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78th United States Congress
USCapitol1956.jpg
United States Capitol (1956)

Duration: January 3, 1943 – January 3, 1945

President of the Senate: Henry A. Wallace
President pro tempore: Carter Glass
Speaker of the House: Sam Rayburn
Members: 96 Senators
435 Representatives
4 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
1st: January 6, 1943 – December 21, 1943
2nd: January 10, 1944 – December 19, 1944
<77th 79th>

The Seventy-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1943 to January 3, 1945, during the last two years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

Contents

Major events

Major legislation

Party summary

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Senate

TOTAL members: 96

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 435

Leaders

Senate

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

  • Minority Leader:
  • Minority whip: No Republican whips were appointed from 1935 to 1944 since only 17 Republicans were in the Senate following the landslide reelection of President Franklin Roosevelt in 1936. Accordingly, the minutes of the Republican Conference for the period state: "On motion of Senator Hastings, duly seconded and carried, it was agreed that no Assistant Leader or Whip be elected but that the chairman be authorized to appoint Senators from time to time to assist him in taking charge of the interests of the minority." A note attached to the conference minutes added: "The chairman of the conference, Senator McNary, apparently appointed Senator Austin of Vermont as assistant leader in 1943 and 1944, until the conference adopted Rules of Organization."[1]

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Members

Senate

Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Non-voting members

Changes in membership

Senate

Date seat
became vacant
State
(class)
Previous Reason for change Subsequent Date of successor's taking seat
November 22, 1943 New Jersey
(1)
William Warren Barbour
(R)
Died. A successor was appointed until an election. Arthur Walsh
(D)
November 26, 1943
January 25, 1944 Indiana
(3)
Frederick Van Nuys
(D)
Died. A successor was appointed until an election. Samuel D. Jackson
(D)
January 28, 1944
February 3, 1944 Massachusetts
(2)
Henry Cabot Lodge
(R)
Resigned Sinclair Weeks
(R)
February 8, 1944
February 25, 1944 Oregon
(2)
Charles L. McNary
(R)
Died February 25, 1944. Successor was appointed and subsequently won special election Guy Cordon
(R)
March 4, 1944
November 13, 1944 Washington
(3)
Homer Bone
(D)
Resigned to become Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit Warren Magnuson
(D)
December 14, 1944
November 14, 1944 Indiana
(3)
Samuel D. Jackson
(D)
Successor elected William E. Jenner
(R)
November 7, 1944
November 17, 1944 South Carolina
(3)
Ellison Durant Smith
(D)
Died Wilton E. Hall
(D)
November 20, 1944
December 7, 1944 New Jersey
(1)
Arthur Walsh
(D)
A successor was elected H. Alexander Smith
(R)
December 7, 1944
December 19, 1944 Massachusetts
(2)
Sinclair Weeks
(R)
Resigned, a successor having been elected Vacant until the next Congress.
Senator-elect, Leverett Saltonstall, did not take office until January 4, 1945, after completion of his term as Governor of Massachusetts.

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of successor's taking office
California 2nd Harry L. Englebright (R) Died May 13, 1943 Clair Engle (D) August 31, 1943
New York 32nd Francis D. Culkin (R) Died August 4, 1943 Hadwen C. Fuller (R) November 2, 1943
Pennsylvania 23rd James E. Van Zandt (R) Resigned September 24, 1943 D. Emmert Brumbaugh (R) November 2, 1943
Kentucky 4th Edward W. Creal (D) Died October 13, 1943 Chester O. Carrier (R) November 30, 1943
Pennsylvania 2nd James P. McGranery (D) Resigned November 17, 1943 Joseph Marmaduke Pratt (R) January 18, 1944
Pennsylvania 17th J. William Ditter (R) Died November 21, 1943 Vacant until the next Congress
Alabama 3rd Henry B. Steagall (D) Died November 22, 1943 George W. Andrews (D) March 14, 1944
Colorado 1st Lawrence Lewis (D) Died December 9, 1943 Dean M. Gillespie (R) March 7, 1944
New York 21st Joseph A. Gavagan (D) Resigned December 30, 1943 James H. Torrens (D) February 29, 1944
Illinois 19th William H. Wheat (R) Died January 16, 1944 Rolla C. McMillen (R) June 13, 1944
Illinois 7th Leonard W. Schuetz (D) Died February 13, 1944 Vacant until the next Congress
New York 4th Thomas H. Cullen (D) Died March 1, 1944 John J. Rooney (D) June 6, 1944
New York 11th James A. O'Leary (D) Died March 16, 1944 Ellsworth B. Buck (R) June 6, 1944
Louisiana 3rd James Domengeaux (D) Resigned April 15, 1944 to join US Armed Forces James Domengeaux (D) Re-elected to fill his own vacancy November 7, 1944
Virginia 2nd Winder R. Harris (D) Resigned September 15, 1944 Ralph Hunter Daughton (D) November 7, 1944
South Carolina 2nd Hampton P. Fulmer (D) Died October 19, 1944 Willa L. Fulmer (R) November 7, 1944
Tennessee 4th Albert Gore, Sr. (D) Resigned December 4, 1944 to enter the United States Army Vacant until the next Congress
Washington 1st Warren Magnuson (D) Resigned December 14, 1944 when appointed U.S. Senator Vacant until the next Congress
Pennsylvania At-large William I. Troutman (R) Resigned January 2, 1945 Vacant until the next Congress

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References


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