75th Ranger Regiment (United States): Wikis

  
  

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75th Ranger Regiment
75 Ranger Regiment Coat Of Arms.PNG
75th Ranger Regiment Coat Of Arms
Active 1974–Present
1st Battalion formed 19 June 1942
Country United States
Branch United States Army
Type Special Operations
Role Direct Action
Size Three Rifle Battalions and One Special Troops Battalion(2000 Total Personnel)
Part of U.S. Army Special Operations Command
Garrison/HQ Fort Benning, Georgia
Nickname Airborne Rangers
Army Rangers
Motto "Rangers lead the way"
Engagements World War II

Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Eagle Claw
Operation Urgent Fury
Operation Just Cause
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Gothic Serpent
Kosovo War
Afghanistan Campaign

Iraq Campaign

Commanders
Current
commander
COL Michael E. Kurilla
Insignia
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 75 Ranger Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg
Distinctive Unit Insignia 75 Ranger Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia.PNG
Beret Flash 75 Ranger Regiment Regimental Flash.svg

The 75th Ranger Regiment (Airborne) is a military unit of the United States Army. The Regiment, headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia, operates as an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) .

The Regiment is composed of rapidly-deployable light infantry forces with specialized skills that enable them to perform a variety of special operations missions – airborne, air assault, and direct action operations, raids, infiltration and exfiltration by air, land or sea in addition to airfield seizure, recovery of personnel and special equipment, and support of general purpose forces (GPF), among other uses. Each Ranger battalion is expected to deploy anywhere in the world within 18 hours notice.

Contents

Origin

American Ranger history predates the Revolutionary War. Captain Benjamin Church formed Church's Rangers, which fought hostile Native American tribes during King Philip's War.[1] Major Robert Rogers formed a Ranger unit to fight during the French and Indian War. They would become known as the "Rogers' Rangers." The Continental Congress formed eight companies of expert riflemen in 1775 to fight in the Revolutionary War. In 1777, this force of hardy frontiersmen commanded by Dan Morgan was known as The Corps of Rangers. Francis Marion, "The Swamp Fox", organized another famous Revolutionary War Ranger element known as "Marion's Partisans."

During the War of 1812, companies of United States Rangers were raised from among the frontier settlers as part of the regular Army. Throughout the war, they patrolled the frontier from Ohio to Western Illinois on horseback and by boat. They participated in many skirmishes and battles with the British and their American Indian allies. The American Civil War included Rangers such as John Singleton Mosby who was the most famous Confederate Ranger during the Civil War. His company's raids on Union camps and bases were so effective, part of North-Central Virginia soon became known as Mosby's Confederacy.

After the Civil War, more than half a century passed without military Ranger units in the United States.

World War II battalions

1st Ranger battalion

In January 1942, American entered World War II. Major William Orlando Darby, the founder of the modern rangers, was assigned to duty in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Darby, frustrated with his lack of hands on experience as General Russell Hartle’s aide, was put in charge of a new unit. General George C. Marshall envisioned an elite unit of 50 men selected voluntarily from the 34th division. He believed Darby was the man to head the job. It was therefore on June 8th 1942, that Darby was officially put in charge of the 1st Ranger’s battalion under General Hartle.[2]

In November 1942, the 1st Rangers received their first feel of combat as a battalion, when they were sent out to the shores of North Africa, or more specifically Arzew, Algeria. The 1st were split into two groups in hopes of assaulting French-Vichy batteries and fortifications before the 1st infantry division would land on the beach. The operation was a success with both minimal casualties and wounded.[3]

On February 11th the Rangers took a 32-mile journey, 12 on foot, for their first raid on an Italian camp at Sened Station. Using the cloak of night, the Rangers slipped in 50 yards of the Italian outpost and began their attack. It took the battalion only 20 minutes to achieve area control. Fifty enemy were killed and an additional 10 were taken prisoner. Darby, along with fellow commanders, was awarded the Silver Star for this victory and the battalion itself gained the nickname the “Black Death” by the Italians.[2]

At the time, the Italians still held the pass at Djebel El Ank, situated at the far edge of east El Guettar. Linked up with engineers and the 26th Regimental Combat Team, the Rangers were ordered to take the area, which remained for some time now at a standstill. The 1sr Rangers were ordered to take a 12-mile dangerous gorge route in hopes of flanking the enemy. They arrived moments before zero hour, to an unguarded flank. In eight hours of fighting the Americans cleared the area; the 1st Rangers had taken 200 prisoners.[2]

Creation of the 3rd and 4th Ranger battalion

With the success of the 1st battalion during the Tunisian campaign, Colonel Darby set in motion and trained the 3rd and 4th Ranger battalion. The problem with the 1st Rangers was that they only took volunteers, Darby knowing that the best man for the job was not always a volunteer, sought out men around Oran. Although he was still limited in that he could only accept volunteers, he began to find ways around this. For instance, he began to give speeches, to put up posters and to encourage his officers to scout around for eligible candidates. As of June 1943, the three Ranger battalions were fully operational .1st Rangers were still under Colonel Darby; the 3rd under Major Herman Dammer, the 4th commanded by Major Roy Murray, both reported directly to Darby.[2]

1st and 4th battalion were paired together, and positioned to spearhead General Terry Allen's 1st Division, on the Sicily campaign. Landing outside Gela, the Rangers took the town by mid, and were quickly sent out to San Nicole. For what must have felt like weeks, the Rangers seized the town of San Nicole with the help of an armored division at their side. This 50 hour barrage would be one of the most unbearable experiences for the Rangers. Despite the fact that they were under a constant attack of artillery, tank and ariel support, they still succeeded in the completion of their mission.[2]

Following their success, these two Ranger battalions were then ordered to take the town of Buerta, a 4000 feet suspended fortress on the edge of the cliff of Buerta beach. After almost withdrawing from the battle, and requesting artillery to level the city, a platoon volunteered to breach the city. Two privates, John See and John Constantine, snuck in behind enemy lines and scared the Italians and Germans into surrendering.[2]

Meanwhile the 3rd Ranger battalion headed out into the area of Agrigento, where they marched through Campobello, Naro and Favara successfully occupying each town. The 3rd was ordered to back tack to the shores of Porto Empedocle. The beach itself was not occupied but high in the cliffs heavy machinegun and cannon fire poured onto the Rangers. Scrambling, the Ranger battalion made their way to each machine gun nest where they managed to disable all opposition before infantry battalion even hit the shore.[2]

Colonel Darby was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for commanding the 75th Rangers, and given a promotion by Patton; Darby, wanting to be closer to his men, had turned down this very promotion.[2]

Fall of the 1st, 3rd and 4th battalion

On January 30th 1943, after Christmas break the Rangers were put together for a joint operation, to occupy the town of Cisterna, before the main infantry division moved in. That night the 1st and 3rd battalions moved into the town, passing many German soldiers that did not appear to notice the Rangers slip by. The 4th battalion met opposition almost immediately taking an opposite rout by the road. During the night the 1st and 3rd battalion separated out about 2 miles, and when daily light caught the 1st Ranger battalion out in an open field, the Germans began their assault. Unable to escape and completely surrounded, the two Ranger battalion’s fought on until ammunition and resources were empty. The 4th battalions tried to make a push to save their comrades but were unsuccessful and had to withdraw. After 5 hours of fighting the Germans had sent in wave after wave of elite parachute troopers and didn’t stop until there was nothing left. Out of the 760 men in the two battalions, only six escaped.[2]

This marked the end of the three Ranger battalions, the remaining 400 rangers would be scattered around the 504th parachute division, and the 137 original rangers would be sent home. On October 26, 1944, the three original Ranger battalions were deactivated at Camp Burner, N.C.[2]

2nd and 5th ranger battalions

Rangers from 2nd Ranger Battalion demonstrate the rope ladders they used to scale Pointe du Hoc.

The 2nd Ranger Battalion and 5th Ranger Battalion were trained at Camp Forrest, Tennessee in 1 April 1943. The 2nd and 5th Ranger battalions first saw action June 6th 1944, during Operation Overlord. During D-day 2nd Rangers companies D, E, and F, were ordered to take a strategic German outpost at point-du-Hoc. This coastal cliff was supposed to have several 155m artillery cannons aimed down at the beach.[4]Once they arrived at the bottom of the cliff they had an enormous climb to make up rope ladders while receiving a barrage of machine gunfire from the Germans above. The 2nd Rangers were successful in taking the area even with the intense German resistance but the guns were not in site. A patrol scouting the area found the 155m coastal guns a mile away; the patrol party quickly disabled the guns and any resistance in the area. In the article “Rangers take Pointe” Lenoard Lomell and Jack Kuhn are interviewed on the events that took place that day. Lomell goes on to explain

The guns had to have been taken off the Pointe. We were looking for any kind of evidence we could find and it looked like there were some markings on the secondary road where it joined the main road. We decided to leapfrog. Jack covered me, and I went forward. When I got a few feet forward, I covered him. It was a sunken road with very high hedgerows with trees and bushes and stuff like that. It was wide enough to put a column of tanks in, and they would be well hidden. We didn't see anybody, so we just took a chance, running as fast as we could, looking over the hedgerow. At least we had the protection of the high hedgerows. When it became my turn to look over, I said, "God, here they are!" They were in an orchard, camouflaged in among the trees.[5]

Meanwhile the rest of the 2nd Ranger and 5th Ranger battalions spearheaded the 116th infantry division, on the beach at Omaha. This is where the famous Ranger slogan comes from, when Colonel Max F. Schneider, commanding the 5th Ranger Battalion, Yelled out “RANGERS LEAD THE WAY!” [6] This drive cut the German line allowing the conventional army to move in.[2] The 2nd and 5th battalions would go on into the Normandy campaign, working with the conventional army on special operation tasks. The two battalions fought in many battles such as Battle for Brest and the Battle of Hurtgen Forest. The 2nd Rangers were responsible for capturing Le Conquet peninsula, where they disabled a 280mm gun and took many German prisoners. The 2nd Rangers also went on to take several tactical German position cutting the German line in the Rhineland’s. In Saar west of Zerf, the 5th battalion took an overlooking German position cutting of all supply routes to German forces. The 2nd and 5th Rangers would continue to advance until they were discharged at the end of the war.[2]

6th Ranger Battalion

The 6th Rangers battalion was stationed in the Pacific, mostly in the Philippines and New Guinea. All operations completed by the 6th battalion were done in company or platoon size behind enemy lines. They were the first soldiers to hit the Philippines three days before the army would launch the first invasion. The 6th battalion was a long-range reconnaissance or combat unit, operating miles past the front line.[2]

At Cabanatuan, on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of the 6th Rangers battalion executed one of the most daring rescues in American history. The Rangers penetrated 29 miles (47 km) behind enemy lines, including crawling an entire mile (1 mile (1.6 km)) across an open field on their stomachs. During their final assault the rangers destroyed a garrison of Japanese soldiers twice their size and rescued 500 POWs.[2]

The 6th Rangers final mission was to secure a drop zone for paratroopers 250 miles (400 km) into enemy territory. They linked up with the 32nd Infantry Division and ended the war in the Philippines.

Korean War

The beginning of the Korean War in June 1950 again signaled the need for Rangers. Seventeen Korean War Ranger Companies were formed during the war. The Rangers went to battle throughout late 1950 and early 1951. They were attached first to one regiment and then to another. They performed "out front" work – scouting, patrolling, raids, ambushes, spearheading assaults, and as counterattack forces to regain lost positions.

The Rangers were reorganized once more on 1 January 1969, as the 75th Ranger Infantry Regiment (Airborne) under the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System. Fifteen separate Ranger companies were formed from this reorganization. It is from this regiment that the modern 75th Ranger Regiment directly descends. Thirteen Ranger companies served in the Vietnam War until inactivation on 15 August 1972.

Modern battalions

Current organization of the 75th Ranger Regiment.

At the end of the Vietnam War, division and brigade commanders saw that the U.S. Army needed an elite, light infantry capable of rapid deployment. In 1974, General Creighton Abrams created the 1st Ranger Battalion. Eight months later, the 2nd Ranger Battalion was created, and in 1984, the 3rd Ranger Battalion and the regimental headquarters was created. In 1986, the 75th Ranger Regiment was formed and their lineage formally authorized. The 4th, 5th, and 6th Ranger Battalions were also re-activated, becoming the Ranger Training Brigade, the instructors of the modern day Ranger School. These units are parts of TRADOC school and are not included in the 75th Ranger Regiment.

In 1980, elements of the 1st Battalion participated in the failed attempt to rescue the American hostages held in Tehran, Iran in Operation Eagle Claw. In October 1983, 1st and 2nd Battalions spearheaded Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada by conducting a bold low-level parachute assault to seize Point Salines Airfield and rescue American citizens at True Blue Medical Campus.

In 1989, the entire 75th Ranger Regiment participated in Operation Just Cause in Panama. Rangers spearheaded the action by conducting two important operations. Simultaneous parachute assaults were conducted onto Tocumen airfield and the adjacent Omar Torrijos International Airport, Rio Hato Airfield and Manuel Noriega's beach house, to neutralize Panamanian Defense Forces. The Rangers captured 1,014 enemy prisoners of war and over 18,000 arms of various types.

Elements of Company B, and 1st Platoon Company A of the 1st Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia from 12 February 1991 to 15 April 1991, in support of Operation Desert Storm. Over three years later, in August 1993, Company B of the 3rd Battalion deployed to Somalia to assist United Nations humanitarian forces as part of Operation Restore Hope. On 3 October 1993, the Rangers conducted Operation Gothic Serpent with Delta Force operators to capture two of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's lieutenants. For nearly 18 hours, the Rangers fought Somali guerrillas in what became the fiercest ground combat for U.S. military personnel since the Vietnam War.

The 1st and 2nd Battalions and a Company of the 3rd Battalion were deployed to Haiti in 1994. The operation was canceled within five minutes of its execution when a team of negotiators, dispatched by President Bill Clinton and led by former President Jimmy Carter, was able to convince General Raoul Cédras to relinquish power. Elements of the 1st and 2nd Battalions operated in-country while order was being restored. This is also the first operation where the U.S. Army was the primary operating force on a U.S. aircraft carrier, the USS America (CV-66). The ship had Special Operations Forces from USSOCOM composed of Rangers, Special Forces, and other special warfare groups.

On 24 November 2000 the 75th Ranger Regiment deployed Regimental Reconnaissance Detachment Team 2 and a command and control element to Kosovo in support of Task Force Falcon.

U.S. Army soldiers of the 75th Ranger Regiment conduct a security halt in Iraq on 26 April 2007.

After the 11 September attacks, Rangers were called upon to participate in the War on Terrorism. On 19 October 2001, the 3rd Battalion spearheaded ground forces by conducting an airborne assault to seize "Objective Rhino" in Afganistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. On 28 March 2003, the 3rd Battalion employed the first airborne assault in Iraq to seize "Objective Serpent" in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Due to the changing nature of warfare and the need for an agile and sustainable Ranger Force, the Regimental Special Troops Battalion was activated 17 July 2006. The RSTB conducts sustainment, intelligence, reconnaissance and maintenance missions which were previously accomplished by small detachments assigned to the Regimental headquarters and then attached within each of the three Ranger battalions.

Honors

The 75th Ranger Regiment has been credited with numerous campaigns from World War II onwards. In World War II, they participated in 16 major campaigns, spearheading the campaigns in Morocco, Sicily, Naples-Foggia, Anzio and Leyte. During the Vietnam War, they received campaign participation streamers for every campaign in the war.

In modern times, the regiment received streamers with arrowheads (denoting conflicts they spearheaded) for Grenada and Panama.

To date, the Rangers have earned six Presidential Unit Citations, nine Valorous Unit Awards, and four Meritorious Unit Commendation, the most recent of which were earned in Vietnam and Haditha, Iraq, respectively.

Campaign Participation Credit

75th Ranger Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia.
75th Ranger Regiment Coat of Arms.
  • World War II:
  1. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Algeria-French Morocco (withArrowhead device.svg)
  2. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Tunisia
  3. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Sicily (withArrowhead device.svg)
  4. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Naples-Foggia (withArrowhead device.svg)
  5. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Anzio (withArrowhead device.svg)
  6. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Rome-Arno
  7. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Normandy (withArrowhead device.svg)
  8. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Northern France
  9. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Rhineland
  10. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Ardennes-Alsace
  11. Streamer EAMEC.PNG Central Europe
  12. Streamer APC.PNG New Guinea
  13. Streamer APC.PNG Philippines
  14. Streamer APC.PNG Leyte (withArrowhead device.svg)
  15. Streamer APC.PNG Luzon
  16. Streamer APC.PNG India-Burma
  17. Streamer APC.PNG Central Burma
  • Vietnam:
  1. Streamer VS.PNG Advisory
  2. Streamer VS.PNG Defense
  3. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive
  4. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase II
  5. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase III
  6. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase IV
  7. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase V
  8. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase VI
  9. Streamer VS.PNG Counteroffensive, Phase VII
  10. Streamer VS.PNG Tet Counteroffensive
  11. Streamer VS.PNG Tet 69/Counteroffensive
  12. Streamer VS.PNG Summer-Fall 1969
  13. Streamer VS.PNG Winter-Spring 1970
  14. Streamer VS.PNG Sanctuary Counteroffensive
  15. Streamer VS.PNG Consolidation I
  16. Streamer VS.PNG Consolidation II
  17. Streamer VS.PNG Cease-Fire
  • Armed Forces Expeditions:
  1. Streamer AFE.PNG Grenada (withArrowhead device.svg)
  2. Streamer AFE.PNG Panama (withArrowhead device.svg)
  • Global War on Terrorism
  1. Streamer gwotE.PNG
  • Afghanistan
  1. Streamer AFGCS.PNG Liberation of Afghanistan
  2. Streamer AFGCS.PNG Consolidation I
  3. Streamer AFGCS.PNG Consolidation II
  • Iraqi
  1. Streamer IQCS.PNG Liberation of Iraq
  2. Streamer IQCS.PNG Transition of Iraq
  3. Streamer IQCS.PNG Iraqi Governance
  4. Streamer IQCS.PNG National Resolution

Decorations

  1. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for El Guetar
  2. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Salerno
  3. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Pointe du Hoc
  4. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Saar River Area
  5. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Myitkyina
  6. Streamer PUC Army.PNG Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for Vietnam 1966-1968
  7. Streamer JMUA.PNG Joint Meritorious Unit Citation (Army) for Afghanistan 04 Oct 2001- 31 Dec 2004
  8. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Vietnam - II Corps Area
  9. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Binh Duong Province
  10. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for III Corps Area 1969
  11. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Fish Hook
  12. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for III Corps Area 1971
  13. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Thua Thien- Quang Tri
  14. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Grenada
  15. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Mogadishu
  16. Streamer VUA Army.PNG Valorous Unit Award for Haditha, Iraq
  17. Streamer MUC Army.PNG Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for Vietnam 1968
  18. Streamer MUC Army.PNG Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for Vietnam 1969
  19. Streamer MUC Army.PNG Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for Vietnam 1969-1970
  20. Streamer MUC Army.PNG Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for Pacific Area

Mottos

Ranger motto: Rangers Lead the Way!

On 6 June 1944, during the assault landing on Dog White sector of Omaha Beach as part of the invasion of Normandy, then Brigadier General Norman Cota (assistant CO of the 29th ID) calmly walked towards Maj. Max Schneider (CO of the 5th Ranger Battalion) while under heavy machine gun fire and asked “What outfit is this?” Someone yelled "5th Rangers!" To this, Cota replied “Well then Goddammit, Rangers, lead the way!” From this, the Ranger motto ("Rangers lead the way!") was born.

Regimental motto: Sua Sponte

Sua Sponte, Latin for Of their own accord is the 75th Ranger Regiment's regimental motto. Modern Rangers are three-time volunteers: for the U.S. Army, Airborne School, and service in the 75th Ranger Regiment (although it was previously stated that Rangers are four-time volunteers, Ranger School is not an immediate requirement of service in the 75th Ranger Regiment for junior enlisted men).

Modern Ranger training

Qualifications

To become eligible to join the 75th Ranger Regiment, prospective Rangers must be qualified in their Military Occupational Specialty and be Airborne qualified.

New soldiers with Ranger contracts attend nine weeks of Basic Combat Training (BCT), followed by Advanced Individual Training (AIT), or One Station Unit Training (OSUT), the United States Army Airborne School and finally the 8-week Ranger Assessment and Selection Program (RASP1); one immediately after the other.

Soldiers already Airborne-qualified transferring from other units are separated into two groups: grades E-4 and below[7] will attend the RASP1, while grades E-5 and above (including officers) will attend the Ranger Assessment and Selection Program (RASP2). All NCO's and officers must be Ranger-qualified prior to attending RASP2. Upon graduation of RASP1/RASP2, the new Rangers will be assigned to one of the three Ranger Battalions, the 75th Regimental Headquarters or the newly formed Ranger Special Troops Battalion (RSTB), where they are now authorized to wear the Ranger tan beret, the Ranger Scroll of their parent unit and the distinctive black physical training uniform.

Continued training

Ranger Tab

Career development requires that all members of the 75th Ranger Regiment successfully complete Ranger School, earning the Ranger Tab. Rangers in direct combat MOSs are not permitted to become leaders within the 75th Ranger Regiment without the Ranger Tab. Rangers in non-combat MOSs are strongly encouraged, as well.

Throughout their time in Ranger Regiment, Rangers may attend many types of special schools and training. Some of these schools include: military free-fall; combat diver qualification course; survival, evasion, resistance & escape (SERE); jumpmaster; pathfinder; Combatives Instructor; first responder/combat lifesaver; language training; Mountain Warfare School; and many types of shooting, driving, and assault procedures training. Rangers with specialized jobs may also attend various special schools and training related to their job scope. MOS 13F (forward observers) may attend naval gunfire training and close air support courses; medics will attend the special operations combat medic course; communications specialists attend joint communications courses.

RFS/RFM

Being a USASOC unit, the Rangers maintain high standards for their personnel. If at any point a Ranger is deemed by his superiors to be failing to meet these Ranger Standards, he can be relieved and removed from the 75th Regiment. This is commonly referred to as being RFSed, short for "Relieved For Standards". A Ranger can be RFSed for virtually any reason; ranging from lack of motivation to disciplinary problems.

Similarly, a Ranger physically incapable of performing his mission through prolonged illness or injury can also be removed from the Regiment through a process referred to as RFM or "Relieved For Medical reasons".

Rangers who were relieved typically end up either in non-combat units located on the same post or in airborne combat units located elsewhere, such as the 82nd Airborne Division.

Controversies

The term Ranger

After the formation of the Ranger School the term "Army Ranger" became a point of some controversy which still exists. While those that served within Ranger units tend to reserve the term exclusively for their peers who serve in the Regiment, many outside of the Ranger units use "Army Ranger" to denote all servicemen who have successfully completed Army Ranger School. Officially, such servicemen are referred to as being "Ranger Qualified" and are allowed to compete in the annual David E. Grange, Jr. Best Ranger Competition.

Beret change

In June 2001, Army Chief of Staff General Eric Shinseki gave the order to issue black berets to regular soldiers. At the time, black berets were being worn exclusively by the Rangers. This created discontent within the 75th Ranger Regiment and even led to retired Rangers going on nationwide roadmarches to Washington, D.C. to protest against the decision. Because there was not a Presidential authorization to the Regiment for exclusive wear of the black beret, they switched to wearing a tan beret to preserve a unique appearance, tan being reflective of the buckskin worn by the men of Robert Rogers' Rangers during the French and Indian War.

Ranger Creed

Recognizing that I volunteered as a Ranger, fully knowing the hazards of my chosen profession, I will always endeavor to uphold the prestige, honor, and high esprit de corps of my Ranger Regiment.

Acknowledging the fact that a Ranger is a more elite soldier who arrives at the cutting edge of battle by land, sea, or air, I accept the fact that as a Ranger my country expects me to move further, faster and fight harder than any other soldier.

Never shall I fail my comrades. I will always keep myself mentally alert, physically strong and morally straight and I will shoulder more than my share of the task whatever it may be. One-hundred-percent and then some.

Gallantly will I show the world that I am a specially selected and well-trained soldier. My courtesy to superior officers, neatness of dress and care of equipment shall set the example for others to follow.

Energetically will I meet the enemies of my country. I shall defeat them on the field of battle for I am better trained and will fight with all my might. Surrender is not a Ranger word. I will never leave a fallen comrade to fall into the hands of the enemy and under no circumstances will I ever embarrass my country.

Readily will I display the intestinal fortitude required to fight on to the Ranger objective and complete the mission though I be the lone survivor.

Rangers lead the way!

Notable members

Colonels

The 75th Ranger Regiment has had the following commanding officers, in order:

  1. William O. Darby
  2. Frank Merrill
  3. Wayne A. Downing
  4. Joseph S. Stringham
  5. Wesley B. Taylor
  6. William F. Kernan
  7. David L. Grange
  8. James T. Jackson
  9. William J. Leszczynski, Jr
  10. Stanley A. McChrystal
  11. P.K. Keen
  12. Joseph L. Votel
  13. James C. Nixon
  14. Paul J. LaCamera
  15. Richard D. Clarke
  16. Michael E. Kurilla

Every former Commander of the 75th Ranger Regiment has been promoted to the rank of General Officer, excluding the most recent two commanders: Colonel Richard D. Clarke, who handed over command on Aug 6, 2009 and Colonel Michael E. Kurilla, the current Commander of the 75th Ranger Regiment.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Biography of Captain Church". Ranger Hall of Fame. United States Army. https://www.benning.army.mil/rtb/hall_of_fame/halloffame_inaugural/captain_church.htm. "Church commanded an independent Ranger company during King Philip's War (1675-1678) on the New England frontier where they conducted highly successful combat operations against hostile Indians. Church's men were the first Rangers successful in raiding the Indians' hiding places in forests and swamps." 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n McGowen, Sam (January 1997). Darby’s Rangers surrounded at Cistema, World War II. Academic Search Complete. p. 38. 
  3. ^ McGowen, Sam, January 1997,Darby’s Rangers surrounded at Cistema, World War II; Vol. 11 Issue 5, p38, Retrieved from Academic Search Complete
  4. ^ Lehman,Milton,1946,The Rangers Fought Ahead Of Everybody, Saturday Evening Post; Vol. 218 Issue 50, p28-52:Retrevied from academic Search complete
  5. ^ Frederick, Michael & Masci,Joseph, may 2000,Ranger take Point, World War II; , Vol. 15 Issue 1, p50, Retrieved from Academic Search complete
  6. ^ Lehman,Milton,1946,The Rangers Fought Ahead Of Everybody, Saturday Evening Post; Vol. 218 Issue 50, p28-52:Retrevied from academic Search complete
  7. ^ "75th Ranger Regiment". GoArmy.com. United States Army. http://www.goarmy.com/ranger/index.jsp. 
  1. USASOC (2003). 75th Ranger Regiment: Fact Sheet. U.S. Special Operations Command. United States of America.
  2. 75th Ranger Regiment, A Documentary about the training and formation of the Ranger's (Military Channel)
  3. U.S. Army Ranger Association. [1]. U.S. Army Ranger Association. United States
  4. Inside Delta Force by CSM Eric Haney (one of the first Delta Operators, and participant in Operation Eagle Claw)
  5. GlobalSecurity.org [2] Ranger history

Further reading

  • Bahmanyar, Mir. Darby's Rangers 1942–45. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 978-1841766270.
  • Bahmanyar, Mir. Shadow Warriors: A History of the U.S. Army Rangers. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing, 2005. ISBN 978-1841768601. This book lists the lineage and history of the 75th Ranger Regiment.
  • Bahmanyar, Mir. U.S. Army Ranger 1983–2002. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 978-1841765853.
  • Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. Berkeley, California: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999. ISBN 0871137380.
  • Bryant, Russ. To Be a U.S. Army Ranger. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 2002. ISBN 0760313148.
  • Bryant, Russ, and Susan Bryant. Weapons of the U.S. Army Rangers. St. Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Press, 2005. ISBN 0760321124.
  • Bryant, Russ. 75th Rangers. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 2005. ISBN 0760321116.
  • Grenier, John. The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607–1814. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-84566-1. Extensive discussion of American colonial rangers.
  • Shanahan, Bill, and John P. Brackin. Stealth Patrol: The Making of a Vietnam Ranger. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0306812738.

External links








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