5th United States Congress: Wikis

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5th United States Congress
Congress Hall exterior.jpg
Congress Hall (2007)

Duration: March 4, 1797 – March 3, 1799

President of the Senate: Thomas Jefferson
President pro tempore: William Bradford
Jacob Read
Theodore Sedgwick
John Laurance
James Ross
Speaker of the House: Jonathan Dayton
Members: 32 Senators
106 Representatives
Senate Majority: Federalist
House Majority: Federalist

Sessions
Special: March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1797
1st: May 15, 1797 – July 10, 1797
2nd: November 13, 1797 – July 16, 1798
Special: July 17, 1798 – July 19, 1798
3rd: December 3, 1798 – March 3, 1799
<4th 6th>

The Fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from March 4, 1797 to March 3, 1799, during the first two years of John Adams's presidency.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Federalist majority.

Major events

Major legislation

Territories organized

Treaties

  • June 7, 1797 — The Treaty of Tripoli was ratified.
  • July 7, 1797 — Existing treaties with France were rescinded, Sess. 2, ch. 67, 1 Stat. 578

Party summary

This was the first Congress to have organized political parties. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

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Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
     
Federalist Democratic-
Republican
Vacant
Begin (March 4, 1797) 22 9 31 1
May 15, 1797 10 32 0
July 8, 1797 9 31 1
September 26, 1797 10 32 0
October 1797 21 31 1
November 13, 1797 22 32 0
January 3, 1798 21 31 1
January 11, 1798 22 32 0
April 1798 9 31 1
April 16, 1798 21 30 2
May 5, 1798 22 31 1
August 11, 1798 21 30 2
October 6, 1798 10 31 1
November 26, 1798 20 9 29 3
December 5, 1798 21 30 2
December 6, 1798 10 31 1
January 17, 1799 22 32 0
January 24, 1799 11 31 1
Final voting share 70% 30%

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
     
Federalist Democratic-
Republican
Vacant
Begin (March 4, 1797) 57 49 106 0
1797 56 105 1
July 10, 1797 55 104 2
July 24, 1797 54 103 3
July 26, 1797 53 102 4
August 3, 1797 52 101 5
September 1797 48 100 6
October 1797 51 99 7
November 13, 1797 53 101 5
November 23, 1797 54 49 103 3
November 27, 1797 55 104 2
December 1, 1797 50 105 1
December 15, 1797 56 106 0
1798 55 105 1
June 4, 1798 49 104 2
August 1, 1798 48 103 3
September 5, 1798 54 102 4
October 2, 1798 47 101 5
December 3, 1798 56 48 104 2
December 4, 1798 49 105 1
December 10, 1798 50 106 0
Final voting share 52.8% 47.2%
President of the Senate Thomas Jefferson

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

President pro tempore of the Senate Jacob Read
Speaker of the House Jonathan Dayton

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1802; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1798; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1800.

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia

Kentucky

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Vermont

Virginia

House of Representatives

Connecticut

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Delaware

Georgia

Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

Kentucky

Maryland

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New Jersey

All representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

New York

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

The 4th district was a plural district with two representatives.

Rhode Island

Both representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.

South Carolina

Tennessee

Vermont

Virginia

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress

Senate

There were 9 resignations, 2 deaths, 1 expulsion, 1 late selection, and 2 elections to replace appointees. Neither party had a net gain of seats.

State Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Tennessee
class 1
Vacant Tennessee failed to elect a Senator on time William Cocke (DR) Appointed May 15, 1797
Tennessee
class 2
William Blount (DR) Expelled July 8, 1797 Joseph Anderson (DR) Elected September 26, 1797
Tennessee
class 1
William Cocke (DR) Interim appointment until September 26, 1797 Andrew Jackson (DR) Elected September 26, 1797
Rhode Island
class 2
William Bradford (F) Resigned October 1797 Ray Greene (F) Elected November 13, 1797
Vermont
class 1
Isaac Tichenor (F) Resigned October 17, 1797 Nathaniel Chipman (F) Elected October 17, 1797
Maryland
class 3
John Henry (F) Resigned December 10, 1797 James Lloyd (F) Elected December 11, 1797
New York
class 1
Philip John Schuyler (F) Resigned January 3, 1798 John Sloss Hobart (F) Elected January 11, 1798
Delaware
class 2
John Vining (F) Resigned January 19, 1798 Joshua Clayton (F) Elected January 19, 1798
Tennessee
class 1
Andrew Jackson (DR) Resigned April 1798 Daniel Smith (DR) Appointed October 6, 1798
New York
class 1
John Sloss Hobart (F) Resigned April 16, 1798 William North (F) Appointed May 5, 1798
Delaware
class 2
Joshua Clayton (F) Died August 11, 1798 William H. Wells (F) Elected January 17, 1799
New York
class 1
William North (F) Interim appointment until August 17, 1798 James Watson (F) Elected August 17, 1798
New Jersey
class 1
John Rutherfurd (F) Resigned November 26, 1798 Franklin Davenport (F) Appointed December 5, 1798
South Carolina
class 2
John Hunter (DR) Resigned November 26, 1798 Charles Pinckney (DR) Elected December 6, 1798
Virginia
class 2
Henry Tazewell (DR) Died January 24, 1799 Vacant Not filled in this Congress

House of Representatives

There were 8 resignations and 3 deaths. The Federalists had a 1 seat net loss and the Democratic-Republicans had a 1 seat net gain.

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
Rhode Island
At-large
Elisha Potter (F) Resigned 1797 Thomas Tillinghast (F) Seated November 13, 1797
South Carolina
1st
William L. Smith (F) Resigned July 10, 1797 Thomas Pinckney (F) Seated November 23, 1797
Massachusetts
11th
Theophilus Bradbury (F) Resigned July 24, 1797 Bailey Bartlett (F) Seated November 27, 1797
New Hampshire
At-large
Jeremiah Smith (F) Resigned July 26, 1797 Peleg Sprague (F) Seated December 15, 1797
Connecticut
At-large
James Davenport (F) Died August 3, 1797 William Edmond (F) Seated November 13, 1797
Tennessee
At-large
Andrew Jackson (DR) Resigned September 1797 to become U.S. Senator William C.C. Claiborne (DR) Seated November 23, 1797
Pennsylvania
5th
George Ege (F) Resigned October 1797 Joseph Hiester (DR) Seated December 1, 1797
Pennsylvania
4th
Samuel Sitgreaves (F) Resigned 1798 Robert Brown (DR) Seated December 4, 1798
North Carolina
10th
Nathan Bryan (DR) Died June 4, 1798 Richard Dobbs Spaight (DR) Seated December 10, 1798
Pennsylvania
1st
John Swanwick (DR) Died August 1, 1798 Robert Waln (F) Seated December 3, 1798
Connecticut
At-large
Joshua Coit (F) Died September 5, 1798 Jonathan Brace (F) Seated December 3, 1798
Virginia
9th
William Giles (DR) Resigned October 2, 1798 Joseph Eggleston (DR) Seated December 3, 1798

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.  

External links


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