5.7x28mm: Wikis

  
  

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5.7x28mm
57lineup.jpg
5.7x28mm sporting cartridges. From left to right: SS195LF, SS196SR, and SS197SR.
Type Personal defense weapon
Place of origin  Belgium
Service history
In service 1991-present[1]
Used by
Wars
Production history
Designed
  • 1986-1990 (SS90)[1]
  • 1992-1993 (SS190)[3]
Manufacturer FN Herstal
Produced
  • 1990-1993 (SS90)[3]
  • 1993-present (SS190)[3]
Variants See Variations
Specifications
Case type Rimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter 5.70 mm (0.224 in)
Neck diameter 6.38 mm (0.251 in)
Shoulder diameter 7.95 mm (0.313 in)
Base diameter 7.95 mm (0.313 in)
Rim diameter 7.80 mm (0.307 in)
Rim thickness 1.14 mm (0.045 in)
Case length 28.9 mm (1.14 in)
Overall length 40.50 mm (1.594 in)
Case capacity 0.90 cm³ (14 gr H2O)
Rifling twist 228.6 mm (1 in 9 in)
Primer type Boxer Small pistol
Maximum pressure 345.0 MPa (50,040 psi)
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
23 gr (1.5 g) SS90 AP FMJ 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s) 540 J (400 ft·lbf)
31 gr (2.0 g) SS190 AP FMJ 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 534 J (394 ft·lbf)
28 gr (1.8 g) SS195LF JHP 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 467 J (344 ft·lbf)
Test barrel length: 263 mm (10.35 in)

The 5.7x28mm cartridge is a small caliber cartridge developed by FN Herstal simultaneously with the FN P90 personal defense weapon and FN Five-seven pistol.[1][4] It is a bottlenecked cartridge with a 5.7 mm (.224 inch) bullet[5] and could be most accurately compared to the .22 Hornet or the competing Heckler & Koch 4.6x30mm. The 5.7x28mm is produced in several variations.[6] The SS195LF and SS197SR are commercially available 5.7x28mm cartridges for use in the FN PS90 and FN Five-seven.[6]

By 2007, more than 20,000 5.7x28mm weapons were in service throughout the world in various police, counter-terrorist or military roles.[7] The commercially available FN PS90 and FN Five-seven weapons in 5.7x28mm caliber are also popular among civilian shooters, and the National Rifle Association added 5.7x28mm firearms to the NRA Tactical Police Competition standards in 2009.[8][9]

Contents

History

The 5.7x28mm cartridge was originally designed alongside the FN P90 personal defense weapon.[4][10] The first 5.7x28mm cartridge, called the SS90, was introduced in the late 1980s. It used a 1.5 g (23 grain) plastic-core projectile which it propelled at a velocity of roughly 850 m/s (2800 ft/s) when fired from the P90.[10]

This cartridge was further refined, and introduced in 1993 as the SS190.[3] The SS190 uses a 2.7 mm (0.11 in) shorter projectile with a weight of 2.0 g (31 grains), which it fires from the P90 at a velocity of roughly 715 m/s (2350 ft/s).[11] The shorter length of the projectile allowed it to be more conveniently used in the FN Five-seven pistol, which was also being developed at that time.[3] Several specialized variations of the 5.7x28mm were also developed alongside the SS190, such as the L191 tracer round and the subsonic SB193 bullet for sound-suppressed use in the P90.[1][6]

In 2004, the SS192 hollow point cartridge was introduced commercially alongside the Five-seven IOM.[12] This cartridge was discontinued later in that same year[13] and the SS196SR cartridge was introduced using a 2.6 g (40 grain) V-Max projectile. The SS196 was also shortly discontinued in favor of newer developments. Further development has led to the creation of the SS195LF and SS197SR cartridges, which are commercially available for use in the FN PS90 carbine and FN Five-seven pistol, and the SS198LF which is restricted by FN for law enforcement and military customers.[6]

Design details

The 5.7x28mm cartridge was specifically designed by FN for use in the FN P90 personal defense weapon and FN Five-seven pistol.[1][4] Subsequently it has been used in the FN PS90 carbine and the AR-57, an upper receiver for M16/AR-15 rifles.[14][15] ST Kinetics is developing a 40 mm grenade launcher combined with a 5.7x28mm PDW, similar to the FN F2000.[16]

The 5.7x28mm cartridge weighs 6.0 g (93 grains),[17] roughly half as much as a typical 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge, allowing extra ammunition to be carried more easily.[18][19][20] The 5.7x28mm cartridge produces considerable muzzle blast and flash,[21] but it produces roughly 30% less recoil than the 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge, improving controllability.[19][20] It also exhibits a flatter trajectory.[11][19]

One of the design intents of the SS190 variant of this cartridge (not sporting variants) was that it have the ability to penetrate Kevlar protective vests, such as the NATO CRISAT vest, that will stop conventional pistol bullets.[22] The SS190 variant is claimed to do this successfully at a range of 200 meters.[22] Sporting variants of the 5.7x28mm are classified as being not armor piercing by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)[13] and incapable of such penetration.

The SS190 and similar 5.7x28mm projectiles have been shown to turn base over point ("tumble") in testing in ballistic gelatin and other media,[4][11][18][23][24] using the 21.6 mm (.850 in) projectile length[12] to create a larger wound cavity. However, some are skeptical of the bullet's performance, and it is a subject of debate among civilian shooters in the United States.[24] Since the SS190 projectile does not rely on fragmentation or the expansion of a hollow point, the cartridge (and 5.7x28mm weapons) are considered suitable for military use under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, which prohibit use of expanding or fragmenting bullets in warfare.[24]

FN's 5.7x28mm brass cases are covered with a special polymer coating for easier extraction with the PS90 carbine due to the high chamber pressures and lack of case tapering.[18] In addition, the coating ensures proper feeding and function in the magazines.[18]

Cartridge dimensions

FN round 1.png

5.7x28mm maximum CIP cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).

The 5.7x28mm has a cartridge case capacity of 14 grains H2O.[21]

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈ 35 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 228.6 mm (1 in 9 in), 8 grooves, Ø lands = 5.53 mm, Ø grooves = 5.62 mm, land width = 1.63 mm and the recommended primer type is small rifle.[5][21]

According to the official Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives (CIP) guidelines the 5.7x28mm case can handle up to 345 MPa (50,037 psi) piezo pressure.[21] In CIP-regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum CIP pressure to certify for sale to consumers.

Variations

5.7x28mm ballistics using a 46 m (50 yards) zero with the FN PS90 using the MC-10-80 reflex sight.
5.7x28mm ballistics using a 91 m (100-yard) zero with the FN PS90 using the MC-10-80 reflex sight.

SS90 prototype

The SS90 was an early prototype round used only in the earliest examples of the P90. It used a lightweight 1.5 g (23 grain) full metal jacket bullet with a polymer core, propelled at a speed of roughly 850 m/s (2800 ft/s). It was abandoned in 1994 in favor of the heavier and 2.7 mm (0.11 in) shorter SS190 projectile.[10]

SS190 duty

The SS190 FMJ, a refinement of the SS90, was introduced in 1993.[3] It offered superior performance over the prototype projectile as well as slightly reduced length.[3] The latter change allowed it to be used more conveniently in the Five-seven pistol also being developed at that time.[10] The SS190 propels a 2.0 g (31 grain) bullet at roughly 715 m/s (2350 ft/s) from the P90's barrel. It has a steel penetrator and an aluminum core.[25] It is classified as armor piercing (AP) ammunition by the ATF[13] and its sale is restricted by FN to law enforcement and military customers.[6] The SS190 has been manufactured with a plain, black, or black-on-white tip color.[6][26][27]

In testing done by Houston Police Department SWAT, the SS190 fired from the P90 typically exhibited 27.94 to 34.29 cm (11 to 13.5 in) of penetration in bare ballistic gelatin.[11] In testing in 1999 by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the SS190 fired from the P90 at a distance of 25 m (82.02 ft) exhibited an average penetration depth of 25 cm (9.85 in) in ballistic gelatin after passing through a Level II vest.[28]

L191 tracer

The L191 (also formerly called the SS191)[29] is a tracer cartridge designed for easier bullet spotting in dim light.[6] Combustible chemicals packed in the rear of the L191 projectile create a contrail visible up to 200 m (656 ft).[27] The L191 has been manufactured with a red or red-on-black tip.[6][26] The ballistic performance of the L191 is identical to the SS190.[17] For this reason, it is also classified as armor piercing ammunition by the ATF[13] and its sale is restricted by FN to law enforcement and military customers.[6]

SS192 hollow point

The SS192 uses a 1.8 g (28 grain) hollow point bullet with a copper jacket and an aluminum core.[12] The projectile has a length of 21.6 mm (.850 in).[12] It has an unmarked hollow nose with a depth of 7.62 mm (0.3 in) and a 0.76 mm (0.03 in) opening.[12] The SS192 was classified as not armor piercing by the ATF, and in testing by FNH USA it did not penetrate a Level IIIA vest when fired from the Five-seven.[13] Production of the SS192 was discontinued in late 2004.[29]

SB193 subsonic

The SB193 (also formerly called the SS193)[29] is a subsonic cartridge featuring a 3.6 g (55 grain) Sierra Game King FMJBT (Full Metal Jacket Boat Tail) projectile. The SB193's low muzzle velocity eliminates the distinctive "crack" created by supersonic rounds, and when used in conjunction with a sound suppressor, the muzzle report is also reduced. Due to the greatly decreased muzzle velocity, the SB193 benefits from a slightly reduced recoil force of 1.3 kgm/s.[30] The SB193 can be identified by its white tip color.[6] Its sale is restricted by FN to law enforcement and military customers.[6]

T194 training

The T194 training round could be considered an early version of the SS192 or SS195. It used the same 1.8 g (28 grain) copper-jacketed aluminum core bullet, propelled at the same muzzle velocity.[17] It had a green painted tip.[17] The T194 round was discontinued in 2002.

SS195LF (lead free)

The SS195 is a commercially available cartridge that features a lead-free primer and produces ballistics similar to the SS192 round, which it replaced in late 2004.[29] It uses a 1.8 g (28 grain) copper-jacketed aluminum core bullet. The SS195 cartridge can be identified by the unmarked, hollow void at the tip and the silver-colored primer.[6] It was classified as not armor piercing by the ATF.[13] The SS195 is currently manufactured by FN in Belgium.[5]

SS196SR (sporting round)

The SS196 cartridge was introduced in 2005.[31] It features a lead core 2.6 g (40 grain) Hornady V-Max bullet which it propels at a velocity of roughly 500 m/s (1650 ft/s) when fired from the Five-seven.[31] The polycarbonate tip used in the V-Max bullet acts as a wedge, enhancing expansion of the bullet. The SS196 was classified as not armor piercing by the ATF and in testing by FNH USA it did not penetrate a Level II vest when fired from the Five-seven.[13] The SS196 can be identified by its red polycarbonate tip. It is now discontinued in favor of the SS197SR cartridge.

SS197SR (sporting round)

The SS197 cartridge is currently offered to civilian shooters in addition to the SS195LF.[32] It uses the same lead core 2.6 g (40 grain) Hornady V-Max projectile as the SS196SR,[5] but it is loaded for a roughly 30 m/s (100 ft/s) higher muzzle velocity. The projectile has a blue-colored polycarbonate tip instead of the red color used in the SS196 projectile tip.[6] The SS197 is currently manufactured by Fiocchi under contract for FN Herstal[5][33][34] and distributed in the USA by Federal Cartridge Company.[6][32]

SS198LF (lead free)

The SS198 uses the same lead-free projectile and primer as the SS195LF,[26] but propels it at roughly 30 m/s (100 ft/s) higher muzzle velocity. Its sale is restricted by FN to law enforcement and military customers.[6] It has a green painted tip.[6]

Non-FN ammunition

Elite Ammunition makes a wide variety of 5.7x28mm ammunition offerings, designed for high performance.[35]

Handloading is also possible with 5.7x28mm ammunition, using .224" bullets (which are widely available due to use in .223 Remington and 5.56x45mm NATO cartridges).[5] Handloaders have noted that the 5.7x28mm cartridge is very sensitive.[21] Bullets weighing 40 grains or less are recommended for optimal use in 5.7x28mm applications,[21] but the 1:9 in twist rate used in the weapons will stabilize bullets weighing up to 70 grains.[5]

Controversy

  • The Five-seven and 5.7x28mm ammunition were the subject of brief controversy in the United States shortly after they were introduced to civilian shooters.[22] It was claimed by the Brady Campaign that commercially available SS192 ammunition penetrated a Level IIA vest in testing.[36] However, armor piercing variants of the 5.7x28mm cartridge are only offered to law enforcement and military customers.[37] Commercially available variants of the 5.7x28mm cartridge are classified by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) as being not armor piercing and it was claimed that the SS192 and SS196 cartridge variants did not penetrate various types of Kevlar vests in tests conducted by FNH USA.[38]
  • The Five-seven pistol and 5.7x28mm ammunition were specifically targeted for a U.S. federal ban in 2005, which failed.[39]
  • In November 2009, the Five-seven and 5.7x28mm ammunition were again the subject of controversy following the pistol's alleged use by U.S. Army psychiatrist, Major Nidal Malik Hasan in the Fort Hood shooting, where 13 were killed and 30 were wounded.[40][41][42] Shortly after the shooting took place, FNH USA responded with a fact sheet dismissing allegations about the nature of the pistol and 5.7x28mm sporting ammunition.[43] Later in the month, a number of gun control organizations such as the Brady Campaign wrote a collaborative letter to U.S. President Barack Obama, calling on him to ban importation of the Five-seven pistol and 5.7x28mm ammunition.[44]

Gallery

Specifications

SS190 L191 SS192 SB193 T194 SS195LF SS196SR SS197SR SS198LF
Bullet weight 2.0 g (31 gr) 2.0 g (31 gr) 1.8 g (28 gr) 3.6 g (55 gr) 1.8 g (28 gr) 1.8 g (28 gr) 2.6 g (40 gr) 2.6 g (40 gr) 1.8g (28 gr)
P90 muzzle velocity 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 305 m/s (1,000 ft/s) 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 549 m/s (1,800 ft/s) 594 m/s (1,950 ft/s)  ?
P90 muzzle energy 534 J (394 ft·lbf) 534 J (394 ft·lbf) 467 J (343 ft·lbf) 163 J (120 ft·lbf) 467 J (343 ft·lbf) 467 J (343 ft·lbf) 393 J (290 ft·lbf) 461 J (340 ft·lbf)  ?
Bullet type FMJ "AP" FMJ Tracer JHP FMJBT JHP JHP V-Max V-Max JHP
Effective range 200 m 200 m 200 m 100 m 200 m 200 m 150 m 150 m 200m
Color code Plain, black or white/black Red or red/black Plain JHP White/grey Green Plain JHP w/ silver primer Red V-Max Blue V-Max Green
Availability Restricted by FN Restricted by FN Commercial (discontinued) Restricted by FN Restricted by FN (discontinued) Commercial Commercial (discontinued) Commercial Restricted by FN


Fired from the longer 40.74 cm (16.04 inches) barrel of the PS90, the muzzle velocity of SS195LF is roughly 60 m/s (200 ft/s) faster, and the muzzle velocity of SS197SR is roughly 45 m/s (150 ft/s) faster.[25] Fired from the shorter 12.2 cm (4.8 inches) barrel of the Five-seven pistol, the muzzle velocity of SS195LF is roughly 90 m/s (300 ft/s) slower, and the muzzle velocity of SS197SR is roughly 60 m/s (200 ft/s) slower.[25]

Weapons

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b c d e f g Watters, Daniel E.. "The 5.56 X 45mm Timeline: 1990-1994". http://thegunzone.com - The Gun Zone. http://www.thegunzone.com/556dw-10.html. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
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  15. ^ Crane, David (August 11, 2008). "AR Five Seven (AR-57): 50-Shot 5.7x28mm AR-15 Carbine". Defense Review. http://www.defensereview.com/ar-five-seven-ar-57-50-shot-57x28mm-ar-15-carbine. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  16. ^ Tiron, Roxana (July 2004). "Singapore Company Toys With Concepts of the Future". National Defense Magazine (National Defense Industrial Association). http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2004/July/Pages/Singapore3515.aspx. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
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  18. ^ a b c d Detty, Mike (October 2008). "FNH 5.7x28mm Dynamic Duo". http://tactical-life.com - Special Weapons Magazine (Online). http://www.tactical-life.com/online/special-weapons/fnh-57x28mm-dynamic-duo. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  19. ^ a b c "Big Scale Progress for Small Arms". http://global-defence.com - GDR Publications. http://web.archive.org/web/20080515044827/http://www.global-defence.com/2002/weap-herstal.html. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  20. ^ a b Fortier, David. "Military Ammo Today". http://handgunsmag.com - Handguns Magazine. http://www.handgunsmag.com/ammunition/hg_militarytoday_200811. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
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  22. ^ a b c Fortier, David. "What’s All The Fuss About FN’s Five-seveN USG?". http://shootingtimes.com - Shooting Times Handgun Reviews. http://www.shootingtimes.com/handgun_reviews/fnusg_021207. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  23. ^ Humphries, Michael O. (May 2008). "Radical Tactical Firepower". Tactical Weapons. http://www.tactical-life.com/online/tactical-weapons/radical-tactical-firepower. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  24. ^ a b c Bahde, Dave (November 2009). "FNH Five-seveN ODG 5.7×28mm". http://tactical-life.com - Combat Handguns. http://www.tactical-life.com/online/combat-handguns/fnh-five-seven-odg-57x28mm. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  25. ^ a b c "FN 5.7x28mm Ammunition Catalog". http://fnhusa.com - FNH USA Official Website. 2008. http://www.fnhusa1.com/PDF/FNH08ammunition.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
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  28. ^ Cutshaw, Charlie (May 2006). "FN Herstal's Five-seveN Pistol". Tactical Response.
  29. ^ a b c d "Responses to Frequently Asked Questions about 5.7x28mm Ammunition and Firearms Systems". http://fnhusa.com - FNH USA Official Website. 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060411012151/www.fnhusa.com/contents/tw_57x28mm.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  30. ^ "5.7x28mm Ammunition". http://fnmfg.com - FN Manufacturing Official Website. 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20021212233833/www.fnmfg.com/lawenf/ss190/ss190.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  31. ^ a b "New Sporting Round from FN Herstal USA". Guns Magazine (ISSN 1044-6257), May 2005.
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  33. ^ "FNH USA Partners with Fiocchi". Shooting Industry (ISSN 0037-4148), January 2006.
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  41. ^ "Fort Hood Killer Reportedly Chose "Cop Killer" Handgun". http://Bradycampaign.org - Brady Campaign Official Website. November 6, 2009. http://www.bradycampaign.org/media/press/view/1194. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  42. ^ "'Cop Killer' Gun Used In Ft. Hood Shooting, Officials Said". http://abcnews.go.com - ABC News. November 6, 2009. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/cop-killer-gun-thought-ft-hood-shooting/story?id=9019521. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  43. ^ "Five-seveN Facts". http://fnhusa.com - FNH USA Official Website. November 09, 2009. http://www.fnhusa1.com/PDF/Five-seveNFacts.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  44. ^ "Gun Violence Prevention Organizations Call on President Obama to Use Executive Authority to Ban Import of Armor-Piercing Pistol Used in Fort Hood Attack". http://vpc.org - Violence Policy Center. November 19, 2009. http://www.vpc.org/press/0911obama.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 

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