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509th Composite Group
Active 17 December 1944-10 July 1946
Country  United States
Branch United States Army Air Forces
Type Composite bombardment group
Role Nuclear Weapon Bombardment
Size 1767 personnel, 15 B-29 and 5 C-54 aircraft
Part of 313th Bomb Wing
Twentieth Air Force
Garrison/HQ North Field, Tinian, Mariana Islands
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg
  • World War II
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign
Paul Tibbets

The 509th Composite Group (509th CG) was a United States Army Air Forces unit created during World War II, and tasked with operational deployment of nuclear weapons. It conducted the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945.

During the postwar era, the group was one of the initial assigned units of Strategic Air Command on 31 March 1946, equipped with specially-configured B-29 Superfortress equipped to deliver Atomic Bombs. It was redesignated the 509th Bombardment Group, Very Heavy, on 10 July 1946.




Wartime command organization

Wartime command organization [1]
Position Name Dates of service
Group Commander Col. Paul W. Tibbets 17 December 1944—22 January 1946
Deputy Group Commander Lt.Col. Thomas J. Classen 4 May 1945—
Group Operations Officer (S-3) Major James I. Hopkins, Jr. 17 December 1944—
Group Executive Officer Lt.Col. Gerald E. Bean 17 December 1944—
Group Adjutant Captain Thomas L. Karnes 17 December 1944—

Squadron commanders

393rd Bomb Squadron (Very Heavy)
Wartime Commander Date of command
Major Thomas J. Classen 12 March 1944¹
Lt.Col. Paul W. Tibbets 14 September 1944
Lt.Col. Thomas J. Classen 17 December 1944
Major Charles W. Sweeney 4 May 1945
Postwar Commander Date of command
Lt.Col. Virgil M. Cloyd 1 July 1946
Lt.Col. Phillip Y. Williams 1 June 1948
Lt.Col. Robert B. Irwin 3 September 1948
Lt.Col. Phillip Y. Williams 15 October 1948
Lt.Col. James I. Hopkins 3 January 1949
Lt.Col. Phillip Y. Williams 20 January 1949
Lt.Col. Jack D. Nole 3 May 1949
Lt.Col. Phillip Y. Williams 13 June 1949
Lt.Col. William S. Martensen 30 June 1949
¹The 393rd Bomb Squadron was part of the 504th Bomb Group (VH) from 12 March 1944, to 14 September 1944.
320th Troop Carrier Squadron
Commander Date of command
Major Hubert J. Konopacki 17 December 1944¹
Major Charles W. Sweeney 6 January 1945
Captain John J. Casey, Jr. 4 May 1945²
¹The 320th Troop Carrier Squadron was activated on 17 December 1944, and ²disbanded 19 August 1946.

Component support organizations

Unit Commander # of personnel
Headquarters and Base Services Squadron Major George W. Westcott 99
390th Air Service Group Lt.Col. John W. Porter 190
1027th Air Materiel Squadron Major Guy Geller 140
603rd Air Engineering Squadron Captain Earl O. Casey 225
1395th Military Police Company Captain Louis Schaffer 127
1st Ordnance Squadron (Special, Aviation) Major Charles F. Begg 298


See the 509th Operations Group for additional group history and lineage.

Organization, training, and security

The 509th Composite Group was constituted on 9 December 1944, and activated on 17 December 1944, at Wendover Army Air Field, Utah, commanded by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets.[2] Colonel Tibbets had been assigned to organize and command a combat group to develop the means of delivering an atomic weapon by airplane against targets in Germany and Japan. Because the flying squadrons of the group consisted of both bomber and transport aircraft, the group was designated as a "composite" rather than a "bombardment" unit.

Working with the Manhattan Engineering District at Site Y in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Tibbets had selected Wendover for his training base (over Great Bend, Kansas, and Mountain Home, Idaho)[3] because of its remoteness. On 10 September 1944, the 393rd Bomb Squadron, a unit of B-29 Superfortresses, arrived at Wendover from the 504th Bomb Group (Very Heavy) at Fairmont Army Air Base, Nebraska, where it had been in group training since 12 March. When its parent group deployed to the Marianas in early November 1944, the squadron was assigned directly to the Second Air Force until creation of the 509th CG.[4] Originally consisting of twenty-one crews, fifteen were selected to continue training and were organized into three flights of five crews, lettered A, B, and C.

The 320th Troop Carrier Squadron, the other flying unit of the 509th, came into being because of the highly secret work of the group. The organization that was to become the 509th required its own transports for the movement of both personnel and materiel, resulting in creation of an ad hoc unit nicknamed "The Green Hornet Line".[5][6] Crews for this unit were acquired from the six 393rd crews not selected to continue B-29 training, some of whom chose to remain with the 509th rather than be assigned to a replacement pool of the Second Air Force. They began using Curtiss C-46 Commandos and C-47 Skytrains already at Wendover and after November 1944 flew five acquired C-54 Skymasters.[7] The 320th TCS was formally activated at the same time as the group.[2]

Other support units were activated at Wendover from personnel already present and working with its Project W-47 (superseded by Project Alberta) or in the 216th Base Unit, both affiliated with the Site Y project. The 390th Air Service Group was created as the command echelon for the 603rd Air Engineering Squadron, the 1027th Air Material squadron, and its own Air Base Support Squadron, but as these units became independent operationally, acted as the basic support unit for the entire 509th Group in providing quarters, rations, medical care, postal service and other basic support functions. The 603rd AES was unique in that it provided depot-level B-29 maintenance in the field, obviating the necessity of sending aircraft back to the United States for major repairs. The 603rd made a number of modifications to the first contract order of Silverplate B-29s that were later incorporated as specifications for the combat models.[8]

The 393rd Bomb Squadron began replacement of its original B-29s with modified Silverplate airplanes with the delivery of three in mid-October 1944.[5] These aircraft had extensive bomb bay modifications and a "weaponeer" station installed, but initial training operations identified numerous other modifications necessary to the mission, particularly in reducing the overall weight of the airplane to offset the heavy loads it would be required to carry. Five more Silverplates were delivered in November and six in December, giving the group 14 for its training operations. In January and February 1945, 10 of the 15 crews under the command of the Group S-3 (operations officer) were assigned temporary duty at Batista Field, San Antonio de los Baños, Cuba, where they trained in long-range over-water navigation.[9]

On 6 March 1945, the 1st Ordnance Squadron (Special, Aviation) was activated at Wendover, again from Army Air Forces personnel on hand or already at Los Alamos, and concurrent with the activation of Project Alberta. Its purpose was to provide trained personnel and special equipment to the group to enable it to assemble atomic weapons at its operating base, thereby allowing the weapons to be transported more safely in their component parts. A rigorous candidate selection process was used to recruit personnel, with reportedly an 80% "washout" rate, and those made a part of the unit were not permitted transfer until the end of the war, nor were they allowed to travel without escorts from Military Intelligence units.[8]

Two anecdotes illustrate the level of security affecting the 509th's personnel and equipment. En route to Tinian on 4 June 1945, the B-29 that became The Great Artiste made an intermediate stop at Mather Field, near Sacramento, California. The commanding general of the base allegedly attempted to enter the aircraft to inspect it and was warned by a plane guard that he could not do so, with a carbine aimed at the general's chest.[10] A similar incident occurred to a Project Alberta courier, 2nd Lt. William A. King, transporting the plutonium core of the Fat Man bomb to Tinian, secured to the floor of one of the 509th's C-54s. The transport made a refueling stop at Hickam Field, Hawaii, on 24 July 1945, where the colonel commanding a combat unit returning to the United States learned that the Skymaster had only one passenger. He attempted to enter the C-54 to requisition it as transport for his men, but was prevented by Lt. King, who aimed his .45 caliber automatic pistol at the officer.[11]

With the addition of the 1st Ordnance Squadron to its roster, the 509th CG had an authorized strength of 225 officers and 1,542 enlisted men, almost all of whom deployed to Tinian. The 320th TCS did not officially deploy but kept its base of operations at Wendover. In addition to its authorized strength, the 509th had attached to it on Tinian 51 civilian and military personnel of Project Alberta, and two representatives from Washington, D.C.,[12] Brigadier Thomas Farrell (General Leslie Groves' executive officer) and Rear Admiral William R. Purnell of the Military Policy Committee.[13]

The 509th began replacement of its 14 training Silverplates in February 1945 by transferring four to the 216th Base Unit. In April they began receiving Silverplates of the third modification increment and the remaining ten training B-29s were placed in storage. Each bombardier completed at least 50 practice drops of inert pumpkin bombs and Col. Tibbets declared his group combat-ready.[14] Preparation for Overseas Movement (POM) began in April.

Equipment and crews

Enola Gay.gif
B-29, "ENOLA GAY", 44-86292. Dropped "LITTLE BOY", 6 August 1945, on Hiroshima
B-29, "BOCKSCAR", 44-27297. Dropped "FAT MAN", 9 August 1945, on Nagasaki
Combat B-29's of the 393rd Bomb Squadron
AAF serial # Victor # Name Crew # Airplane Commander USAAF Delivery Arr. Tinian Tail Code
B-29-36-MO 44-27296 84 Some Punkins B-7 Capt. James N. Price 19 March 1945 14 June 1945 Large A
B-29-36-MO 44-27297 77 Bockscar C-13 Capt. Frederick C. Bock 19 March 1945 17 June 1945 Triangle N
B-29-36-MO 44-27298 83 Full House A-1 Maj. Ralph R. Taylor 20 March 1945 17 June 1945 Square P
B-29-36-MO 44-27299 86 Next Objective A-3 Capt. Ralph N. Devore 20 March 1945 17 June 1945 Triangle N
B-29-36-MO 44-27300 73 Strange Cargo A-4 Capt. Joseph E. Westover 2 April 1945 11 June 1945 Large A
B-29-36-MO 44-27301 85 Straight Flush C-11 Maj. Claude R. Eatherly 2 April 1945 14 June 1945 Triangle N
B-29-36-MO 44-27302 72 Top Secret B-8 Capt. Charles F. McKnight 2 April 1945 11 June 1945 Large A
B-29-36-MO 44-27303 71 Jabit III B-6 Maj. John A. Wilson 3 April 1945 11 June 1945 Large A
B-29-36-MO 44-27304 88 Up An' Atom B-10 Capt. George W. Marquardt 3 April 1945 17 June 1945 Triangle N
B-29-40-MO 44-27353 89 The Great Artiste C-15 Capt. Charles D. Albury 20 April 1945 28 June 1945 Circle R
B-29-40-MO 44-27354 90 Big Stink A-5* Lt.Col. Thomas J. Classen* 20 April 1945 25 June 1945 Circle R
B-29-45-MO 44-86291 91 Necessary Evil C-14 Capt. Norman W. Ray 18 May 1945 2 July 1945 Circle R
B-29-45-MO 44-86292 82 Enola Gay B-9 Capt. Robert A. Lewis 18 May 1945 6 July 1945 Circle R
B-29-50-MO 44-86346 94 Luke the Spook C-12* Capt. Herman S. Zahn* 15 June 1945 2 August 1945 Square P
B-29-50-MO 44-86347 95 Laggin' Dragon A-2 Capt. Edward M. Costello 15 June 1945 2 August 1945 Square P

Source:Richard H. Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, ISBN 0-7864-2139-8

*These crews and aircraft commanders switched airplane assignments on 9 August 1945

Although all of the B-29's were named as shown, the only nose art applied to the aircraft before the atomic bomb missions was that of Enola Gay.[15] With the exceptions of victors 71 and 94, the others were applied some time in August 1945. Luke the Spook was not named until November 1945, and it is not known if nose art was ever applied to Jabit III,[16] although the version shown at the 509th Yearbook gallery was first shown in 1997.[17]

Color images of 393rd Bomb Squadron nose art

Operational history

The ground support echelon of the 509th CG received movement orders in April 1945 and moved by rail to its port of embarkation at Seattle, Washington. On 6 May the support elements sailed on the SS Cape Victory for the Marianas. An advance party of the air echelon flew to North Field, Tinian, on 18 May, where it was joined by the ground echelon on 29 May 1945, marking the group's official change of station.[6] Project Alberta's "Destination Team" also sent most of its members to Tinian to supervise the assembly, loading, and dropping of the bombs under the administrative title of 1st Technical Services Detachment.[18]

The air echelon began deploying from Wendover 4 June 1945, with the first B-29 arriving at North Field on 11 June. The group was assigned to the 313th Bomb Wing, whose four groups had been flying missions against Japan since mid-February, but because of security considerations was given a base area near the airfield on the north tip of Tinian, several miles from the main installations in the center part of the island.[6] Two of the group's bombers were not delivered by Martin-Omaha until early July and remained at Wendover until 27 July to act as transports to Tinian for two of the Fat Man atomic bomb assemblies.[19]

Enola Gay taxiing at North Field, Tinian

The group was assigned tail markings of a circle outline around an arrowhead pointing forward, but at the beginning of August, after it began flying combat missions, its fifteen B-29's were given the tail markings of other XXI Bomber Command groups as a security measure. The victor numbers previously assigned the aircraft were changed to avoid confusion with B-29s of the groups from whom the tail identifiers were borrowed.[20]

Victor numbers 82, 89, 90, and 91 (including the Enola Gay) carried the markings of the 6th Bomb Group (Circle R); victors 71, 72, 73, and 84 those of the 497th Bomb Group (large "A"); victors 77, 85, 86, and 88 those of the 444th Bomb Group (triangle N); and victors 83, 94, and 95 those of the 39th Bomb Group (square P).[21]

After ground training for the combat crews, the 509th began operations on 30 June 1945, with a calibration flight involving nine of the B-29s on hand. During the month of July and the first eight days of August the thirteen bombers of the 393rd BS flew an intensive training and mission rehearsal program that consisted of:

  • 17 individual training sorties without ordnance
  • 15 practice bombing missions against Japanese-held Truk, Marcus, Rota, and Guguan, between 1 July and 22 July with 90 B-29s using 500- and 1000-pound bombs to practice mission procedures[22]
  • 12 combat missions against targets in Japan using high-explosive "pumpkin bombs", with 37 B-29s dropping conventional-bomb replications of the Fat Man between 20 July and 29 July[23]
  • 8 component-tests and rehearsal drops of five inert Little Boy and three Fat Man assemblies between 23 July and 8 August[24]
  • a practice mission to Iwo Jima on 29 July in which an inert Little Boy was unloaded and then reloaded to rehearse the contingency plan for using a back-up bomber in an emergency.[24][25]

While this training was taking place, the disassembled components of the first two atomic bombs were transshipped to Tinian by various means. For the uranium bomb code-named Little Boy, the U-235 projectile and bomb pre-assemblies left Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, California, on 16 July aboard the cruiser USS Indianapolis, arriving 26 July. That same day three C-54s of the 320th TCS left Kirtland Army Air Field each with one of the U-235 target rings and landed at North Field on 28 July.[26][27]

The components for the bomb code-named Fat Man all arrived by air. On 26 July the bomb's plutonium core (encased in its insertion capsule) and the beryllium-polonium initiator were transported from Kirtland by C-54 in the custody of Project Alberta couriers, also arriving 28 July. The pre-assemblies of Fat Man F-31 were picked up by B-29 at Kirtland on 28 July and reached North Field on 2 August.[28]

The final item of preparation for the operation came on 29 July 1945. General Carl Spaatz, commanding all strategic bombers in the Pacific, arrived at Tinian with the order for the attack. Drafted by Brig.Gen. Leslie Groves and sent by Gen. George C. Marshall from Potsdam on 25 July,[29] the order designated four targets: Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, and Nagasaki, and ordered the attack to be made "as soon as weather will permit after about 3 August."[30]

Atomic Bomb Missions

B-29 Straight Flush, weather scout for Hiroshima mission.

The mission profile for both atomic missions called for weather scouts to precede the strike force by an hour, reporting weather conditions in code over each proposed target. The strike force consisted of a bombing aircraft, with the aircraft commander responsible for all decisions in reaching the target and the bomb commander (weaponeer) responsible for all decisions regarding dropping of the bomb; a blast instrumentation aircraft which would fly the wing of the strike aircraft and drop instruments by parachute into the target area; and a camera ship, which would also carry scientific observers. Each mission would have one "spare" aircraft accompanying it as far as Iwo Jima to take over carrying the bomb if the strike aircraft encountered mechanical problems.

The Hiroshima mission was flown as planned and executed without significant problems or diversion from plan. The Nagasaki mission, however, originally targeted Kokura and encountered numerous problems which resulted in the bombing of the secondary target, a delay in bombing of almost two hours, detonation of the bomb some distance from the designated aiming point, and a diversion of the strike force to emergency landings on Okinawa because of a lack of fuel. However the basic objectives of the mission were met despite the problems.

Lieutenant Jacob Beser flew on both attack aircraft (the only man to do so), although Maj. Charles W. Sweeney and crew observed Hiroshima from The Great Artiste and dropped the bomb on Nagasaki from Bockscar. Lawrence H. Johnston of Project Alberta observed all three nuclear explosions, including the Trinity test.

Mission compositions

Special Mission 13, Primary target Hiroshima, 6 August 1945[31]
Aircraft Pilot Call Sign Mission role
Straight Flush Maj. Claude R. Eatherly Dimples 85 Weather reconnaissance (Hiroshima)
Jabit III Maj. John A. Wilson Dimples 71 Weather reconnaissance (Kokura)
Full House Maj. Ralph R. Taylor Dimples 83 Weather reconnaissance (Nagasaki)
Enola Gay Col. Paul W. Tibbets Dimples 82 Weapon Delivery
The Great Artiste Maj. Charles W. Sweeney Dimples 89 Blast measurement instrumentation
Necessary Evil Capt. George W. Marquardt Dimples 91 Strike observation and photography
Top Secret Capt. Charles F. McKnight Dimples 72 Strike spare—did not complete mission
Special Mission 16, Secondary target Nagasaki, 9 August 1945[32]
Aircraft Pilot Call Sign Mission role
Enola Gay Capt. George W. Marquardt Dimples 82 Weather reconnaissance (Kokura)
Laggin' Dragon Capt. Charles F. McKnight Dimples 95 Weather reconnaissance (Nagasaki)
Bockscar Maj. Charles W. Sweeney Dimples 77 Weapon Delivery
The Great Artiste Capt. Frederick C. Bock Dimples 89 Blast measurement instrumentation
Big Stink Maj. James I. Hopkins, Jr. Dimples 90 Strike observation and photography
Full House Maj. Ralph R. Taylor Dimples 83 Strike spare—did not complete mission

While the Nagasaki mission was in progress, two B-29's of the 509th took off from Tinian to return to Wendover. Lt.Col. Classen, the deputy group commander, in the unnamed victor 94 and crew B-6 in Jabit III, together with their ground crews, were sent back to stage for the possibility of transporting further bomb assemblies to Tinian.[16] However the plutonium cores were still at Site Y, and on 13 August Gen. Groves ordered that all shipments of material be stopped. His order reached Los Alamos in time to keep the third bomb from being shipped.[33] The first Atomic War lasted 9 days, 6 August through 15 August 1945.

Post atomic bomb operations

After the Nagasaki mission the group continued combat operations, making another series of pumpkin bomb attacks (12 dropped) on 14 August. With the announcement of the Japanese surrender, however, the 509th CG flew three further training missions involving 31 sorties on 18 August 20, and 22, then stood down from operations. The group flew a total of 210 operational sorties from 30 June to 22 August, and aborted four additional flights, with only one aircraft failure to take off. 140 involved the dropping of live ordnance.[34] 62 sorties received combat credits for missions flown (49 pumpkin bomb and 13 atomic bomb sorties).[35]

The unit returned to the United States on 6 November 1945, being stationed at Roswell Army Airfield, New Mexico. The eight Silverplate bombers that had been delivered to Wendover in August also joined the group. Col. William H. Blanchard replaced Col. Tibbets as group commander on 22 January 1946, and also became the first commander of the 509th Bomb Wing.

At Roswell, the 509th Bombardment Group, Very Heavy became the core of the newly formed Strategic Air Command in 1946.


Streamer APC.PNG

Bronze service star
Bronze service star
Bronze service star
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg
Air Combat, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign
Air Offensive, Japan
Eastern Mandates
Western Pacific


AFOUA with Valor.jpg

Valor device
Outstanding Unit ribbon.svg

Department of the Air Force Special Order GB-294, dated 2 September 1999, awarded the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award (with Valor) to the 509th Composite Group for outstanding achievement in combat for the period 1 July 1945 to 14 August 1945.[36]

See also


PD-icon.svg This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ "509 CG Pictorial Album Commanding Officers". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 5 May 2007.  
  2. ^ a b "509th CG Official History". Air Force Historical Studies Office. Retrieved 25 July 2006.  
  3. ^ "Hiroshima 60 Years Later". Review Journal 6 Aug 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2006.  
  4. ^ "393rd Bomb Squadron". Air Force Historical Studies Office. Retrieved 29 July 2006.  
  5. ^ a b "Silverplate: the Aircraft of the Manhattan Project". Retrieved 29 July 2006.  
  6. ^ a b c "509th Timeline: Inception to Hiroshima". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 5 May 2007.  
  7. ^ Robert & Amelia Krauss, ed (2005). "Introduction: Organization of the 509th". The 509th Remembered: A History of the 509th Composite Group as Told by the Veterans Themselves. 509th Press. ISBN 0-923568-66-2.  , 1.
  8. ^ a b Krauss and Krauss, The 509th Remembered.
  9. ^ "Reflections From Above: An American pilot's perspective on the mission which dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki". University of Washington. Retrieved 30 July 2006.  
  10. ^ "Mather AFB Incident". MPHPA. Retrieved 20 February 2009.  
  11. ^ "Nagasaki Bomb Core Courier". The Purple and Gold: Journal of Psi Chi Fraternity 122 (3): 10–11. 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2009.  
  12. ^ Richard H. Campbell (2005). The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs. McFarland & Company, Inc.. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8.  , 25.
  13. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 100.
  14. ^ "Minutes of 3rd Target Committee Meeting 28 May 1945" (PDF). National Archives. Retrieved 9 August 2006.  
  15. ^ Richard H. Campbell (2005). "Chapter 2: Development and Production". The Silverplate Bombers.  , 18.
  16. ^ a b Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 195.
  17. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 222 note 17.
  18. ^ "509th CG Activation and Organization". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 5 May 2007.  
  19. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 194,196.
  20. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 219, Chapter 3, note 6. It was feared that Japanese survivors on Tinian were reporting the 509th's activities to Tokyo by clandestine radio.
  21. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 19.
  22. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 71.
  23. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 27.
  24. ^ a b Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 46.
  25. ^ "Spitzer Personal Diary Page 10 (CGP-ASPI-010)". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 9 May 2007.  
  26. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 40.
  27. ^ "Little Boy". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 4 May 2007.  
  28. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 40. The War Department memo "Transportation of Critical Shipments" listing all the movements is reproduced.
  29. ^ Richard Rhodes (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. p. 691. ISBN 0-684-81378-5.  
  30. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 41 reproduces the text of the order.
  31. ^ "Timeline #2- the 509th; The Hiroshima Mission". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 4 May 2007.  
  32. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 32.
  33. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 39.
  34. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 26.
  35. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 104.
  36. ^ Campbell, The Silverplate Bombers, 221, Chapter 8 note 8.


  • Bock, Frederick (ed). 509th Composite Group: 50th Anniversary Reunion, Albuquerque NM, 5 August to 10. 1995 (Revised and Corrected Edition 1997).
  • Bowers, Peter M. Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1999. ISBN 0-933424-79-5.
  • Campbell, Richard H. The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8.
  • Hess, William N. Great American Bombers of WW II. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1999. ISBN 0-76030-650-8.
  • Krauss, Robert and Amelia Krauss. The 509th Remembered: A History of the 509th Composite Group as Told by the Veterans Themselves, 509th Anniversary Reunion, Wichita, Kansas October 7-10, 2004. 509th Press., 2005. ISBN 0-92356-866-2.
  • LeMay Curtis and Bill Yenne. Super Fortress. London: Berkley Books, 1988. ISBN 0-425-11880-0.
  • Mann, Robert A. The B-29 Superfortress: A Comprehensive Registry of the Planes and Their Missions. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2004. ISBN 0-7864-1787-0.
  • Marx, Joseph L. Seven Hours to Zero. New York: G.P. Putnam Son's, 1967.
  • Ossip, Jerome J. (ed). 509th Composite Group History - 509th Pictorial Album. Chicago, Illinois: Rogers Printing Company, 1946.
  • Pace, Steve. Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom: Crowood Press, 2003. ISBN 1-86126-581-6.
  • Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster, 1986. ISBN 0-684-81378-5.
  • Thomas, Gordon and Max Morgan Witts. Enola Gay. New York: Stein & Day Publishing, 1977. ISBN 0-81282-150-5.
  • Thomas, Gordon and Max Morgan Witts. Ruin from the Air: The Enola Gay's Atomic Mission to Hiroshima. London: Hamilton, 1977. (republished in 1990 by Scarborough House)
  • Tibbets, Paul W. Flight of the Enola Gay. Reynoldsburg, Ohio: Buckeye Aviation Book Company, 1989. ISBN 0-94239-711-8.
  • Wheeler, Keith. Bombers over Japan. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1982. ISBN 0-8094-3429-6.

External links


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