. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 162
  5. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 168
  6. ^ a b Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 228
  7. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 230
  8. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 250
  9. ^ Astor and Cohlmia (1948): 252
  10. ^ Rottman (2002): 135
  11. ^ Coan (2004), p.23.

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
Bibliography
  • Aurthur, Robert A.; Cohlmia, Kenneth (1948). The Third Marine Division. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press. 
  • Coan, James P. (2004). Con Thien - Hill of Angels. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-81731-414-8. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle – Ground and Air Units in the Pacific War.. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31906-5. 
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