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400 series
Tsubasa 422-6.jpg
400 series on Tsubasa service at Yonezawa Station, March 2005
In service 1992-Present
Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Family name Mini-shinkansen
Constructed 1992-1995
Refurbishment 1999-2001
Scrapped 2008- (ongoing)
Number built 84 vehicles (12 sets)
Number in service 7 cars (1 set) (September 2009)[1]
Number scrapped 70 vehicles (10 sets) (September 2009)
Formation 7 cars per trainset (often coupled with E4 Series Shinkansen on Tōhoku Shinkansen services)
Fleet numbers L1-L12
Capacity 399 (20 Green + 379 Standard)
Before addition of 7th car:
335 (20 Green + 315 Standard)
Operator JR East
Depot(s) Yamagata
Line(s) served Tōhoku Shinkansen, Yamagata Shinkansen
Specifications
Car body construction Steel
Car length 22,825 mm (end cars), 20,500 mm (intermediate cars)
Width 2,947 mm
Doors one per side
Maximum speed 240 km/h (Tōhoku Shinkansen), 130 km/h (Yamagata Shinkansen)
Acceleration 1.6 km/h/s
Deceleration 2.6 km/h/s
Traction system 24 x 210 kW
Power output 5.04 MW
Electric system(s) 20/25 kV AC, 50 Hz overhead
Safety system(s) ATC, DS-ATC
Gauge 1,435 mm

The 400 series (400系 ?) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type introduced in July 1992 for the start of Tsubasa services on Japan's first Mini-shinkansen line, the Yamagata Shinkansen branch from the main Tōhoku Shinkansen.

The fleet of 400 series trains is leased by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) from the owning company, Yamagata JR Chokutsū Tokkyū Hoyū Kikō (山形ジェイアール直通特急保有機構(株) ?), a third-sector company jointly owned by JR East and Yamagata Prefecture.[2]

They were originally six-car sets, but a seventh car (type 429) was added in 1995 to each set due to the popularity of the new Tsubasa services.

The fleet of twelve 400 series trains was scheduled to be withdrawn between December 2008 and summer 2009, replaced by new E3-2000 series trains.[3] However, one set was retained, with plans for use at least until December 2009.[4]

Contents

Pre-production set

The pre-production set (S4) was delivered in October 1990, and shown off to the press on 26 October 1990. This was a six-car set arranged as shown below with all cars motored.[5]

Car No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Numbering 401-1 402-1 403-1 404-1 405-1 406-1
Seating capacity 20 67 60 68 64 56

The unit featured three different types of bolsterless bogies: DT9028 on cars 1 and 3, DT9029 on cars 2 and 4, and DT9030 on cars 5 and 6. The Green car seats featured seat-back TV screens, a feature not used on the subsequent production sets.[5]

Test running began on the Ōu Main Line between Niwasaka and Itaya on 14 November 1990. From 23 January 1991, test running began in conjunction with a newly converted 200 series 8-car K set on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Sendai and Kitakami. On 26 March 1991, the 400 series set S4 established a new Japanese speed record of 336 km/h on the Jōetsu Shinkansen in the Yuzawa Tunnel between Echigo-Yuzawa and Urasa. On 19 September 1991, the train set a new speed record of 345 km/h on the same stretch of track.[6]

Test running continued into 1992, with set S4 reaching Tokyo for the first time on 20 May 1992. The pre-production set was then modified to bring it up to production batch standards, becoming set L1 on 29 June 1992.[6]

Formation

The 400 series sets were configured as shown below following the addition of a trailer car (car 15) in late 1995.

Car No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Designation Msc M' M M' T M M'c
Numbering 411 426-200 425 426 429 425 422
Seating capacity 20 67 60 68 64 64 56

Cars 12 and 14 are equipped with pantographs.[7]

Fleet details

Set No. Delivered 7th car added Refurbished DS-ATC added Withdrawn Remarks
L1 1 November 1990 14 November 1995 3 March 2000 27 July 2005 1 January 2009[8] Originally pre-production set S4, converted 29 June 1992.
L2 17 January 1992 20 November 1995 14 September 2001 7 October 2005 23 January 2009[8]
L3 28 January 1992 2 December 1995 11 June 2001 12 September 2005
L4 6 March 1992 12 December 1995 16 December 1999 28 May 2005 18 September 2009[2] First set to be refurbished and reliveried.
L5 23 March 1992 10 December 1995 28 July 2000 26 November 2005 21 April 2009[9]
L6 2 April 1992 8 December 1995 16 October 2001 24 December 2005 26 May 2009[9]
L7 13 April 1992 6 December 1995 19 September 2000 2 November 2005 15 May 2009[9]
L8 1 May 1992 4 December 1995 19 June 2000 24 June 2005 3 April 2009[9]
L9 11 May 1992 20 December 1995 14 April 2000 22 March 2006 21 February 2009[8]
L10 29 May 1992 14 December 1995 30 March 2001 28 February 2006 7 August 2009[2]
L11 12 June 1992 16 December 1995 19 February 2001 6 February 2006 20 June 2009[9]
L12 25 June 1992 18 December 1995 29 May 2000 27 April 2005 19 March 2009[8]

(Source: [7])

Exterior

400 series in original colour scheme, 1999

Styling wise, the 400 series was originally painted a medium silver grey with a darker roof and area around the cab windows and underframe, but they were refurbished and repainted between 1999 and 2001, with a higher area of dark bluish-grey on the underside, coming up almost to the side windows, and separated from the silver grey with a green stripe. The dark grey on the roof and around the cab windows is gone.

Clearances are much reduced compared to previous Shinkansen lines, and thus the 400 series units are much narrower than previous Shinkansen trains. At shinkansen stations (i.e. high-speed line stations), steps extend from beneath the doors to bridge the otherwise wide gap between the trains and platforms.

Interior

Green cars are arranged with 2+1 abreast seating, unlike the E3 series trains which replaced them, which featured 2+2 seating in both standard and Green cars. Seat pitch is 980 mm in reserved-seating cars (12 to 15, and 910 mm in non-reserved cars (16 and 17).


See also

References

  • JR全車両ハンドブック2006 (JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2006). Japan: Neko Publishing. 2006.  
  • Semmens, Peter (1997). High Speed in Japan: Shinkansen - The World's Busiest High-speed Railway. Sheffield, UK: Platform 5 Publishing. ISBN 1-872524-88-5.  
  1. ^ Japan Railfan Magazine: "400系L4編成,新幹線総合車両センターへ" (17 September 2009). Retrieved on 19 September 2009. (Japanese)
  2. ^ a b c "つばさの世代交代". Japan Railfan Magazine (Japan: Kōyūsha) 49 (584): p.42–43. December 2009.  
  3. ^ JR East (2007-07-03). "山形新幹線「つばさ」用車両の新造について" (in Japanese) (PDF). Press release. http://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2007_1/20070705.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-01.  
  4. ^ JR East (2009-10-29). "「山形新幹線新庄延伸10周年記念キャンペーン」を開催します" (in Japanese) (PDF). Press release. http://www.jr-sendai.com/doc/20091029150305.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-30.  
  5. ^ a b ""在来線直通新幹線電車 400系デビュー"". Japan Railfan Magazine (Japan: Kōyūsha) 31 (357): p8–15. January 1991.  
  6. ^ a b Yamanouchi, Shūichirō (2002). "東北・上越新幹線" (Tōhoku & Jōetsu Shinkansen). Tokyo, Japan: JTB Can Books. ISBN 4-533-04513-8.  
  7. ^ a b JR電車編成表 '07冬号 (JR EMU Formations - Winter 2007). Japan: JRR. December 2006. ISBN 4-88283-046-9.  
  8. ^ a b c d ""JR車両のデータバンク" (JR Fleet Databank)". Japan Railfan Magazine (Japan: Kōyūsha) 49 (579). July 2009.  
  9. ^ a b c d e "JR車両の動き (JR Rolling Stock Changes)". Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō (Japan: Kōtsū Shimbun) 38 (305): p126. September 2009.  

External links

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